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Amundsen-Master Mariner

By J. Mayne Baltimore

STEAPTAIN RAOLD AM- made the perilous trip. Three years ago,

UNDSEN of Norway has with the blue-barred flag of Norway flyjust completed a job, on ing from her masthead, she set out on which the most daring her perilous voyage, and though worn mariners of the world have and weather-beaten, she was still stanch

been working for five cen- and seaworthy when she quietly dropped turies. Where Sebastian Cabot, Fro- anchor in the waters of San Francisco bisher, Henry Hudson and Sir John Bay, her voyage over. The men comFranklin failed in finding a navigable posing the crew are stalwart sons of the passage from the Atlantic to the Pacific North, who showed none of the hardthrough the polar seas north of the ships of three years' wanderings in the American continent, the daring Norse- icy seas of the arctic circle. Their feat man succeeded. He did more than dis- is a marvelous one. Never before has a cover the long-sought Northwest Pas- ship that entered the northern waters of sage. He discovered also the north North America found an outlet in the magnetic pole, that spot where the Pacific. needle of a compass points to the center The Gjoa is of but 47 tons burden, 73 of the earth. . This also has been an ob- feet in length, and 20 feet in width of ject of search for many years.

beam. She is essentially a sailing vessel, · Almost equally interesting is Captain equipped, however, with gasoline motors. Amundsen's an

This auxiliary nouncement that

power availed her during his long

but little, for on drift through the

entering the northpolar seas he found

ern seas she was an entirely un

speedily disabled known tribe of

by the propeller men, none of

shaft coming in whom had ever be

contact with an iceføre looked upon a

berg. white face. Con

The Gjoa's hull cerning this tribe

is of cavernous and its strange life

depths. Abaft the in the inaccessible

wheel and below North, Captain

decks are the offiA mundsen has

cers' quarters, congathered much in

sisting of sleeping formation, which is ENOTON GOAL

rooms, library and likely to prove of

dining room. The great value to sci

walls of the capence.

tain's cabin are Scarcely larger

decorated with picthan the open

tures of Nansen. decked crafts sailed

who is an intimato by his hardy Vik

friend of Amunding ancestors, is

sen. The library the little sloop

consists of scienGjoa, in which

tific works and fic

NORWEGIAN Boat Gjoa.
Captain Amundsen
First ship to make Northwest Passage

tion.

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The cooking quarters are amidships; .those of the crew are forward. So cramped are the accommodations of the latter that there is barely sufficient space for two men to stand up comfortably, the bunks being set against the very stem of the vessel. The instruments that record the results in the matter of the dis

covery of the magnetic pole, and whici will prove of tremendous value to science, have been sent to Professor Schmidt of the Potsdam Meteorological Observatory. From this quarter the results of the expedition, which are being eagerly awaited on all sides, will be given to the world.

: Producing Artificial Food

By Albert Grande

SHORT time ago the daily press been very successful indeed of late years, contained some rather sensa- in ascertaining the structures of some of tional information, according to these bodies and in preparing them arti

which Professor Emil Fischer ficially, it has not been possible, so far, to of Berlin, who for his discovery of arti prepare by an artificial process the true ficial synthesis of sugar had been award- proteids or albuminoids. Dr. Fischer has, ed the Nobel Prize, had succeeded in pre- however, just succeeded in converting paring from coal a nourishing food animo-acids into their anhydrids, which called polypeptide.

are called by him "polypeptides.” The It may be said that this information, higher terms of this class of bodies are though containing some truth, was great so like natural peptones as to their exly exaggerated and like so many other ternal properties, their color reactions sensational news, is apt to mislead the and behavior in regard to acids, alkalies mind of the non-initiated. An explana- and ferments, that they may be regarded tion of the problem in question and of as their closest relatives, their production the results really obtained by Dr. Fischer constituting a first step towards the synwill therefore be needed.

thesis of natural peptones and albuminOne of the most important and indis- oids. pensable classes of foods is that of pro- It will doubtless require the patient teids or albuminoids, of which the white work of many years to develop this procof egg is the most typical representative. ess to the real production of albuminoids These substances are tissue formers and or nourishing food, but the importance are nourishing in so far as they give of Dr. Fischer's discovery lies in the weight to the body. When split up, a fact that the path on which success must molecule of proteid yields another mole- be forthcoming has been traced once for cule showing some new properties, and all. Whether the food thus artificially the white of egg has thus to be changed produced will be less expensive than to what is called a "peptone” by the di- natural food cannot as yet be decided ; gestive process, in order to pass through but should this be the case (and there the walls of the stomach and intestines. is some probability of its being so) Dr. Similarly, wheat, meats, etc., will give Fischer's discovery would doubtless rank a number of different peptones which among the most important ever made, in turn yield what is called amido-acids. and should prove a boon of tremendous Though the chemistry of amido-acids has value to humanity.

Autos for the Wounded

By Max. A. R. Brunner

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HE United States govern- 3,250 pounds. The interior is fitted up ment has decided to use in regulation style, a folding stretcher the automobile for hospi- and emergency supplies þeing stored tal purposes. After a away in lockers and'racks, while a fold

series of tests made by the ing seat is placed on one side opposite

w War Department, a trial the cot. machine has been purchased and regu- In a run of some thousand miles the larly established at Fort Myer, Va., near car has been put through a very rigorous Washington. As, practically, no change trial. The worst types of country roads has been made in the methods of trans- were employed for the purpose. Yet the porting the dead and wounded since the machine worked satisfactorily, and a Civil War, the new departure is a wel- speed of twenty-five miles an hour was come innovation.

reached on a virtually untraveled road. The machine now in use is a White For motive power the question lies besteam car with practically a stock tween steam and electricity. The gasochassis and a lengthened wheel base. line engine, in spite of its increasing use, The spring suspension is of unusual is still in the experimental stage and has length, thereby adding to the natural not had the thorough tests of the steam effect of the long base in securing a re- engine. The gasoline motor has the markably easy-riding vehicle. The great drawback of stopping when overwheel base is 132 inches, standard wheels loaded, and can be started only with the and axles being used. The weight of load removed, under high rotational the machine when fully equipped is about speed. The steam engine, on the other

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STEAM AUTOMOBILE AMBULANCE OF THE U. S. WAR DEPARTMENT.

hand, has the entire boiler pressure avail- would be seen to consist of a long piece able during the whole stroke, for start- of tubing. Below the coils is located the ing and during the run. This affords a burner, in the position illustrated. The fairly uniform power development, avail. coils offer a very large heating surface, able at any time and for any speed. These so that as the products of combustion arguments are worth consideration for pass up between them, practically all of any automobile, but for ambulance work, their heat is absorbed by the coils. they require strict attention. These cars The operation of the generator is as are to be used all the year round, over all follows: water from the tank is pumped kinds of roads. They must be trustwor- into the upper coil and as it is forced thy under all conditions. For transport- into the coils below, its temperature ing wounded soldiers, they are the best gradually rises. At a point about half obtainable, on account of their smooth way down, it "flashes” up into steam. running character, freedom from violent In the lower coils the steam receives a vibrations, ease of operation and con- high degree of superheat, and, leaving

[graphic][merged small]

trolling speed between maximum and the generator in this condition, is conminimum, without jerks or jolts.

ducted to the engine. Thus the upper It is the generator which, more than coils act as a feed water heater; the cenany other feature, distinguishes the White ter coils as a boiler proper; and the lower steamer from all other automobiles. This coils as a superheater. This tubular conimportant part of the mechanism is struction permits insurance of safety located nearly in the center of the chassis. against pressures of excessive amount, It is enveloped by an asbestos insulating since these small tubes are strong enough casing, which is, in turn, surrounded by to bear enormous pressures. Even if an annular flue, through which the prod rupture is effected by deliberate overucts of combustion are conducted down pressure to the required amount, it is not ward and are dissipated into the air likely to result in anything more serious without their escape being in any way than a split tube, in which the rent acts noticeable. In this respect it is radically as a self-provided safety-valve. As there different from any other type of boiler. is no water level to maintain, there is no In all other varieties the water is at the need of water-gauge, float or similar de. bottom, the steam at the top. The gen- vice. erator consists of eleven helical coils of The fuel is of course liquid, and is steel tubing superimposed upon one an- fed to the burner under moderate presother. The several coils are joined in sure, regulated by an air pump. On series, and, if the whole should be un- being vaporized, the fuel enters the wound and straightened out, the boiler burner, where it produces a blue flame. .

There is also a pilot-light, which heats vide the interior into two compartments. the vaporizer and lights the burner. In Meanwhile, the long seats along either about four minutes steam can be pro- side of the car have been folded up very duced. The transmission is very little much as a sleeping car berth folds 'up different from the usual type as in gaso- against the wall, leaving an absolutely line-cars. The power is transmitted by clear space, save for the poles in the cenmeans of a driveshaft and bevel gear. ter. Thus, two litters or stretchers, with

The body supports a high top from which hang heavy curtains, bearing the familiar red cross. Inside the car, along.either side, extend long seats, the occupants of which face one another. These seats are designed for service when the automobile is employed as an ordinary conveyance by officers of the medical department, or when the ambulance is used in the transportation of wounded soldiers whose injuries are not such as to prevent them from sitting upright. When, however, the ambulance is in service

WHITE STEAM GENERATOR FOR AUTOMOBILE Use. moving men who are se

Showing burner, vaporizer, pilot-light, and gasoline connections. riously ill or wounded, the interior is transformed into a minia- the occupants extended at full length, can ture hospital ward, with a substitute for be placed side by side on the floor of the the familiar cots. This is accomplished car, while two other litters are placed by unhooking from the ceiling, where above. These upper stretchers are supthey have been suspended out of the way, ported at one side by iron hooks set into heavy oak poles or standards which are the central poles or standards previously set in place in the middle of the car, mentioned, whereas on each side the temjust as though they had been provided porary bed is suspended by leather as pillar supports for the roof or the straps. At the rear of the car is a step foundation of a partition designed to di- where the ambulance surgeon may stand.

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