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Autos for the Wounded
By Max. A. R. Brunner
HE United States govern- 3,250 pounds. The interior is fitted up ment has decided to use in regulation style, a folding stretcher the automobile for hospi- and emergency supplies þeing stored tal purposes.
After away in lockers and racks, while a foldseries of tests made by the ing seat is placed on one side opposite
War Department, a trial the cot. machine has been purchased and regu- In a run of some thousand miles the larly established at Fort Myer, Va., near car has been put through a very rigorous Washington. As, practically, no change trial. The worst types of country roads has been made in the methods of trans- were employed for the purpose. Yet the porting the dead and wounded since the machine worked satisfactorily, and a Civil War, the new departure is a wel- speed of twenty-five miles an hour was come innovation.
reached on a virtually untraveled road. The machine now in use is a White For motive power the question lies besteam with practically a stock tween steam and electricity. The gasochassis and a lengthened wheel base. line engine, in spite of its increasing use, The spring suspension is of unusual is still in the experimental stage and has length, thereby adding to the natural not had the thorough tests of the steam effect of the long base in securing a re- engine. The gasoline motor has the markably easy-riding vehicle. The great drawback of stopping when overwheel base is 132 inches, standard wheels loaded, and can be started only with the and axles being used. The weight of load removed, under high rotational the machine when fully equipped is about speed. The steam engine, on the other
hand, has the entire boiler pressure avail- would be seen to consist of a long piece able during the whole stroke, for start- of tubing. Below the coils is located the ing and during the run. This affords a burner, in the position illustrated. The fairly uniform power development, avail- coils offer a very large heating surface, able at any time and for any speed. These so that as the products of combustion arguments are worth consideration for pass up between them, practically all of any automobile, but for ambulance work, their heat is absorbed by the coils. they require strict attention. These cars The operation of the generator is as are to be used all the year round, over all follows: water from the tank is pumped kinds of roads. They must be trustwor- into the upper coil and as it is forced thy under all conditions. For transport- into the coils below, its temperature ing wounded soldiers, they are the best gradually rises. At a point about half obtainable, on account of their smooth way down, it “flashes” up into steam. running character, freedom from violent In the lower coils the steam receives a vibrations, ease of operation and con- high degree of superheat, and, leaving
trolling speed between maximum and the generator in this condition, is conminimum, without jerks or jolts.
ducted to the engine. Thus the upper It is the generator which, more than coils act as a feed water heater ; the cenany other feature, distinguishes the White ter coils as a boiler proper; and the lower steamer from all other automobiles. This coils as a superheater. This tubular conimportant part of the mechanism is struction permits insurance of safety located nearly in the center of the chassis. against pressures of excessive amount It is enveloped by an asbestos insulating since these small tubes are strong enough casing, which is, in turn, surrounded by to bear enormous pressures. Even if an annular flue, through which the prod- rupture is effected by deliberate overucts of combustion are conducted down- pressure to the required amount, it is not ward and are dissipated into the air likely to result in anything more serious without their escape being in any way than a split tube, in which the rent acts noticeable. In this respect it is radically as a self-provided safety-valve. As there
different from any other type of boiler. is no water level to maintain, there is no In all other varieties the water is at the need of water-gauge, float or similar de bottom, the steam at the top. The gen- vice. . erator consists of eleven helical coils of The fuel is of course liquid, and is steel tubing superimposed upon one an
fed to the burner under moderate presother. The several coils are joined in sure, regulated by an air pump. On series, and, if the whole should be un- being vaporized, the fuel enters the wound and straightened out, the boiler burner, where it produces a blue flame..
There is also a pilot-light, which heats vide the interior into two compartments. the vaporizer and lights the burner. In Meanwhile, the long seats along either about four minutes steam can be pro- side of the car have been folded up very duced. The transmission is very little much as a sleeping car berth folds 'up different from the usual type as in gaso- against the wall, leaving an absolutely line-cars. The power is transmitted by clear space, save for the poles in the cenmeans of a driveshaft and bevel gear. ter. Thus, two litters or stretchers, with
The body supports a high top from which hang heavy curtains, bearing the familiar red cross. Inside the car, along either side, extend long seats, the occupants of which face one other. These seats are designed for service when the automobile is employed as an ordinary conveyance by officers of the medical department, or when the ambulance is used in the transportation of wounded soldiers whose injuries are not such as to prevent them from sitting
sitting upright. When, however, the ambulance is in service
White STEAM GENERATOR FOR AUTOMOBILE Use. moving men who are se
Showing burner, vaporizer, pilot-light, and gasoline connections. riously ill or wounded, the interior is transformed into a minia- the occupants extended at full length, can ture hospital ward, with a substitute for be placed side by side on the floor of the the familiar cots. This is accomplished car, while two other litters are placed by unhooking from the ceiling, where above. These upper stretchers are supthey have been suspended out of the way, ported at one side by iron hooks set into heavy oak poles or standards which are the central poles or standards previously set in place in the middle of the car, mentioned, whereas on each side the temjust as though they had been provided porary bed is suspended by leather as pillar supports for the roof or the straps. At the rear of the car is a step foundation of a partition designed to di- where the ambulance surgeon may stand.
HROUGHOUT the length submerged. In the original design the and breadth of the fair height of the dam was to have been one land of Egypt there is, hundred feet above the zero of the Asperhaps, no fairer or more suan gauge, and the capacity of the respicturesque spot than the ervoir eighty-five milliards of cubic feet temple-crowned island of
of water. Philæ in the River Nile, at a point below To meet the difficulty at Philæ, Sir the Assuan Dam, some 550 miles south William Willcocks proposed to spend apof Cairo. When the plans for the great proximately $1,350,000 in removing the dam were completed and it became temple bodily from Philæ island to the known that with its construction the neighboring island of Bigeh, where it famous temple would disappear, such a would be out of reach of the increasing storm of indignation arose that the volume of water. Sir William Garstin, Egyptian Government thought it politic the distinguished engineer, supported this to give way before the popular clamor. view, and the matter was put to an InterThus it was decreed that the dam should national Commission. The French repbe built at a much lower level than that resentative—his sense of the artistic outproposed by the designer, Sir William raged--flatly refused to have anything to Willcocks, M. Inst. C. E., with the re- do with a scheme which in any way intersult that Philæ would be only partly fered with the temple; the Italian mem
ber opined that the dam, and the dam words, “of holding up thirty-five milonly, was the first consideration. Sirliards of cubic feet of water, but actually Benjamin Baker “proposed raising the strong enough to hold up seventy-milwhole temple like a great Chicago hotel,” liards." as Sir William Willcocks somewhat The accompanying picture shows the tartly expressed it—"clean above the Temple of Philæ as it appears to-day high level of the reservoir.”
with its base partly submerged in the Eventually it was arranged that the dammed waters. Before the waters had new reservoir should be twenty-six feet reached their .present limit the foundalower than Sir William Willcocks wanted tions of the temple were overhauled and it to be, and its capacity reduced from strengthened, and so thoroughly was the eighty-five milliards to thirty-five milliards. work carried out that the structure will of cubic feet of water. But the conditions in all probability remain “a thing of of stability laid down by the International beauty" for generations to come if not inCommission were so severe that Sir Will- deed a “joy for ever" to millions of prosiam Willcocks was able to re-design 2 pective tourists from all parts of the dam "nominally capable,” to use his own world.
Roadway That Travels
By Morton Browne
N some of our cities are coming freight, for example, from the streets with grades so steep depots is driven along the level road that it is almost impossible until the hill is reached, where it goes for horses to pull heavy over an apron upon the rolling roadway. wagons. This is especially The wheels of the wagon are then clamped
true when mud, snow and by an arrangement especially designed for ice cover the earth. The result is, the purpose, whereupon an electric signal wagons cannot be loaded to their full ca- is given from the bottom of the hill to pacity, or, if they are, extra teams must the operator in his cab, and instantly the be provided, all of which, of course, means financial loss. The city of Cleveland, Ohio, has some very steep streets. Over a year ago a mechanical device was installed to overcome the difficulty. A traveling roadway or rolling road is the name given to this labor-saving invention.
The two photographis show such a roadway as is in use in Cleveland, on Factory street hill. The mode of operation is as follows: A wagon heavily laden with in