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HROUGHOUT the length submerged. In the original design the and breadth of the fair height of the dam was to have been one land of Egypt there is, hundred feet above the zero of the Asperhaps, no fairer or more suan gauge, and the capacity of the respicturesque spot than the ervoir eighty-five milliards of cubic feet
temple-crowned island of of water. Philæ in the River Nile, at a point below To meet the difficulty at Philä, Sir the Assuan Dam, some 550 miles south William Willcocks proposed to spend apof Cairo. When the plans for the great proximately $1,350,000 in removing the dam were completed and it became temple bodily from Philae island to the known that with its construction the neighboring island of Bigeh, where it famous temple would disappear, such a would be out of reach of the increasing storm of indignation arose that the volume of water. Sir William Garstin, Egyptian Government thought it politic the distinguished engineer, supported this to give way before the popular clamor. view, and the matter was put to an InterThus it was decreed that the dam should national Commission. The French repbe built at a much lower level than that resentative—his sense of the artistic outproposed by the designer, Sir William raged--flatly refused to have anything to Willcocks, M. Inst. C. E., with the re- do with a scheme which in any way intersult that Philæ would be only partly fered with the temple; the Italian member opined that the dam, and the dam words, "of holding up thirty-five milonly, was the first consideration. Sir liards of cubic feet of water, but actually Benjamin Baker “proposed raising the strong enough to hold up seventy-milwhole temple like a great Chicago hotel,” liards.” as Sir William Willcocks somewhat The accompanying picture shows the tartly expressed it—"clean · above the Temple of Philæ as it appears to-day high level of the reservoir."
with its base partly submerged in the Eventually it was arranged that the dammed waters. Before the waters had new reservoir should be twenty-six feet reached their . present limit the foundalower than Sir William Willcocks wanted tions of the temple were overhauled and it to be, and its capacity reduced from strengthened, and so thoroughly was the eighty-five milliards to thirty-five milliards . work carried out that the structure will of cubic feet of water. But the conditions in all probability remain "a thing of of stability laid down by the International beauty" for generations to come if not inCommission were so severe that Sir Will- deed a "joy for ever" to millions of prosiam Willcocks was able to re-design 1 pective tourists from all parts of the dam "nominally capable," to use his own world.
Roadway That Travels
By Morton Browne
N some of our cities are coming freight, for example, from the streets with grades so steep depots is driven along the level road that it is almost impossible until the hill is reached, where it goes for horses to pull heavy over an apron upon the rolling roadway. wagons. This is especially the wheels of the wagon are then clamped
true when mud, snow and by an arrangement especially designed for ice cover the earth. The result is, the purpose, whereupon an electric signal wagons cannot be loaded to their full ca- is given from the bottom of the hill to pacity, or, if they are, extra teams must the operator in his cab, and instantly the be provided, all of which, of course, means financial loss. The city of Cleveland, Ohio, has some very steep streets. Over a year ago a mechanical device was installed to overcome the difficulty. A traveling roadway or rolling road is the name given to this labor-saving invention.
The two photograplis show such a roadway as is in use in Cleveland, on Factory street hill. The mode of operation is as follows: A wagon heavily laden with in
road begins to move upwards at the rate exertion on the part of the horses. The of three to four miles an hour. When capacity of this roadway is about six the wagon arrives at the top, the road hundred vehicles a day and the price of continues to carry it on a dead level for transportation varies according to the several yards, and then the machinery kind of team and loading, ranging from stops, the clamps are removed from the ten to twenty-five cents a trip. The road wheels and the team draws its load on carries a wagon 420 feet' forward and the level street, having accomplished a sixty-five feet upward. The heavy belt seventeen per cent grade without any which sustains the load weighs 106 tons.
Smashes Baggage Safely
By M. Glen Fling
F you are a traveler who from the hold of a vessel. All this is to
has suffered the pangs of be obviated.
resting place in the hold of labor, trucks, derricks and cranes. The a vessel, then you have prayed for a sys- need of one machine which would do the tem whereby luggage could be swung entire work—a machine which would do from the wagons at the docks to the everything but think—was felt. The conhold of the vessel.
ditions as told and their remedy imMaybe you are owner of a freight ves- pressed themselves upon the mind of Edsel or a liner carrying a full-limit cargo.
win C. Clark of Washington, D. C., who, Ah, then you have spent sleepless nights though an artist of note has also a pracfiguring how some of those precious tical mind and a comprehensive knowlhours spent in loading and unloading edge of engineering, with the result that your vessel could be cut down. You have he has constructed an apparatus which longed for a machine which would han- will handle all kinds of freight from dle a mixed cargo with expedition and bananas to iron without so much as nesafety.
cessitating a change of gearing. This inOr you may be manager of a large vention means a great saving of labor, warehouse. Your problem then has been power, time and money. for years how to get your goods from In the first place whatever is stored floor to floor of your storage house with- aboard a steamer with one of these loadout being obliged to handle it at every ers is handled but once. floor. Whichever of this trio you are, The wagons containing, say, barrels of or whether you belong to the merchants who import or export, the quick and careful handling of your goods is the all-important matter and it has never been quite satisfactorily adjusted.
Many a tourist has suffered loss at the hands of incompetent baggage handlers. Scores of vessels with full
cargo capacity leave our shores but lightly ladened because it is such slow and hazardous work to load a “mixed” cargo. Firms have gone into bank. ruptcy because of injury to their goods sustained in transportation to or
MODEL OF FREIGHT-HANDLING DEVICE.
apples which are to form the cargo of a ing a warehouse, so that after the start vessel, are driven down to the dock, the it requires but little more power to opgreat grappler of the loader is sent erate the machine heavily loaded, than swinging over them, is lowered, clasped when it is carrying no .freight. around the barrel which is sent along the The machine is run by cog-chain belt‘almost automatic chain road to the ship, ing driven by steam, or, preferably, by over the deck and down to the hold, electric power, and by reversing the where it scarcely has time to make room power the carrying of the freight in the for the one which follows.
opposite direction is effected, so that the What has been done with apples in a same machine can be used for loading test can be done with coal, baggage, etc., and unloading. The speed can be reguor with any number of different bulks lated at will, and the machine is under and weights.
perfect control at all times. When it is known that the United It is built of trestle steel and varies in Fruit Company has a fleet of about 80 design and size according to the use to vessels constantly delivering bananas which it is to be put. As it has very few from various points in the tropics to working parts the cost of repairing and ports in the United States and that it operation are minimized. requires 250 men ten hours to load or As a deck-installed machine its vital unload 48,000 bunches of bananas at a feature is, that combined passenger and cost of from eight to twelve dollars per freight vessels will generally use the deck man a week, and that in so handling the machine because this machine is easily bananas about one-tenth of the com- erected and can be taken apart to be pany's annual shipping is ruined, a fair stowed during the voyage. The advanrealization can be had of the benefit of tage of the deck machine is that the vesa machine which will cut down the load- sel carries it for use at all ports, or may ing force about eighty-seven per cent and utilize the track and chain on board for save thousands of dollars a year in wages other purposes. and fruit.
Another feature of the deck installed This new loading and unloading device machine is that no matter how varied has a continuous and reversible action. would be the rise and fall of the vessel The action itself is simple, embracing a by reason of the tides, or from its own loose end, anti-friction chain, the links loading or unloading, the operation of the of which are inserted or taken out readily machine would in no wise be affected. according to the maximum of height re- The field is extended to an enormous quired.
warehouse business which to-day is even The tongs or clasps can be regulated more antiquated than that of handling as to size and distances apart, according mixed freight on vessels and wharves. to the bulk of the commodity to be han- To-day we have untold and incalculadled.
ble energy and money wasted from the The machine is so constructed that it use of trucks and derricks. By the former practically furnishes its own power by method, the weight to be trucked is necthe method of its operation. After the essarily limited to the strength of the first load is lifted and carried to the deck man who wheels, and to his ability to level the weight of that article going keep up the work day after day. By the down in the hold of the vessel counter- derrick system, there is not only to be balances that being lifted from the dock, considered the carrying of the dead or vice versa. The machine lifts a pack- weight and the swinging back of the age, carries it over any intervening ob- empty arm, but also this fact :-no derstruction, at right angles, and places it rick can operate or lift higher than at any higher, equal, or lower level, to itself nor when operating in an enclosed and from two movable platforms, as in warehouse, higher than the ceiling. That the instance of loading from one vessel means that freight for the different floors to another, or from an immovable to a of a warehouse must be handled over and movable base, as from dock to deck. over again, a thing that causes expenses The same principle holds good in stock- to pile up enormously.