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First American Engine N. Y., where large supplies of coal are

readily available, and by distributing THE accompanying photograph shows from this station electric current over

a model of the first steam engine built the section including the steep grades. in America. Capt. Samuel Morey of Still another proposed instance of elecFairlee, Vt., invented the model and a trification is that of the West Jersey and small engine built from this model was Seashore Railroad, a part of the Pennused in a boat in 1792, seven years before sylvania System running between CamFulton built his steam boat. The model is less than a cubic foot in bulk. The engine is 61/2 inches long. The cylinder is made of brass and the piston of cast iron. The engine is mounted on disks and rotates over valves bringing steam from the boiler and carrying away the exhaust.

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Railroad Electrifica.

tion
THE Erie Railroad is
I said to be consider-

MODEL OF First STEAM ENGINE BUILT IN AMERICA.
Boat propelled by engine built after this pattern was run on the Connecticut

River in 1792, seven years before Fulton navigated the Hudson a portion of its system,

River with his steam boat. investigations now being under way by a committee on whose den and Atlantic City, N. J. The in-. report final action will be taken. The crease of passenger traffic in this porportions of the system first to undergo tion of the system has been so great as the change in motive power—if a change to compel some move of this kind, and shall be decided upon—will be those a committee has been appointed to canwhere a large suburban traffic is handled; vass the whole question. It will consider and in this respect, the Erie will be but the three possible alternatives—of buildfollowing the example of other lines now ing an independent electric railroad, or entering New York and other great cen- electrifying the principal line, or making ters. It is also believed that economy other changes that may be deemed exwill be served, and greater facilities in pedient. The electrification of the leased the handling of trains will be secured, West Shore line of the New York Cenby the erection of a power station at the tral & Hudson River Railroad west of summit of the exceedingly steep grades Untica, N. Y., will be begun as soon as between Susquehanna, Pa., and Deposit, rights of way have been secured. The

contract for supplying the requisite from the harbor to a point five miles power has been granted to the Niagara, South on the ore-carrying branch. Lockport & Ontario Company. There is The total weight of each of the new also reason to believe that the Lake locomotives including the tender is 419,Shore & Michigan Southern Railroad, 600 pounds. The tank capacity is 8,000 and in fact all the railways entering gallons. Buffalo, N. Y., will at an early date be T he entire weight of each of the new largely operated by electrical power from locomotives rests upon five pairs of drive Niagara Falls.

wheels. The cylinders of the new engines are twenty-four by twenty-eight

inches in diameter thus necessitating a Heaviest Switching very large boiler. The heating surface is Locomotives

4,625 square feet. The coal capacity of

the tender is twelve tons. Bituminous FIVE new yard engines, delivered this

coal is used. The wheel base of the season to the Lake Shore railroad,

engine with the tender is a little more are conceded to be the heaviest switch

than 54 feet. The Walschaert valve ing locomotives extant. With a tractive

gear being in use, the parts of the locopower of 55,300 pounds, each of these

motive beneath the boiler are easily acmonster locomotives is enabled to do the

cessible.—W. Frank McClure. work which formerly required two. The new motive power was especially built for the task of handling trains over the

Corn Stalks as Armor summits of what are known as the "hump" yards of the Lake Shore road. BEHIND the armor plate of the modThese yards, which also represent nota- Dern men of war lies a packing of celble economies in that gravity to no small iulose six feet thick. If the outer armor degree takes the place of motive power plate is pierced by a shell, the water in switching, are to be found at Elkhart, reaches the cellulose, which immediately Indiana, and at Collinwood near Cleve- swells up and fills the hole. So certain land, Ohio. Two of the five locomotives is the action of this material, that all are accordingly in service at each of modern warships are being equipped with these points and a fifth is at Ashtabula the queer jacket. The cellulose is made where there exists a very heavy grade from corn-stalks. These stalks are dried

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for six or eight months and then cut into short pieces and the pith extracted. The pith is treated with chemicals, to make it fire-proof, and compressed to one-sixteenth its original bulk. After being cut into blocks six inches square, it is shipped to the navy yards.

Rotary Snow-Plow DURING winter, the lines of the Ca

nadian Pacific Railway, traversing regions where the snow fall is frequently of great depth, are kept open with remarkable regularity with the help of

New Excavation

System THE accompanying illustration shows

a new method for bracing the walls of a caisson excavation, to prevent settlement in the surrounding territory. It is the invention of Mr. George W. Jackson, Chief Engineer of the Illinois Tunnel Company. The essential portion of the device consists of a system of adjustable jacks and ribs. These ribs consist of wooden lagging, which may, if desired, be left in when the concrete is set. By means of the jacks, the earth surrounding the shaft can be kept constantly compressed and held back firmly in place, thus doing away with the sinking or tipping of surrounding buildings on "floating" foundations—So frequent a source of trouble.

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Rotary Snow Plow, HEAD On.

rotary snow-plows of the type shown in the accompanying illustration. The plow is built on a steel frame carried on two trucks, the front of one of which is equipped with ice cutters operated by compressed air. The main snow-cutting wheel consists of a large wrought-iron ring carried on a main shaft, on which two sets of radial knives are fixed, the outer knives being the larger. Behind the knives, on the same shaft, a large fan is placed, which, as it revolves, throws out by centrifugal action, through an opening in the top casing, the snow which has been cut or shaved off by the revolving knives.

The rotary does not butt into snowdrifts like an ordinary snow-plow, but is pushed forward by a locomotive at a speed sufficient to let it do its work properly.

JACKSON EXTENSION RIBS AND Jacks.' To prevent cave-ins in excavation work.

With the new system, it is claimed, a larger number of caissons can be started at one time than under the old method, without increasing the danger of a cave

in.

Lifts 180 Tons to three feet at the ends; they weigh

fifty-three tons. FOR a pair of shear legs to haul from The back leg is worked in and out by

the deck of a vessel a dead weight a large screw 85 feet long by a foot in of 100 tons was, until a few months ago, diameter, and weighing over 11 tons. thought to be a feat worthy of note. This back leg is worked by a set of steam Now these figures have been outnum- engines. bered by eighty tons and the 100 tons There are three hoisting winches conlift made to appear a pigmy task by nected with the legs, each driven by its comparison with this latest feat of lifting own set of steam engines. Two of these and swinging 180 tons.

winches are capable of lifting ninety tons These largest and most

cach, and the 180 powerful shear legs on record

tons test load was were constructed and erected,

lifted simultanenot by Uncle Sam but in John

ously by these Bull's domain, at the Chatham

winches with the Dockyard in Southhampton,

greatest ease, England. At the recent test

the rate of hoist they lifted with ease from a

of each winch, vessel's deck, cleared the deck

with ninety tons weight suspended, being over ten feet per minute.

To complete

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LARGEST SHEAR LEGS EVER BUILT.

They can lift 180 tons with ease.

and swung in shore, 180 tons of iron piping.

On the second test which followed immediately after the first, no repairs or restrengthening of the shears being necessary, the 180 tons load was lifted and run out to the maximum overhang of 64 feet from the perpendicular and then brought inboard again with the greatest ease. These shears are believed to be the largest in the World and the following particulars will give some idea of their size.

The three legs are constructed on the hollow spindle principle, which has been in use since the introduction of the system of steam traversing shear legs. The front legs are 160 feet high and five feet in diameter at the center, tapering away

this powerful lifting machine there is also an inhaul winch worked by a separate engine, and there are two boilers to supply steam to the various engines.

It takes three stokers to keep the power up for anything over a 100 ton lift, but, aside from this, the 180 ton lift is made as easily as though the weight were 180 pounds.

The entire lumber or iron cargo of a small vessel can be lifted into these yards by one swing of the powerful shears and if it were necessary to do so the vessel without its cargo could be swung ashore.

Float Ships with Gas
NOVEL use for acetylene gas has

been found by a French engineer, M. Pierre Huray. He proposes to raise

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sunken ships by placing cans of calcium carbide at different points in the hold of the boat and then breaking the cans simultaneously by means of explosive caps connected by electric wiring. As soon as the water reaches the calcium carbide, acetylene gas is formed in such quantities as to force out the water and so raise the ship. The originator of this method also believes that docks could be raised in this way.

For a Roman Holiday THE photograph below shows two

railroad locomotives in collision at Brighton Beach Race Track on July 4th. This novel spectacle was arranged with

MAKING CHAINS BY Machinery. great care for the safety of on-lookers and proved a great attraction. The engines weld, on an average, more than two links were built especially for the occasion and every minute. If each link adds three the entire cost of placing the production inches to the chain it will take one man before the public was about $50,000. six minutes to make three feet of chain. After firing up the engines and starting Mr. R. J. Jacker of Chicago patented them simultaneously the engineers and nearly twenty years ago a machine which

n jumped for their lives and the will make three feet of chain in one secengines met with a great crash and ex ond. As shown in the illustration, a plosion.

small bar of lead is fed into one side of

the machine. It passes through a single Making Chains by

set of rolls, and leaves the machine in the

form of a completed chain. Machinery

As the result of a chain of catastroCHAINS of most kinds, large and phes, no practical commercial use has

small, are still made by hand, so far ever been made of the machine. Its as the welding together of the separate present owner, son of the inventor, is links is concerned. A good workman, petitioning Congress for an extension of working at both ends of a chain, cannot the patent.

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PHOTOGRAPH OF STEAM LOCOMOTIVE COLLISION AT BRIGHTON BEACH RACE TRACK ON

JULY 4TH.
This photograph was taken two seconds after the impact.

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