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Flip-Flap Railroad THE “Flip-Flap" railroad, or “Loop1 the-Loop," as it is variously called, is a recent idea in freak railroads which has become a commonplace at summer resorts and other places of amusement. Instead of
recently taken by the light of a whole car-load of Cooper-Hewitt mercuryvapor arc lights. For the purpose of these photographs seventy-two mercuryvapor lamps, each of 750 candle-power, were mounted on a couple of flat cars, which ran through the subway just in advance of the car carrying the camera and operator, and immediately behind the train which was to be photographed while it or its passengers were in motion. The great banks of lamps were arranged diagonally across the flat cars, so that the light was thrown immediately ahead and along one side of the tunnel. The time of exposure was seven minutes and during that time about 6,300 pictures were taken, the camera operating at the rate of about 900 pictures a minute.
The Flip-Flap Railway.
Machinery to Roll Glass merely going up hill and down hill, the AN invention for drawing molten glass track is constructed at one point so that out of the furnaces and rolling it the car goes vertically around a perfect mechanically, has been sold to a syndicate circle in the air. It gets such a headway of plate glass manufacturers for $952,from going down a steep incline that it 000. The inventor is a Belgian, Mr. turns a complete somersault as a result of Fourcault, and the purchasers of his patits own velocity. The motion, however, ent rights are German, French, Belgian is so rapid that persons in the car do not and Bohemian manufacturers. Only high fall out but are held in their places by the priced manual labor has been able to do effect of centrifugal force. As will be this work heretofore. In making window noted, the photograph shows the car at glass the viscid glass was drawn out the very top of the "wheel,” while the from the furnaces and blown into cylinpassengers in it are actually suspended ders by men, and with plate glass the for the moment with their heads down- hot molten mass was cast from pots and ward.
rolled to the desired thickness. The new mechanical process is, of course, much
cheaper and quicker. The machine Photos in the Subway brings the liquid glass from the pots and MOVING pictures of the loading and draws it between rollers, seventeen pairs
unloading of trains and of their of which tower above the pot. The mass operation in the New York subway were of hot glass gradually cools as it passes between the rollers, and emerges from steel supports are the marvel of railroad them a great plate of perfect glass, pol- men. ished on both sides and of any desired An idea of the enormity of these conthickness. Great promises are held out structions may be obtained from a glance for this wonderful invention.
at the accompanying illustration, reproducing a photograph of one of the plate
girders loaded on cars in the yards of Way to Ship Fish
the company ready for shipment. This IN shipping fish alive it has always been girder is 115 feet 5 inches long; and
necessary to keep them in water, at a three steel cars, each of 100,000 pounds' considerable expense for care and storage capacity, were used in transporting it. room. The Germans have now discov- The girder had a depth of ten feet.
MAMMOTH STEEL PLATE GIRDER. Built for Chicago Terminal Transit Railroad by Chicago Bridge & Iron Works. Length, 115 ft. 5 in., depth, 10 ft.
ered a method of shipping fish without Constructions of almost equal size have water, based on the fact that they will recently been made by the company for live five or six days out of their native use in improvements on the Northern element if their gills are kept wet, Pacific, the Santa Fé, the Chicago Burland they get the required amount of oxy- ington & Quincy, and other railroads. gen. Under the new plan the fish are The size and weight of the girders which placed in a tightly sealed shipping box, can now be manufactured in Chicago is containing water soaked cloths. These limited only by the ability of the railroad cloths keep the air saturated with moist companies to transport them. ure, and the oxygen is supplied by pumping it through a tube into the box.
Sunflowers for Profit Enormous Plate Gird. ONE hundred acres planted with sun
flowers. A farmer in southern Iners
diana is raising sun flowers for profit. STEEL GIRDERS of enormous size It is the seed, of course, which he sells. w are employed in the new construction These seeds are pressed for the oil and work being done by the Chicago then ground up into medicine for cattle Terminal & Transfer Company. They and hogs. The oil is sold as "olive oil.” are among the largest ever manufactured The seeds now sell at 2c a pound in for railroad purposes. All the structural Indiana, and farmer McDonald figures a iron employed in the work was made by profit of about fifty dollars an acre on the Chicago Bridge & Iron Works, and his farm. The seed runs about thirtythe huge proportions of many of the two pounds to the bushel.
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Cleaning Castings What is meant by blind-nailing a floor? How are castings cleaned ?—R. S. M. C. H. A new method of matching boards
After the castings have been poured, for nailless flooring is shown in the
the sand is usually shaken off from the figure. This new arrangement of the
the heavier parts, so as to produce an even tongue and groove gives more strength
cooling. The pouring is usually done to the joint and is more accessible in
at the close of a day's work. When the driving the nails. This is a great im
sand is shaken off, the sprues are broken from the casting by the blow of a hammer. The cleaning is done the next morning. This consists in removing the sand that may adhere to the surface of the castings, and taking the cores from the inside. There are three methods of removing the sand: by rattling, by brushing and by the sand blast. The first is used for small castings. They are put into a cylindrical shell, which is slowly revolved. The castings are thus tum
bled over each other. As they rub and BLIND NAILING A FLOOR.
strike together, the sand is removed and
the surface of the castings made smooth provement over the old method as it is and bright. air-tight, dust-proof, and prevents drafts The brush is made of strong steel and the penetration of foul gases. The bristles. These remove the sand from old method of keeping the heads of the the surface of the casting. The brushes nails out of sight was to simply toe them may be used by hand or be driven by in from one edge, but this allowed the power. This is the most common method flooring to warp and become uneven. of cleaning castings. The tonguing of one edge and grooving The sand blast is used upon heavy the other, as shown in the figure, gives castings. It consists of cutting off the sufficient strength to the joint to hold adhering sand by a stream of sand imthe floor by blind nailing, making it self- pelled by a current of air. Care must sustaining
be exercised in using the sand blast as
the sand has very great abrasive power. (one part salammoniac, six or eight parts If allowed to strike against the metal of borax) which may be added dry or put the casting it will cut it away, and groove on in the form of a paste mixed with it deeply.
water. The joint is then heated and the
spelter mixed with flux sprinkled on and Brazing
melted into place. Brass wire could be
used in place of the spelter in the manner What is the process of brazing?—R. W. P.
indicated, the wire being bent into a ring When two pieces of iron or steel are and laid round the joint as shown. Orwelded together, they are joined by mak- dinary borax may be used as a flux, ing the pieces so hot that the particles of although not as good as the mixture one piece will stick to those of the other, used above. The heat should be graduno medium being used to join them. ally raised until the brass melts and runs
all around and into the joint, when the piece should be lifted from the fire and thoroughly cleaned, by scraping off the melted borax and scale. It is necessary to remove the borax, as it leaves a hard, glassy scale which is particularly disagreeable if any filing or finishing has to be done to the joint. This scale may be
loosened by plunging the work, while FIGURE I.
still red-hot, into cold water. Almost
any metal which will stand the heat, In brazirg, however, the brass acts in may be brazed. joining two pieces of metal together in somewhat the same manner that glue does in joining two pieces of wood.
Ferrets to Lay Wires Briefly the process is as follows: The surfaces to be joined are cleaned, held.
I have read in the newspapers that ferrets
are sometimes used to string wires through together by a suitable clamp, heated to conduits. Is it only a newspaper yarn?the temperature of melting brass, flux B. W. A. added, and the brass melted into the joint. The brass used is generally in the shape of “spelter” though brass wire or strips of rolled brass are sometimes used in place of spelter, brass wire in particular being very convenient
New Way of Laying Wires. in many places. A sim
chase a rat through the pipes. ple example of a brazed joint is shown in Fig. 1, where a flange The use of ferrets to lay wires is a is brazed to the end of a small pipe. It practical expedient, according to Mr. is not necessary in this case to use any Cline, Superintendent of the Bell Teleclamps as the pieces will hold themselves phone Co. at Terre Haute, Ind. He together. The joint between the two says it is the best way to get wire through should be made roughly. If a tight joint ducts. A little harness is made for the be used there will be no chance for the animal and a light fish line attached. brass to run in. The joint should fit in Then a rat is turned loose in the duct spots but not all around. Before putting and the ferret leads him a merry chase the two pieces together, the surfaces to through the conduit until he reaches the be joined should be cleaned free from next opening, when the rat falls into a loose dirt and scale. When ready for bag or trap. But in the meantime the brazing the joint is smeared with a flux ferret has carried the line through the
Ferret is made to lay the wires by attaching a light fish line to him and letting him
pipe and the hardest part of the work is give the wheel to be placed upon the
1. What is the cause of "back firing” in
gasoline engines? How are compound gears set ?_L. R. G
2. What causes the piston to smoke ? To set compound gears divide the 1. V. 'R. number of threads per inch to be cut by the number of threads per inch on the
1. This trouble is of most frequent lead screw. The quotient will be the
occurrence with fuel of a low ignition proportional number.
temperature, such as gases rich in hydrogen, and gasoline. If the ignition apparatus is properly adjusted, the source of the trouble may be traced to an overheated cylinder and too high compression, or to highly heated projections within the compression space. The latter cause of this annoying trouble has frequently been a puzzle for some of the best gas-engine men to find. A thin projection of metal within the cylinder may be so situated that it becomes heated to a comparatively high temperature and acts in the same manner as an ignition tube. Again, there may be a projection within the cylinder upon which carbon will deposit in the shape of a cone. This cone of carbon will become incandescent, or nearly so, and cause premature ignition, even as early as on the suction stroke. Projections upon the piston head such as the heads of follower-bolts, nuts, etc., quite frequently make trouble in this way. In two-cycle engines of the Day type, explosions will sometimes occur in the crank-chamber because of an insufficient fuel supply.
2. In this case the piston is leaking. The remedy will suggest itself, upon
taking out the piston and examining its COMPOUND Gear,
condition. If the cylinder is badly out
of round it should be rebored. The Select a gear for mandrel, and also one packing rings may need renewing. See for smaller wheel of compounded pair, if they are too small to expand to a size and multiply them together, then multi slightly greater than the bore of the cylply the product thus found by the pro- inder. Smoke from the open end of the portional number.
cylinder may also come from overheatSelect another gear for larger wheel ing. Smoke issuing from the exhaustof compounded pair and divide it into pipe, is due to an excess of fuel in the the above product, and the quotient will mixture.