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long time we had been lost; that they and affirm most positively, that, if they were the lords of the land who must be have not done so, it is the fault of the obeyed and served, while we were persons Christians. of mean condition and small force. TheA fter we had dismissed the Indians in Indians cared little or nothing for what peace, and thanked them for the toil they was told them; and conversing among had supported with us, the Christians themselves said the Christians lied: that with subtlety sent us on our way under we had come whence the sun rises, and charge of Zeburos, an Alcalde, attended they whence it goes down; we healed the by two men. They took us through forsick, they killed the sound; that we had ests and solitudes, to hinder us from intercome naked and barefooted, while they had course with the natives, that we might arrived in clothing and on horses with neither witness nor have knowledge of the lances; that we were not covetous of any act they would commit. It is but an thing, but all that was given to us we instance of how frequently men are misdirectly turned to give, remaining with taken in their aims; we set about to nothing; that the others had the only pur- preserve the liberty of the Indians and pose to rob whomsoever they found, be thought we had secured it, but the constowing nothing on any one.

trary appeared; for the Christians had In this way they spoke of all matters arranged to go and spring upon those we respecting us, which they enhanced by had sent away in peace and confidence. contrast with matters concerning the oth- They executed their plan as they had ers, delivering their response through the designed, taking us through the woods, interpreter of the Spaniards. To other wherein for two days we were lost, withIndians they made this known by means out water and without way. Seven of our of one among them through whom they men died of thirst, and we all thought to understood us. Those who speak that have perished. Many friendly to the tongue we discriminately call Primahaitu, Christians in their company were unable which is like saying Vasconyados. We to reach the place where we got water found it in use over more than 400 the second night, until the noon of next leagues of our travel, without another day. We travelled 25 leagues, little more over that whole extent. Even to the or less, and reached a town of friendly last, I could not convince the Indians Indians. The Alcalde left us. there, and that we were of the Christians; and only went on 3 leagues farther to a town called with great effort and solicitation we got Culiacan where was Melchior Diaz, printhem to go back to their residences. We cipal Alcalde and Captain of the Province. ordered them to put away apprehension, The Alcalde Mayor knew of the expeestablish their towns, plant and cultivate dition, and, hearing of our return, he imthe soil.

mediately left that night and came to From abandonment the country had al- where we were. He wept with us, givready grown up thickly in trees. It is, ing praises to God our Lord for having no doubt, the best in all these Indias, the extended over us so great care. He most prolific and plenteous in provisions. comforted and entertained us hospitably. Three times in the year it is planted. It In behalf of the governor, Nuño de Guzproduces great variety of fruit, has beau- man and himself, he tendered all that he tiful rivers, with many other good waters. had, and the service in his power. He There are ores with clear traces of gold showed much regret for the seizure, and and silver. The people are well disposed: the injustice we had received from Althey serve such Christians as are their caraz and others. We were sure, had he friends, with great good will. They are been present, what was done to the Indcomely, much more so than the Mexicans. ians and to us would never have occurred. Indeed, the land needs no circumstance to The night being passed, we set out make it blessed.

the next day for Anhacan. The chief The Indians, at taking their leave, told Alcalde besought us to tarry there, since us they would do what we commanded, by so doing we could be of eminent serand would build their towns, if the Chris- vice to God and your Majesty; the detians would suffer them; and this I say serted land was without tillage and everywhere badly wasted, the Indians were in him, nor obey his commands, he casts fleeing and concealing themselves in the beneath the earth into the company of thickets, unwilling to occupy their towns; demons, and into a great fire which is we were to send and call them, command- never to go out, but always torment; that, ing them in behalf of God and the King, over this, if they desired to be Christians to return to live in the vales and culti. and serve God in the way we required, vate the soil.

the Christians would cherish them as To us this appeared difficult to effect. brothers and behave towards them very We had brought no native of our own, nor kindly; that we would command they give of those who accompanied us according no offence nor take them from their territo custom, intelligent in these affairs. At tories, but be their great friends. If the last we made the attempt with two cap- Indians did not do this, the Christians tives, brought from that country, who would treat them very hardly, carrying were with the Christians we first overtook. them away as slaves into other lands. They had seen the people who conducted They answered through the interpreter us, and learned from them the great au- that they would be true Christians and thority and command we carried and ex- serve God. Being asked to whom they ercised throughout those parts, the won- sacrifice and offer worship, from whom ders we had worked, the sick we had they ask rain for their corn-fields and cured, and the many things besides we had health for themselves, they answered of a done. We ordered that they, with others of man that is in heaven. We inquired of the town, should go together to summon the them his name, and they told us Aguar; hostile natives among the mountains and of and they believed he created the whole the river Petachan, where we had found the world, and the things in it. We returned Christians, and say to them they must to question them as to how they knew come to us, that we wished to speak with this; they answered their fathers and them. For the protection of the messengers, grandfathers had told them, that from and as a token to the others of our will, distant time had come their knowledge, we gave them a gourd of those we were and they knew the rain and all good accustomed to bear in our hands, which things were sent to them by him. We told had been our principal insignia and evidence them that the name of him of whom of rank, and with this they went away. they spoke we called Dios; and if they

The Indians were gone seven days, and would call him so, and would worship returned with three chiefs of those re- him as we directed, they would find their volted among the ridges, who brought welfare. They responded that they well with them fifteen men, and presented us understood, and would do as we said. beads, turquoises, and feathers. The mes. We ordered them to come down from the sengers said they had not found the peo- mountains in confidence and peace, inhabit ple of the river where we appeared, the the whole country and construct their Christians having again made them run houses: among these they should build away into the mountains. Melchior Diaz one for God, at its entrance place a cross told the interpreter to speak to the natives like that which we had there present; for us; to say to them we came in the and, when Christians came among them, name of God, who is in heaven; that we they should go out to receive them with had travelled about the world many years, crosses in their hands, without bows or telling all the people we found that they any arms, and take them to their dwellshould believe in God and serve him; for ings, giving of what they have to eat, and he was the master of all things on the the Christians would do them no injury, earth, benefiting and rewarding the vir- but be their friends; and the Indians told tuous, and to the bad giving perpetual us they would do as we had commanded. punishment of fire; that, when the good The Captain having given them shawls die, he takes them to heaven, where none and entertained them, they returned, takever die, nor feel cold, nor hunger, noring the two captives who had been used as thirst, nor any inconvenience whatsoever, emissaries. This occurrence took place but the greatest enjoyment possible to con- before the Notary, in the presence of many ceive; that those who will not believe witnesses.

As soon as these Indians went back, all down from the mountains and were living those of that province who were friendly to in the vales; that they had made churches the Christians, and had heard of us, came and crosses, doing all we had required. to visit us, bringing beads and feathers. Each day we heard how these things were We commanded them to build churches advancing to a full improvement. and put crosses in them: to that time none Fifteen days of our residence having had been raised; and we made them bring passed, Alcaraz got back with the Christheir principal men to be baptized.

tians from the incursion, and they reThen the Captain made a covenant with lated to the Captain the manner in which God, not to invade nor consent to invasion, the Indians had come down and peopled nor to enslave any of that country and the plain; that the towns were inhabited people, to whom we had guaranteed safe- which had been tenantless and deserted, ty; that this he would enforce and defend the residents, coming out to receive them until your Majesty and the Governor with crosses in their hands, had taken Nuño de Guzmán, or the Viceroy in your them to their houses, giving of what they name, should direct what would be most had, and the Christians had slept among for the service of God and your Highness. them overnight. They were surprised at

When the children had been baptized, we a thing so novel; but, as the natives said departed for the town of San Miguel. So they had been assured of safety, it was orsoon as we arrived, April 1, 1536, came Ind- dered that they should not be harmed, and ians, who told us many people had come the Christians took friendly leave of them.


Cabinet, PRESIDENT's, a body of execu- tender their resignations when the sutive advisers authorized by Congress in preme legislative body acts adversely to the absence of a constitutional provision, any measure on which the ministry has and appointed by the President at the decided. In the cabinet no one member beginning of his administration. Unless takes precedence of another, and when the death, personal considerations, or other members are assembled in formal confercircumstances prevent, cabinet officers ence the President presides. In a minhold their places throughout the adminis- istry the spokesman is the president of tration. Each cabinet officer is at the the council, and usually the minister for head of a department comprising a num- foreign affairs is officially known either her of executive bureaus. The chief of as the prime minister or premier. The the Department of Justice is the Attorney- various cabinet officers receive a salary General of the United States; the chiefs of $8,000 per annum. of all other departments are officially call. The following is a summary of the ored secretaries of the departments. The ganization and the functions of the eight cabinet of a President of the United States executive departments as they existed in is somewhat similar in its functions to 1901: the ministry of a monarchical govern- The Secretary of State has charge of ment; but there are notable differences. What is known as the State Department. As a general thing, members of a ministry This was created by act of Congress, July have the right to urge or defend any 27, 1789, having been in existence, howpublic measure before the supreme legis- ever, at that time for some months, under lature of their country, a privilege with the name of the Department of Foreign which the American cabinet officer has Affairs. The first to fill the office was never been invested. While cabinet offi- Thomas Jefferson. The Secretary of State cers hold their places through an admin- has in his charge all business between our istration or at the pleasure of themselves own and other governments. The departor the President, and are in no wise af- ment conducts the correspondence with fected by any legislation in Congress to our ministers and other agents in foreign which they may be officially opposed, the countries, and with the representatives of members of a ministry almost invariably other countries here. All communications

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has charge of all moneys paid into the Treasury of the United States, also of all disburseinents, the auditing of accounts, and the collection of revenue. It also supervises the mint and coinage of money, and has charge of the coast survey, including the erection and management of light-houses. The marine hospitals of the government are also under its direction, and it controls the regulation and appointments of all custom-houses. The Secretary is obliged to make a full report to Congress, at the opening of each regular session, of the business done by the department during the year, and the exist. ing financial condition of the government. The department has an important bureau

of statistics dealing with the foreign and SEAL OF THE STATE DEPARTMENT.

domestic trade of the country. It also respecting boundary and other treaties are also under the direction of this depart

ATES ment, and a special clerk compiles and preserves all statistics relating to our foreign commerce. This department also files all acts and proceedings of Congress, and attends to the publication of the same and their distribution throughout the country. No regular annual report is made to Congress concerning the work of this department, but special information is given whenever any unusual event or complica

DCCLXXVIII. tion in our foreign relations occurs. The first Secretary of the Treasury was

to OFF0000 Alexander Hamilton, who was appointed upon the organization of the department, Sept. 2, 1789. This department

supervises the life-saving service, and has control of the National Board of Health.

The War Department dates from Aug. 7, 1789. John Knox was its first Secretary. It has in its charge all business growing out of the military affairs of the government, attends to the paying of troops, and furnishing all army supplies; also supervises the erection of forts, and all work of military engineering. The department is divided into a number of important bureaus, the chief officers of which are known as the commanding - general, the adjutant-general, the quartermaster-general, the paymaster · general, the commissary-general, the surgeon-general, the chief engineer, the chief of survey, and the chief of ordnance. The signal service is un

der the control of this department. It SKAL OF THE TREASC'RY DEPARTMENT.

is made the duty of the Secretary of War



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to report annually to Congress concerning the bureau of navy-yards and docks; of the state of the army, the expenditures of construction, equipment, and repair; of the military appropriations in detail, and provisions and clothing; of ordnance and all matter concerning the bureaus over hydrography; of medicine and surgery. which the department has special super- To these have since been added a bureau vision. This department has also in charge the publication of the official records of the Civil War, an enormous work. All the archives captured from or surrendered by the Confederate government are also in charge of this bureau of records.

The first Attorney-General of the United States, Edmund Randolph, of Virginia, was appointed under act of Congress of Sept. 24, 1789. The Attorney - General is required to act as attorney for the United States in all suits in the Supreme Court; he is also the legal adviser of the President and the heads of departments, and also of the solicitor of the treasury. He is further charged with the superintendence of all United States district attorneys and marshals, with the examination of all applications to the l'resident for pardons, and with the trans

SEAL OF THE NAVY DEPARTMENT. fer of all land purchased by the United States for government buildings, etc. of navigation, one of steam engineering, The name, “ Department of Justice,” by and one of recruiting, to which last has which this division of the cabinet is now been added the work of equipment formerlargely known, was given to it about ly provided for in connection with the con1872.

struction bureau. It also keeps a library The Navy Department (1789) was at of war records. The Secretary of the first included in the War Department, but Navy has charge of everything connectin 1798 the two branches of the service ed with the naval service of the governwere separated. Aug. 21, 1842, this depart- ment, and the execution of the laws connient was organized into five bureaus— cerning it, and makes annual reports to

Congress of the conditions of the department. All instructions to subordinate of. ficers of the navy and to all chiefs of the bureaus emanate from him, while the department supervises the building and repairs of all vessels, docks, and wharves, and enlistment and discipline of sailors, together with all supplies needed by them, The first Secretary of the Navy was Benjamin Stoddert, of Maryland.

The Department of the Interior was created by act of Congress, March 3, 1849. The business of the department is conducted by eight bureaus-viz., bureau of the public lands, pensions, Indian affairs, patents, education, railroads, and labor and labor statistics. Concerning this work report is made annually. These different bu

reaus have charge, under the Secretary, of SEAL OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE.

all matters relating to the sale and survey

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