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the earth; but you have everything; and men and offered £25 for every Indian we that have nothing must love you, and scalp. North Carolina voted a similar will never break the chain of friendship provision, and authorized the holding of which is between us." They returned to Indian captives as slaves. General AmCarolina with Robert Johnson, who came herst, petitioned for assistance, detached with a commission as governor.

1,200 men, chiefly Scotch Highlanders, for For a long time the Cherokees and the the purpose, under Colonel Montgomery, Five Nations had bloody contests; but with orders to chastise the Cherokees, but the English effected a reconciliation be- to return in time for the next campaign tween them about 1750, when the Chero- against Canada. Montgomery left Charleskees became the allies of the British ton early in April, with regular and proagainst the French, and allowed the vincial troops, and laid waste a portion former to build forts on their domain. of the Cherokee country. They were not About that time they were at the height subdued. The next year Colonel Grant led of their power, and inhabited sixty-four a stronger force against them, burned their villages along the streams; but soon after- towns, desolated their fields, and killed wards nearly one-half the population many of their warriors. Then the Ind. were swept off by the small-pox. The ians humbly sued for peace (June, 1761). Cherokees assisted in the capture of Fort In 1776 the Cherokees seriously threat. Duquesne in 1758.

ened the frontier of South Carolina. As While the Cherokees who accompanied these Indians had become the dread of the expedition against Fort Duquesne in the frontier settlers of Georgia, North 1758 were returning home along the Carolina, and Virginia, these three States mountains on the western borders of Vir- joined in the defence of South Carolina. ginia and the Carolinas, they quarrelled Col. Andrew Williamson led an expediwith the settlers, and several white men tion into the Cherokee country, destroy. and Indians were killed. Some Cherokee ed all their settlements eastward of the chiefs were sent to Charleston to arrange Appalachian Mountains, and effectually the dispute, when they were treated al- brought the natives to submission. This most with contempt by the governor of conquest was effected between July 15 and South Carolina. This was soon followed Oct. 11, 1776. A military work named by an invasion of the Cherokee country Fort Rutledge was erected in the Cherokee by Governor Littleton (October1759) country and garrisoned by two indepenwith 1,500 men, contributed by Virginia dent companies. and the Carolinas, who demanded the sur In 1781 the Cherokees having made a render of the murderers of the English. hostile incursion into the Ninety-six Dis. He found the Cherokees ready for war, trict, in South Carolina, murdered some and was glad to make the insubordination families, and burned several houses, Gen. of his soldiers and the prevalence of smallAndrew Pickens, at the head of about 400 pex among them an excuse for leaving mounted militia, penetrated into their the country. He accepted twenty-two Ind- country, and, in fourteen days, burned ian hostages as security for peace and thirteen towns and villages, killed more the future delivery of the murderers, and than forty Indians, and took a number retired in haste and confusion (June, of prisoners, without losing a man. 1760). These hostages, which included By a treaty concluded at Hopewell, on several chiefs and warriors, were placed the Keowee, between the United States in Fort St. George, at the head of the Sa- commissioners and the head men and warvannah River. The Cherokees attempted riors of all the Cherokees, the latter, for their rescue as soon as Littleton and his themselves and their respective tribes and army had gone. A soldier was wounded, towns, acknowledged all the Cherokees to when his companions, in fiery anger, put be under the protection of the United all the hostages to death.

States. The boundaries of their hunting. The Cherokee nation was aroused by the grounds were settled; several mutual and outrage. They beleaguered the fort, and pacific conditions were agreed upon; and war-parties scourged the frontiers. The a solemn pledge was made that “the Assembly of South Carolina voted 1,000 hatchet should be buried," and that the peace re-established should“ be univer- they yet remain, with Choctaws, Creeks, sal."

and others for their neighbors. These Indians were friends of the Unit. In 1861, John. Ross, the renowned prined States in the War of 1812, and helped cipal chief of the Cherokees, who had led to subjugate the Creeks. Civilization took them wisely for almost forty years, took root among them and produced contention, a decided stand against the Confederates. a portion of them wishing to adhere to He issued a proclamation (May 17), in their former mode of living, while others which he reminded his people of their wished to engage in the industries of civ- treaty obligations with the United States, ilized life. They were so absolutely divided and urged them to be faithful to them, in sentiment that in 1818 a portion of the and to take no part in the stirring events nation emigrated to wild land assigned of the day. But he and his loyal associates to them west of the Mississippi. The among the Cherokees and Creeks were Cherokees, in turn, had ceded large por- overborne by the tide of secession and intions of their lands, and their domain was surrection, and were swept on, powerless, mostly confined to northern Georgia. They by the current. The betrayal of the Unitwere then making rapid progress in civ- ed States troops by General Twiggs into ilization; but the Georgians coveted their the hands of the Texas authorities left lands. The Cherokees were yet powerful their territory on the side of that State in numbers, and were then considerably open to invasion. False rumors continuadvanced in the arts and customs of civil- ally disturbed them. Their neighbors, and ization. They had churches and schools the wild tribes on their borders, were and a printing-press, issuing a newspaper; rallying to the standard of the Confederand they were disposed to defend their ates. The National troops in Missouri rights against the encroachments of their could not check the rising insurrection white neighbors.

there. The chief men of the Cherokees President Jackson favored the Georgi- held a mass-meeting at Tahlequah in Auans, and the white people then proceeded to gust, when, with great unanimity, they take possession of the lands of the Chero- declared their allegiance to the “ Confedkees. Trouble ensued, and the southern erate States.” Ross still held out, but was portion of the republic was menaced with finally compelled to yield. At a council civil war for a while. The United States held on Aug. 20, he recommended the sev. troops had been withdrawn from Géorgia, erance of the connection with the national and the national government offered no government. Ross's wife, a young and obstacle to the forcible seizure of the Ind- well-educated woman, still held out; and ian territory by the Georgians. Some when an attempt was made to raise a Conmissionaries laboring among the Cherokees federate flag over the council-house, she were arrested and imprisoned for residing opposed the act with so much spirit that in their country contrary to the laws of the Confederates desisted. the State, and for refusing to take an oath During the Civil War the Cherokees of allegiance to Georgia. The Cherokees suffered much. The Confederates would then numbered between 14,000 and 15,000 not trust Ross, for his Union feelings were east of the Mississippi. The matter in very apparent. When, in 1862, they were dispute was adjudicated by the Supreme about to arrest him, he and his family Court of the United States, and on March escaped to the North, and resided in 30, 1832, that tribunal decided against the Philadelphia for a while. claims of the Georgians. The Georgians, In 1899 there were 32,161 Cherokees at still favored by the President, resented this the Union agency, Indian Territory, and decision. An amicable settlement was 1.351 at the Eastern Cherokee agency, finally reached; and, in 1838, under the North Carolina. mild coercion of Maj. Gen. W. Scott and Cherry Valley, MASSACRE AT. During several thousand troops, the Cherokees a heavy storm of sleet on Nov. 11, 1778, left their beautiful country in Georgia a band of Indians and Tories—the former with sorrow, and went to wild lands as- led by Brant, and the latter by Walter signed them, well towards the eastern N. Butler, son of Col. John Butlerslopes of the Rocky Mountains, where fell upon Cherry Valley, Otsego co., N. Y., II.- H


and murdered thirty-two of the inhabi. the vice-admiral's commands must be tants, mostly women and children, with obeyed.” This insolent announcement' was sixteen soldiers of a little garrison there. repeated. The Chesapeake moved on, and Nearly forty men, women, and children the Leopard sent two shots athwart her were carried away captive. Butler was bow. These were followed by the remainthe arch-fiend on this occasion, and would der of the broadside, poured into the hull listen to no appeals from Brant for mercy of the Chesapeake. Though Barron, suson the innocent and helpless. The cap- pecting mischief, had hastily tried to pretives were led away in the darkness and pare his ship for action, he was unable a cold storm; and when they rested they to return the shots, for his guns had no were huddled together, half naked, with priming-powder. After being severely inno, shelter but the leafless trees, and no jured by repeated broadsides, the Chesaresting-place but the wet ground.

peake struck her colors. The vice-adChesapeake, the name of a famous miral's command was obeyed. The crew United States frigate that will always of the Chesapeake were mustered by Britbo memorable because of her interest-ab- ish officers, and the deserters were carried sorbing career. In the spring of 1807 a away; one of them, who was a British small British squadron lay (as they had subject, was hanged at Halifax, and the lately) in American waters, near the lives of the Americans were spared only mouth of Chesapeake Bay, watching some on condition that they should re-enter the French frigates blockaded at Annapolis. British service. Three of the crew of one of the British This outrage caused fiery indignation vessels, Melampus, and one of another, throughout the United States. The PresiHalifax, had deserted, and enlisted on dent issued a proclamation, at the beginboard the Chesapeake, lying at the Wash- ning of July, ordering all British armed ington navy-yard. The British minister vessels to leave the waters of the United made a formal demand for their surren- States, and forbidding any to enter until der. The United States government re- ample satisfaction should be given. A fused compliance, because it was ascer- British envoy extraordinary was sent to tained that two of them (colored) were Washington to settle the difficulty. Innatives of the United States, and there structed to do nothing until the Presiwas strong presumptive evidence that dent's proclamation should be withdrawn, the third one was, likewise. The com- the matter was left open more than four modore of the British squadron took the years. In 1811 the British government matter into his own hands. The Chesa- disavowed the act. Barron, found guilty peake, going to sea on the morning of of neglect of duty in not being prepared June 22, 1807, bearing the pennant of for the attack, was suspended from the Commodore Barron, was intercepted by service for five years, without pay or the British frigate Leopard, whose com- emolument. mander, hailing, informed the commodore While the Hornet, Captain Lawrence, that he had a despatch for him. A Brit- was on her homeward-bound voyage with ish boat bearing a lieutenant came along- her large number of prisoners, the Chesaside the Chesapeake. The officer was po- peake was out on a long cruise to the litely received by Barron, in his cabin, Cape de Verde Islands, and the coast of when the former presented a demand from South America. She accomplished noththe captain of the Leopard to allow the ing except the capture of four British bearer to muster the crew of the Chesa- merchant vessels; and as she entered Bospeake, that he might select and carry ton Harbor, in the spring of 1813, in a away the alleged deserters. The demand gale, her topmast was carried away, and was authorized by instructions received with it several men who were aloft, three from Vice-Admiral Berkeley, at Halifax. of whom were drowned. Among the su

Barron refused compliance, the lieuten- perstitious sailors she acquired the charant withdrew, and the Chesapeake moved acter of an “unlucky” ship, and they on. The Leopard followed, and her com- were loath to embark in her. Evans was mander called out through his trumpet, compelled to leave her on account of the “ Commodore Barron must be aware that loss of the sight of one of his eyes; and

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