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was a shareholder, to survey the tract movement, young Clem brought his gun which had been purchased in northeastern up and tired, killing the colonel instantOhio. He set out with fifty emigrants from Schenectady, N. Y.; reached the mouth of the Cuya hoga on July 22; and finding it a favorable site for a town decided to settle there. His employers called the place Cleaveland in his honor. When the first newspaper, the Cleveland Advertiser, was established, the head-line was found to be too long for the form, and the editor cut out the letter “a," which revision was accepted by the public. General Cleaveland died in Canterbury, Conn., Nov. 16, 1806.

Cleburne, PATRICK RONAYNE, military officer; born in County Cork, Ireland, March 17, 1828; came to the United States and settled at Helena, Ark., where he later practised law. When the Civil War broke out he entered the Confederate army; in March, 1861, planned the capture of the United States arsenal in Arkansas; in 1862 was promoted brigadier-general; took part in many important engagements in the war; and in recognition of his defence of Ringgold Gap received the thanks

JOHN L. CLEM of the Confederate Congress. He originated the Order of the Southern Cross, and was known as “the Stonewall of the ly. He escaped ; and for this exploit on West.” He was killed in the battle of the battle-field he was made a sergeant, Franklin, Tenn., Nov. 30, 1864.

put on duty at headquarters of the Army Clem, John L., military officer; born of the Cumberland, and placed on the Roll in Newark, O., in 1851. In May, 1861, he of Honor. In 1871 he was appointed a attempted to enlist as a drummer-boy in second lieutenant in the 24th United the 3d Ohio Volunteers, but was rejected States Infantry; in 1874 was promoted to on account of his size and age. Subse- first lieutenant; in 1882 to captain and asquently he accompanied the 22d Michigan sistant quartermaster; and in 1895 to Volunteers to the field, and in the summer major and quartermaster. In 1875 he was of 1862 was regularly enlisted as a drum- graduated at the Artillery School. He was mer in that regiment. He displayed a long familiarly known as “Johnny Clem, fearless spirit in the battle of Shiloh, the drummer-boy of Chickamauga," and where his drum was destroyed by a piece since his connection with the army has of shell. At the battle of Chickamauga made himself very popular among his imhe served as a marker, carried a musket mediate superiors, and won and held the instead of a drum, and especially dis- esteem of the authorities in Washington. tinguished himself. He had been in the Clemens, SAMUEL LANGHORNE (penthickest of the fight, and three bullets name, MARK TWAIN), author; born in had passed through his hat, when, sep- Florida, Mo., Nov. 20, 1835; educated arated from his companions, he was seen at Hannibal, Mo.; learned the printer's running, with a musket in his hand, by trade; served as a Mississippi River pilot; a mounted Confederate colonel, who call. and became territorial secretary of Nevaed out, “Stop! you little Yankee devil!” da. He spent several years in mining and The boy halted and brought his musket newspaper work. In 1884 he established to an order, when the colonel rode up to the publishing house of C. L. Webster & make him a prisoner. With a swift Co., in New York. The failure of this

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firm, after it had published General yer; The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn'; Grant's Personal Memoirs, and paid over The Prince and the Pauper; A Tramp $250,000 to his widow, involved Mr. Clem- Abroad; Life on the Mississippi; A Yanens in heavy losses; but by 1900 he had kee at King Arthur's Court; Tom Sawpaid off all obligations by the proceeds yer Abroad; Puddnhead Wilson; Joan of of his books and lectures. He has trav. Arc; More Tramps Abroad, etc. elled extensively in Europe, Australia, Cleopatra's Needle. See GORRINGE,

HENRY HONEYCHURCH.

Cleveland, the most important port of Ohio, on Lake Erie, was named after Gen. Moses Cleaveland, director of the Connecticut Land Company, who arrived at the present site of Cleveland, July 22, 1796, and began the settlement at the mouth of Cuya hoga River. In 1800 the population was only 7; in 1810 it was 57 ; 1820, 150; 1830, 1,075; 1840, 6,071; 1850, 17,034. In 1854, Ohio City, on the opposite bank of the river, was united with Cleveland, and in 1860 the population of the united cities was 43,838; in 1870, 92,829; 1880, 159,404; 1890, 261,353; 1900, 381,768.

Cleveland, BENJAMIN, military officer; born in Prince William county, Va., May 26, 1738; removed to North Carolina in 1769; entered the American army in 1775;

led a company in the campaign of RutherSAMUEL LANGHORNE CLEMENS.

ford against the Cherokee Indians in

1776; greatly distinguished himself at and other places. His books include The KING'S MOUNTAIN (q. v.); and later setJumping Frog; The Innocents Abroad; tled in South Carolina, where he became a Roughing It; Adventures of Tom Saw- judge. He died in October, 1806.

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CLEVELAND, GROVER

Cleveland, GROVER, twenty - second 192,000, and entered office in January, and twenty-fourth President of the United 1883. His administration of affairs at States, from 1885 to 1889, and from 1893 Albany secured the presentation of his to 1897; Democrat; born in Caldwell, Es- name to the Democratic National Consex co., N. J., March 18, 1837. After vention in 1884. He was nominated ; and some experience as a clerk and some elected, after a close and exciting struglabor on the compilation of the Ameri- gle, over James G. Blaine, and was inaucan Herd Book, he became a bank clerk gurated March 4, 1885 (see CABINET, in Buffalo, and was admitted to the PRESIDENT's). President Cleveland, in his bar in 1859. From 1863 to 1865 he was famous message to Congress on the surassistant district-attorney, and in 1870 he plus and the tariff' in December, 1887, was elected sheriff of Erie county and forced the fighting on the revenue-reform served three years. Elected mayor of issue. He was the candidate of his party Buffalo in 1881, he attracted during the in 1888, but was defeated by Benjamin first few months of his term more than Harrison, and retired in 1889. He settled local notice, and was the Democratic can- in New York, and resumed the practice didate for governor of New York in 1882. of law. In 1892 he received for the third One of the successful nominees in this time the Democratie nomination. In the “ tidal-wave” Democratic year, Mr. Cleve- election he received 277 electoral and land received the phenomenal majority of 5,556,533 popular votes, while Harrison

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(renominated) had 145 electoral and This condition of our Treasury is not al5,175,577 popular votes. He was inau- together new, and it has more than once gurated March 4, 1893. At the close of of late been submitted to the people's bis second term he took up the practice representatives in the Congress, who alone of law again, making his home at Prince- can apply a remedy. And yet the situation ton, N. J.

still continues, with aggravated incidents, Tariff Message of 1887.-During both more than ever presaging financial conof his administrations President Cleve- vulsion and widespread disaster. land gave much thought to the question It will not do to neglect this situation of the tariff, and in several of his mes- because its dangers are not now palpably sages to Congress he urged a reform based imminent and apparent. They exist none on the conditions of the day. Towards the the less certainly, and await the unforeclose of 1887 he deemed the condition of seen and unexpected occasion, when sudthe national finances so important as to denly they will be precipitated upon us. justify a special expression of his views On June 30, 1885, the excess of revthereon, and accordingly he devoted his enues over public expenditures, after entire message of Dec. 6 to a consideration complying with the annual requireof the subject. The following is the text ment of the Sinking-fund Act, was $17,of the message:

859,735.84; during the year ended June

30, 1886, such excess amounted to $49,WASHINGTON, Dec, 6, 1887. 405,545.20; and during the year ended To the Congress of the United States, June 30, 1887, it reached the sum of $55,You are confronted at the threshold of 567,849.54. your legislative duties with a condition The annual contributions to the sinkingof the national finances which imperative fund during the three years above specily demands immediate and careful con- fied, amounting in the aggregate to $138,sideration.

058,320.94, and deducted from the surplus The amount of money annually exacted, as stated, were made by calling in for that through the operation of present laws, purpose outstanding 3 per cent. bonds of from the industries and necessities of the the government. During the six months people largely exceeds the sum necessary prior to June 30, 1887, the surplus revenue to meet the expenses of the government. had grown so large by repeated accumu

When we consider that the theory of our lations, and it was feared the withdrawal institutions guarantees to every citizen of this great sum of money needed by the the full enjoyment of all the fruits of his people would so affect the business of the industry and enterprise, with only such country that the sum of $79,864,100 of deduction as may be his share towards the such surplus was applied to the payment careful and economical maintenance of of the principal and interest of the 3 per the government which protects him, it is cent. bonds still outstanding, and which plain that the exaction of more than this were then payable at the option of the is indefensible extortion and a culpable government. The precarious condition of betrayal of American fairness and justice, financial affairs among the people still This wrong inflicted upon those who bear needing relief, immediately after June the burden of national taxation, like other 30, 1887, the remainder of the 3 per wrongs, multiplies a brood of evil con- cent. bonds then outstanding, amounting sequences. The public Treasury, which with principal and interest to the sum should only exist as a conduit conveying of $18,877,500, were called in and applied the people's tribute to its legitimate to the sinking-fund contribution for the objects of expenditure, becomes a hoard- current fiscal year. Notwithstanding these ing-place for money needlessly withdrawn operations of the Treasury Department, from trade and the people's use, thus representations of distress in business circrippling our national energies, suspend- cles not only continued, but increased, and ing our country's development, prevent- absolute peril seemed at hand. In these ing investment in productive enterprise, circumstances the contribution to the threatening financial disturbance, and in- sinking-fund for the current fiscal year viting schemes of public plunder.

was at once completed by the expenditure

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