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carry-all these are the inventions of the commerce—not only the commerce of the century, and all have contributed greatly enemy, but, in many cases, that of any to the producing and transporting power others against whom the slightest susof man, and consequently to the multi- picion could be charged-practically susplication of the commodities which he pro- pended European commerce. In addition duces and exchanges.

to this, the danger from pirates, which Finance and financiers have contributed then constantly existed in certain parts enormously to the growth of the com- of the ocean, was increased during war merce of the century. The gold discov- times. During the first fifteen years of eries in California and Australia, and the century, British, French, and finally later in other parts of the world, have all European vessels were practically progreatly increased the volume of the cir-hibited from engaging in commerce by culating medium and encouraged the the Napoleonic wars, and the commerce creation of a single and well-defined stand- of the world was largely thrown into the ard of value, so that the merchant may hands of our own shipping, until the War make his sales and purchases with an as- of 1812 and the events immediately presurance that payments will be made in ceding it. With the advance of the cena measure of value acceptable to the whole tury, wars became less frequent, and of world, and losses and uncertainty of traf- shorter duration when entered on; while fic thus avoided. The supply of this piracy has been generally suppressed, inprecious metal has increased enormously ternational laws for the protection of during the century. Chevalier estimated shipping enacted, and regulations estabthat the amount of gold in Europe in 1492 lished for the protection of those engaging was but $60,000,000. From that time to in commerce. Not only has the actual the beginning of the century, the average loss from these causes been materially regold production was about $8,000,000 a duced, but the increased safety and abyear; from 1800 to 1850, about $15,000,- sence of danger from losses have encour000 a year; and, since that date, it has aged the increase in shipping and in ranged steadily upward, until it has commerce itself. reached over $300,000,000 a year, thus Many other causes might be named as multiplying many times the stock of the contributing largely to the wonderful instandard metal of the world. The result crease in commerce during the century. of this is that 95 per cent. of the com- The area under cultivation in Europe, merce of the world is now carried on America, and Australia is estimated to between nations having a fixed and well- have increased from 360,000,000 to nearly regulated currency, with gold as the stand- 900,000,000 acres; the coal-mines have ard. Add to this fact the developments of increased their output from 11,000,000 to the financial and credit systems, by which 600,000,000 tons; pig-iron production has sums due in one part of the world are bal- grown from 460,000 tons to 37,000,000; anced against those due in another part, cotton production has increased from and by the use of simple pieces of paper 520,000,000 to 5,900,000,000 pounds; the transportation of any considerable while the value of manufactures has insums of money from place to place and creased perhaps a thousandfold in the country to country avoided, and it will 100 years. But all these are the results be seen that finance has had much to do in a greater or less degree of the five with the century's commercial growth. great causes named above. Another cause

“Peace," it has been said, “ hath her which is frequently urged as contributing victories no less renowned than war," largely to the increase of commerce in the and peace has doubtless been an important middle part of the century, is the repeal factor in the wonderful development of of navigation laws and excessive tariffs. the century's commerce. Nothing so While this is, doubtless, entitled to conquickly affects commerce as protracted sideration, it is difficult to measure the warfare. This was particularly notice- share which it had in the development of able in the early part of the century, when that period. Steam, electricity, and gold the seizure of vessels, the impressment of discoveries were at that moment combinseamen, and the general destruction of ing to stimulate commerce, while the fact

that the growth of international commerce change of merchandise between nation and has been continued in the face of the re- nation throughout the entire world, wherturn to protective duties by most of the ever records of such commerce are attaincommercial nations except Great Britain, able. And while it is quite probable that adds to the difficulty of determining how the development of business and statistical far these important occurrences were fac- methods throughout the world has made tors in the growth of international trade it practicable for the inquirer of to-day of that time.

to bring into the grand total the comThe following table indicates the growth merce of some countries whose business of the commerce of the world during nine- could only be estimated in the earlier part ty-eight years of the nineteenth century. of the period, it is also likely that the




1840. ....



Carrying Aggregate Capita


Steam. Power



Tops. 640,000,000 1, 479,000,000

2.31 4,026,000





5,894,000 847.000.000 1.981,000,000 2.34



7,528.000 (c) 950,000,000 2,789,000,000

2.93 9,012.000

368.000 10,482.000 (c) 1,075,000,000

3.76 11,470.000

858.000 14,902.000 (c) 1,205.000.000 7,246.000.000


1.710.000 21.730.000 (d) 1.310.000.000 10,663,000,000 8.14 12.900.000

3,040.000 25.100.000 (e) 1,439,000,000 14,761.000.000 10.26 14,400.000

5,880,000 37.900.000 .. (f) 1,488,000.000 17,519.000.000 11.80 12.640.000

9.040.000 48.800,000 1,500,000,000 19,519,000,000 13.27 11,045,000 13.045,000 63,200,000

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To discuss the part which the various reduction in prices of the merchandise nations have had in this commerce, the whose value only is stated fully offsets relations of imports to exports, or the any increase in the closeness with which classes of articles exchanged between the the field has been gleaned, and that the great sections of the globe, would carry figures represent with a fair degree of this study beyond reasonable limits. In accuracy the relative quantity of merall of the above statements, the term chandise moved at the various periods “ commerce” has covered both exports under discussion. While the fact that and imports, and has included the ex- the exports of each nation always become


the imports of some other nation would late and create commerce, show such a suggest that export and import ought to marvellous growth as that of the century balance each other in the grand aggre- just ended ? It seems almost impossible, gate, it is found that they do not, since yet no more impossible than the growth the freight, insurance, and brokerage are which has actually occurred during the in the most cases added to the export price past century would have appeared had in naming the value of the goods where it been predicted at its beginning. Aerial they become an import, thus making the navigation may, long before the end of stated value of the world's import usu- the present century, aid in the transporally from 5 to 10 per cent. in excess of tation of men and mails and the lighter arthe stated value of the exports.

ticles of commerce to areas not supplied The United States has performed well with other means of transportation; a simher part in the century's development of ilar service may be performed between great the world's commerce. While the total distributing centres by huge pneumatic commerce of the world has grown from tubes, a mere development of the system $1,479,000,000 to $19,915,000,000, that of which now prevails for shorter distances the United States has increased from in great cities; wireless telegraphy will $162,000,000 to over $2,000,000,000, while communicate with all sections of the the ratio of increase in exports of do. world; electricity will transfer to conmestic merchandise is even much greater. venient points the power created by countIndeed, the figures of our commerce for less waterfalls now inaccessible for manthe first year and decade of the century ufacturing purposes; steamships will deare quite misleading for comparative pur- velop their carrying powers and multiply poses, as they include large quantities of communications between continents and foreign goods brought to our ports by great trading centres; a ship canal will our vessels and merely declared as entries, connect the waters of the Atlantic and while in fact they in many cases never Pacific; and vessels circumnavigating the left shipboard and only entered nominally globe in the interests of commerce may into our commerce because of their being take further advantage of currents of air carried by our vessels. This was due to and water which move ever westward as the fact that European nations which the earth revolves ever towards the east; had very rigorous laws prohibiting the other ship canals will connect our Great carrying by foreign vessels of commerce Lakes with the ocean, and steamships between their own ports and colonies were from Europe and the Mediterranean willing to suspend the action of these countries and the Orient will land their laws while the war prevented them from merchandise at the docks of Chicago and doing their own carrying-trade. The re- Duluth, and the other great commercial sult of this was that, during the first dec- cities of our inland seas; a great railway ade of the century, our reported exports system will stretch from South America of foreign goods amounted to as much as to Bering Straits, thence down the eastern those of domestic products, and in some coast of Siberia, through China, Siam, years actually exceeded them, while now Burmah, across India, Persia, Arabia, they only amount to about 2 per cent. of past the pyramids of Egypt to the westour total exports. Comparing the com- ernmost point of Africa, where only 1.600 merce in domestic goods during 1899 with miles of ocean will intervene to prevent that of 1800, it is found that the percent- the complete encircling of the earth with age of increase is very much greater than a belt of steel, whose branches will penethat shown by the world's total commerce. trate to every habitable part of every con

In general, it may be said of our com- tinent, and place men in all climes and merce of 1900, that the imports are about all nations and all continents in constant ten times as much as in 1800, and the ex- communication with each other and faciliports twenty times as much as the nomi- tate the interchange of commodities benal figure of 1800.

tween them. What of the twentieth century? Can its Commissioners to Foreign Courts. commerce, and all those conveniences of Soon after the Declaration of Indepentraffic and intercourse which go to stimu- dence a plan of treaties with foreign goyCOMMITTEES OF SAFETY-CONCILIATION MEASURES

ernments was reported by a committee on Louisiana). It is the basis of the juristhat subject, and Franklin, Deane, and prudence of all the States in so far as it Jefferson were appointed (Sept. 26, 1776) conforms to the circumstances and insticommissioners to the French Court. Un- tutions of the country and has not been willing to leave his wife, whose health otherwise modified by statutory provision. was declining, Jefferson refused the ap- See Codes. pointment, and Arthur Lee, then in Lon- Common Schools. See EDUCATION. don, was substituted for him; and after Common Schools, EARLY. In 1649 the loss of New York these commissioners provision was made in the Massachuwere urged to press the subject of a treaty setts code for the establishing of comof alliance and commerce. Commission- mon schools in that province. By it ers were also appointed to other European every township was required to maincourts in 1777-Arthur Lee to that of tain a school for reading and writing; Madrid; his brother William (lately one and every town of 100 householders, a of the sheriff's of London) to Vienna and grammar school, with a teacher qualiBerlin, and Ralph Izard, of South Caro- fied to “ fit youths for the university ” lina, to Florence. All but the French (Harvard). This school law was remission were failures. Arthur Lee was enacted in Connecticut in the very same not allowed to enter Madrid, and went on terms, and was adopted also by Plymouth a fruitless errand to Germany; Izard and New Haven. The preamble to this made no attempt to visit Florence, and law declared that, “it being one chief William Lee visited Berlin without ac- project of that old deluder, Sathan, to complishing anything. There his papers keep men from the knowledge of the were stolen from him, through the con- Scriptures, as in former times keeping trivance, it was believed, of the British them in an unknown tongue, so in these resident minister. See AMBASSADOR. later times persuading men from the use

Committees of Safety, formed before of tongues, so that at the least the true and during the Revolutionary War, to keep sense and meaning of the original might watch of and act upon events pertaining be clouded with false glossing of saintto the public welfare, were really com- seeming deceivers, and that learning may mittees of vigilance. They were of incal- not be buried in the grave of our fathers,” culable service during that period in therefore this law was enacted. See Edudetecting conspiracies against the inter- CATION. ests of the people and restraining evil. Common-sense Pamphlet. See PAINE, disposed persons. They were sometimes THOMAS. possessed of almost supreme executive Communists. See SOCIALISM. power, delegated to them by the people. Compromise, THE CRITTENDEN. See Massachusetts took the lead in the CRITTENDEN, JOHN JORDAN. appointment of a committee of safety so Compromise, The MissOURI. See Misearly as the autumn of 1774, of which SOURI COMPROMISE. John Hancock was chairman. It was. Compromise Measures of 1850. See given power to call out the militia, pro- CLAY, HENRY. vide means for defence-in a word, per- Compromise Tariff of 1833. See form many of the duties of a provisional CLAY, HENRY. government. Other colonies appointed Conciliation Measures. In the midst committees of safety. One was appointed of the hot debate in Parliament, in 1775, in the city of New York, composed of the on the New England restraining bill, leading citizens. These committees were Lord North astonished the King, the minin constant communication with commit- istry and the nation by himself bringing tees of correspondence.

forward a conciliatory proposition, not Common Law. In the United States unlike that offered by Chatham just bethe term “common law” means the com- fore (Feb. 1), which required the colomon law of England and of statutes nists to acknowledge the supremacy and passed by the English Parliament before superintending power of Parliament, but the first settlements in the American provided that no tax should ever be colonies were made (with the exception of levied except by the consent of the

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