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begun and held at the city of New York Joux LANGDON, NICHOLAS Gilmax. on the 4th of March, 1789, and were
declared in force Dec. 15, 1791. Massachusetts.
The following preamble and resolution NATHANIEL GORHAM, Rufus King. preceded the original proposition of the
amendments, and as they have been supConnecticut.
posed to have an important bearing on Wm. SAML. Johnson, KOGER SHERMAN.
the construction of those amendments,
they are here inserted. They will be Nero York.
found in the journals of the first session ALEXANDER HAMILTON.
of the First Congress.
CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES. WIL: LIVINGSTON, DAVID BREARLEY, WM. PATERSON,
Begun and held at the city of New York,
on Wednesday, the 4th day of March, Pennsylvania.
1789. E. FRANKLIN,
THOMAS MIFFLIN, The conventions of a number of the ROBT. MORRIS,
Geo. CLYMER, States having, at the time of their adoptTHOMAS FITZSIMONS, JARED INGERSOLL, ing the Constitution, expressed a, desire, JAMES WILSON, Gouv. MORRIS. in order to prevent misconstruction or
abuse of its powers, that further declaraDelaware.
tory and restrictive clauses should be GEO: READ,
Jaco: BROOM, added, and as extending the ground of John DICKINSON, RICHARD BASSETT, public confidence in the government will GUNNING BEDFORD, JUN.
best insure the beneficent ends of its in
Resolved, By the Senate and House of RepJAMES McHENRY,
DANL. CARROLL, resentatives of the United States of America, Dan of St. Thos. JENIFER.
in Congress assembled, two-thirds of both
Houses concurring, that the following articles Virginia.
be proposed to the legislatures of the several
States, as amendments to the constitution JOHN BLAIR, JAMES MADISON, JR. of the United States; all or any of which
articles, when ratified by three-fourths of the North Carolina.
sa id legislatures, to be valid to all intents
and purposes, as part of the said constituWY. BLOUNT,
HU WILLIAMSON, tion, namely :
Congress shall make no law respecting J. RUTLEDGE,
CHARLES PINCKNEY, an establishment of religion, or prohibitCHARLES COTESWORTH PINCKNEY, ing the free exercise thereof; or abridg. PIERCE BUTLER.
ing the freedom of speech or of the press;
or the right of the people peaceably to asGeorgia.
semble, and to petition the government WILLIAM FEW.
ABR. BALDWIN. for a redress of grievances.
A well-regulated militia being neces. AMENDMENTS
sary to the security of a free State, the
right of the people to keep and bear arms TO THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED
shall not be infringed. STATES. The following amendments were pro.
ARTICLE III. posed at the first session of the First Con No soldier shall, in time of peace, be gress of the United States, which was quartered in any house without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war but
ARTICLE VIII. in a manner to be prescribed by law.
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor
excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unARTICLE IV.
usual punishments inflicted. The right of the people to be secure in
ARTICLE IX. their persons, houses, papers, and effects, .The enumeration in the constitution of against unreasonable searches and seiz- certain rights shall not be construed to ures, shall not be violated; and no war- deny or disparage others retained by the rants shall issue but upon probable cause,
people. supported by oath or aflirmation, and particularly describing the place to be
ARTICLE X. searched, and the persons or things to be The powers not delegated to the United seized.
States by the constitution, nor prohibited ARTICLE V.
by it to the States, are reserved to the
States respectively, or to the people. No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous crime, [The following amendment was prounless on a presentment or indictment of posed at the second session of the Third a grand jury, except in cases arising in Congress. Declared in force Jan. 8, 1798.) the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or
ARTICLE XI. public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice
The judicial power of the United States put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall 51
hou shall not be construed to extend to any be compelled in any criminal case, to be a sunt
to hea suit in law or equity, commenced or prosewitness against himself, nor be deprived cuted against one of the United States of life, liberty, or property, without due by
by citizens of another State, or by citiprocess of law; nor shall private prop
zens or subjects of any foreign state. erty be taken for public use without just compensation.
[The three following sections were pro
posed as amendments at the first session ARTICLE VI.
of the Eighth Congress. Declared in force In all criminal prosecutions, the ac- sept. 2.), 1804.] cused shall enjoy the right to a speedy
ARTICLE XII. and public trial, by an impartial jury of ,
1. The electors shall meet in their re
TI, the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which dis
spective States, and vote by ballot for trict shall have been previously ascer
President and Vice-President, one of whom
at least shall not be an inhabitant of the tained by law; and to be informed of the
same State with themselves. They shall nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against
name in their ballots the person voted
for as President, and in distinct ballots him; to have compulsory process for ob
the person voted for as Vice-President; taining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his
and they shall make distinct lists of all defence.
persons voted for as President, and of all
persons voted for as Vice-President, and ARTICLE VII.
of the number of votes for each; which In suits at common law, where the lists they shall sign and certify, and transvalue in controversy shall exceed twenty mit sealed to the seat of the government of dollars, the right of trial by jury shall the United States, directed to the presibe preserved; and no fact tried by a dent of the Senate. The president of the jury shall be otherwise re-examined in Senate shall, in the presence of the Senany court of the United States, than ac- ate and House of Representatives, open cording to the rules of the common law.* all the certificates, and the votes shall
then be counted. The person having the * This affects only United States Courts. greatest number of votes for President shall be the President, if such number be
ARTICLE XIV.* a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person have such
SECTION 1. majority, then from the persons having
my All persons born or naturalized in the
a the highest number, not exceeding three, u
€, United States, and subject to the jurison the list of those voted for as President,
quent, diction thereof, are citizens of the United
i the House of Representatives shall choose
States and of the State wherein they reimmediately, by ballot, the President. But
side. No State shall make or enforce any in choosing the President, the votes shall
law which shall abridge the privileges be taken by States, the representation
or immunities of citizens of the United from each State having one vote; a
States; nor shall any State deprive any quorum for this purpose shall consist of a
person of life, liberty, or property, without member or nienbers from two-thirds of the
due process of law, nor deny to any perStates, and a majority of all the States
son within its jurisdiction the equal proshall be necessary to a choice. And if
tection of the laws. the House of Representatives shall not choose a President, whenever the right
SECTION 2. of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next follow. Representatives shall be apportioned ing, then the Vice-President shall act as among the several States according to President as in the case of the death their respective numbers, counting the or other constitutional disability of the whole number of persons in each State, President.
excluding Indians not taxed. But when 2. The person having the greatest num- the right to vote at any election for the ber of votes as Vice-President shall be the choice of electors for President and ViceVice-President, if such number be a major- President of the United States, representity of the whole number of electors ap- atives in Congress, the executive and pointed, and if no person have a majority, judicial officers of a State, or the memthen from the two highest numbers on bers of the legislature thereof, is denied to the list the Senate shall choose the Vice- any of the male inhabitants of such State, President. A quorum for the purpose being twenty-one years of age, and citishall consist of two-thirds of the whole zens of the United States, or in any way number of senators, and a majority of abridged, except for participation in rethe whole number shall be necessary to bellion or other crime, the basis of repa choice.
resentation therein shall be reduced in the 3. But no person constitutionally in- proportion which the number of such male eligible to the office of President shall be citizens shall bear to the whole number cligible to that of Vice-President of the of male citizens twenty-one years of age United States.
in such State.
No person shall be a senator or repreNeither slavery nor involuntary servi. sentative in Congress, or elector of Presitude, except as a punishment for crime, dent and Vice-President, or hold any ofwhereof the party shall have been duly fice, civil or military, under the United convicted, shall exist within the United States, or under any State, who, having States, or any place subject to their juris- previously taken an oath as a member diction.
of Congress, or as an officer of the United
States, or as a member of any State leg. SECTION 2.
islature, or as an executive or judicial Congress shall have power to enforce officer of any State, to support the constithis article hy appropriate legislation. tution of the United States, shall have en
* Proposed by Congress Feb. 1, 1865. * Proposed by Congress June 16, 1866. Ratification announced by Secretary of State, Patification announced by Secretary of State, Dec. 18, 1865.
July 28, 1868.
gaged in insurrection or rebellion against
SECTION 5. the same, or given aid or comfort to the
I to the The Congress shall have power to en
The enemies thereof. But Congress may, by a force. by appropriate legislation, the provote of two-thirds of each House, remove visions of this article. such disability.
The right of citizens of the United ing debts incurred for payment of pen- States to vote shall not be denied or sions and bounties for services in sup- alridged by the United States or by any pressing insurrection or rebellion, shall State on account of race, color, or prenot be questioned. But neither the Unit- vious condition of servitude. ed States nor any State shall assume or
SECTION 2. av any debt or obligation incurred in The Congress shall have power to enaid of insurrection or rebellion against force this article ho
against force this article by appropriate legislathe United States, or any claim for the ti loss or emancipation of any slave; but all
* Proposed by Congress Feb. 27, 1869. such debts, obligations, and claims shall
Ratification announced by Secretary of State, be held illegal and void.
March 30, 1870.
CONSTITUTION, OR OLD IRONSIDES Constitution, or Old Ironsides, the other, and kedging and sails kept the most renowned vessel of the United States (onstitution moving in a manner that navy; built in Boston in 1797; rated as a puzzled her pursuers. frigate of 1,576 tons, with an armament At length the British discovered the of forty-four guns, but actually carrying secret, and instantly the Shannon was fifty-two. The frigate, then under command urged onward by the same means, and of Capt. Isaac Hull, had just returned slowly gained on the Constitution. The from foreign service when the War of Guerrière, thirty-eight guns, Captain 1812–15 was declared. She sailed from Dacres, another of the squadron, had Annapolis (July 12, 1812) on a cruise now joined in the chase. All day and to the northward. On the 17th she fell all night the pursuit continued; and in with a small squadron under Captain at dawn of the second day of the chase Broke, when one of the most remarkable the whole British squadron were in sight, naval retreats and pursuits ever recorded bent on capturing the plucky Ameroccurred. The Constitution could not ican frigate. There were now five vessels cope with the whole squadron, and her in chase, clouded with canvas. Expert seasafety depended on successful flight. manship kept the space between the ConThere was almost a dead calm, and she stitution and her pursuers so wide that floated almost independent of her helm. not a gun was fired. She was 4 miles Her boats were launched, and manned by aliead of the Belvidere, the nearest vessel strong seamen with sweeps. A long 18- cf the squadron. At sunset (July 19) a founder was rigged as a stern chaser, and squall struck the Constitution with great another of the same calibre was pointed fury, but she was prepared for it. Wind, off the forecastle. Out of her cabin win- lightning, and rain made a terrific comdows, which by sawing were made large motion on the sea for a short time, but enough, two 24-pounders were run, and the gallant ship outrode the tempest, and all the light canvas that would draw was at twilight she was flying before her purset. A gentle breeze sprang up, and she suers at the rate of 11 knots an hour. was just getting under headway when a At midnight the British fired two guns, shot at long range was fired from the and the next morning gave up the chase, Shannon, Broke's flag-ship, but without which had lasted sixty-four hours. The effect. Calm and breeze succeeded each newspapers were filled with the praises