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can camp at Tappan at night, in the concentration of his forces at Edwards's character of a deserter, was pursued, but Station, 2 miles from the railway bridge reached Paulus Hook, where the British over the Big Black River. While Sherman vessels were anchored. After he had been tarried in Jackson long enough to destroy examined by Sir Henry Clinton, he was the railways, military factories, arsenal, sent to Arnold, who appointed him a ser- bridges, cotton factories, stores, and other geant-major in a force which he was re- public property, the remainder of the army cruiting. He found evidence which turned their faces towards Vicksburg. proved that the suspected general was in- Pemberton was at or near Edwards's Stanocent, and forwarded the same to Wash- tion, with about 25,000 troops and ten ington. He learned also that Arnold was batteries of artillery. Blair moved tow.

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accustomed to walk in his garden every ards the station, followed by McClernand night, and conceived a plan for his capt- and Osterhaus: while McPherson, on anure. With a comrade he was to seize other road, kept up communication with and gag him, and convey him as a drunk- McClernand. Pemberton had advanced en soldier to a boat in waiting, which to Champion Hills, when a note from would immediately cross to the New Jer- Johnston caused him to send his trains sey shore, where a number of horsemen back to the Big Black River: and he was were to be in waiting. Unfortunately, about to follow with his troops, when on the night set, Arnold changed his quar- Grant, close upon him, compelled him to ters, and the command of which Champe remain and fight (May 16, 1863). Genwas a member was ordered to Virginia. eral Hovey's division now held the advance Later he escaped and joined the army of directly in front of Pemberton. At eleven Greene in North Carolina. He died in o'clock a battle began, Hovey’s division Kentucky, about 1798.

bearing the brunt, and, after a severe Champion Hills, BATTLE OF. Grant, contest of an hour and a half, his inat JACKSON (q. v.), hearing of the arrival fantry were compelled to fall back half of Johnston and his order for Pemberton a mile to the position of his artillery. Reto strike his rear, perceived the reason inforced, he renewed the battle with great for the sudden evacuation of their post energy. Finally Pemberton's left began by the troops at the capital. No doubt to bend under Logan's severe pressure, they had been sent to join Pemberton that and, at five o'clock, gave way. The rest the latter might crush Grant by the weight of his army became so confused and disof superior numbers. The latter com- heartened that they began to flv. Seeing prehended his peril, and instantly took this, Pemberton ordered his whole army measures to meet Pemberton before such to retreat towards the Big Black River; junction could take place. He ordered a when Grant ordered the fresh brigades of Osterhaus and Carr to follow with all when that officer conducted back to that speed, and cross the river, if possible. country the troops who had served in In the retreat Pemberton lost many of France. In 1599 he commanded a vessel his troops, made prisoners. This battle of the Spanish fleet that sailed to Mexico, was fought mainly by Hovey's division of and he drew up a faithful account of the McClernand's corps and Logan's and Quin- voyage. On his return he received a penby's divisions (the latter commanded by sion from Henry IV. of France; and he Crocker) of McPherson's corps. - The Na- was induced by M. de Chastes, governor tional loss was 2,457, of whom 426 were of Dieppe, to explore and prepare the way killed. The loss of the Confederates was for a French colony in America. Chastes estimated to have been quite equal to had received a charter from the King to that of the Nationals in killed and wound- found settlements in New France, and the ed, besides almost 2,000 prisoners, eigh- monarch commissioned Champlain lieutenteen guns, and a large quantity of small- ant-general of Canada. With this authorarms. Among the killed was General ity, he sailed from Honfleur on March 5, Tilghman, who was captured at Fort 1603, with a single vessel, commanded by Henry the year before.

Pont-Grevé, a skilful navigator. In May Champlain, SAMUEL DE, French navi- they ascended the St. Lawrence and landgator; born in Brouage, France, in 1567. ed near the site of Quebec, from which His family had many fishermen and mar- place Pont-Grevé and five men ascended

the river in a canoe to Lachine Rapids, above Montreal. The Indians at Stada cona yet remembered Cartier's perfidy (see CARTIER, JACQUES), but were placable.

Champlain, on his return to France in the autumn, found Chastes dead and his concessions transferred by the King to Pierre de Gast, the Sieur de Monts, a wealthy Huguenot, who had received the commission of viceroy of New France. The latter made a new arrangement with Champlain, and in March, 1604, he sailed with the navigator from France with four vessels. They landed in Nova Scotia, and remained there some time planting a settlement and exploring the

neighboring regions ; SAMUEL DE CHAMPLAIN.

and when de Monts reiners, and he was carefully educated for turned to France, he left Champlain to a navigator. In early life he was in the explore the New England coast. He went cavalry of Brittany, and was with his as far south as Cape Cod, and in 1607 reuncle, pilot-general of the fleets of Spain. turned to France. Having suggested to De

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Monts that a point on the St. Lawrence sons, the successor to De Monts, as vicewould be a more eligible site for the seat roy. of the projected new empire, Champlain In 1815 he started on his famous expewas sent to the river in 1608 with Pont- dition to the Onondaga Indians. He folGrevé, and, at Stadacona, founded Quebec, lowed Father Le Caron and his party to the Indian name for “the narrows," and Lake Huron, to which he gave the name pronounced Kebec. There the colonists built of Mer Douce. Returning across the great cabins and prepared to plant. · In 1609 forests, he sailed with several hundred caChamplain, who had made the Monta- noes down a stream into the Bay of gnais Indians on the St. Lawrence his Quinte, and entered the broad Lake Onfriends, marched with them against their tario, which he named Lac St. Louis. enemies, the Iroquois. They were joined With a considerable war party, chiefly by a party of Hurons and Algonquins, and Hurons, he crossed the lake into the ascended the Sorel to the Chambly Rap- country of the Iroquois, in (present) New ids, whence Champlain proceeded in a ca- York. Hiding their canoes in the forest, noe and discovered a great lake, and gave they pressed onward to the Indian post on it his own name. On its borders he fought the shore of Onondaga Lake. It was at and defeated the Iroquois, who fled in the time of the maize harvest, and the terror before the fire of his arquebuses. Iroquois were attacked in the fields. They He returned to France, but went back in retired to their town, which was fortified 1610, and the same year was wounded by with four rows of palisades. On the inan arrow in a fight with the Iroquois. side of these were galleries furnished with Again returning to France, he, at the age stones and other missiles, and a supply of

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of forty-four years, married a girl of water to extinguish a fire if kindled betwelve; and in 1612 he went back to neath these wooden walls. The Hurons Canada, with the title and powers of were rather insubordinate, and the attack lieutenant - governor, under the Prince was ineffectual. Champlain had constructof Condé, who had succeeded De Sois- ed a wooden tower, which was dragged

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