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er's was divided. Sedgwick had seriously Chancery Jurisdiction. In all the menaced Lee's flank, but had not joined crown colonies, excepting New Hampshire, Hooker. After a hard conflict and the the chancery court had been introduced, loss of 1,000 men, Sedgwick had captured in spite of the colonists, who dreaded its the Confederate works on the heights back prolix proceedings and heavy fees. Wherof Fredericksburg, and sent Early, their ever it had been introduced, it was retaindefender, flying southward with his shat- ed in the State governments after the tered columns. Intelligence of these events Revolution. In New Jersey and South made Lee extremely cautious. Sedgwick, Carolina the governor was made chancel. leaving Gibbon in command at Fredericks- lor, as in colonial times. In New York burg, marched for Chancellorsville, when and Maryland a separate officer was apLee was compelled to divide his army to pointed with that title. In Virginia there meet this new peril. He sent McLaws were several distinct chancellors. In North with four brigades to meet Sedgwick. At Carolina and Georgia the administration Salem church they had a sanguinary con- both of law and equity was intrusted to flict. The Confederates won, and the losses the same tribunals. In Pennsylvania a of Sedgwick, added to those sustained in limited chancery power was conferred the morning, amounted to about 5,000 men. upon the Supreme Court. In ConnectiHooker, at the same time, seemed para- cut the Assembly vested the judicial courts lyzed in his new position, for his army ap- with chancery powers in smaller cases. peared being beaten in detail. On the reserving to itself the decision in matters following morning, perceiving that Hook- of more importance. In New England er's army had been much strengthened, there was such a strong prejudice against Lee thought it necessary to drive Sedg- chancery practice that for many years wick across the Rappahannock before there was a restriction to the system of again attacking the main body. Early common-law remedies. was sent to retake the Heights of Freder- Chandler, Joux, legislator; born in icksburg. and he cut Sedgwick off from Epping, N. H., in 1760. His business the city. Early was reinforced by Ander- was that of blacksmith, and he became son, by which Sedgwick was enclosed on wealthy. With much native talent, he rose three sides. At six o'clock in the evening to the places of councillor and Senator the Confederates attacked him. His forces (1803-5); member of Congress (1805-8); gave way and retreated to Banks's Ford, and, in July, 1812, was commissioned and before morning the remains of Sedg- a brigadier-general. Wounded and made wick's corps had crossed the Rappahan- prisoner in the battle at Stony Creek, in nock over pontoon bridges. Gibbon also Canada, he was soon afterwards exwithdrew from Fredericksburg to Fal- changed. From 1820 to 1829 he was mouth that night, and, on Tuesday, Lee United States Senator fom Maine, one had only Hooker to contend with. He con- of the first appointed from that new State. centrated his forces to strike Hooker a From 1829 to 1837 he was collector of the crushing blow before night, but a heavy port of Portland. He became a majorrain-storm prevented. Hooker prepared general of militia, and held several civil to retreat, and did so on the night of local offices. He died in Augusta, Me., May 5 and morning of the 6th, cross. Sept. 25, 1841. ing the Rappahannock and returning to Chandler, WILLIAM EATON; born in the old quarters of the army opposite Concord, N. II., Dec. 28, 1835; graduFredericksburg. The losses of each army ated at the Harvard Law School, and had been very heavy. That of the Confed- admitted to the bar in 1855; appointed erates was reported at 12,277, including reporter of the New Hampshire Supreme 2.000 prisoners, and that of the Nationals Court in 1859 ; was a member of the New was 17,197, including about 5,000 prison. Hampshire House of Representatives in ers. The latter also lost thirteen heavy 1862-1864, being twice elected speaker. guns, about 20,000 small-arms, seventeen In 1865 President Lincoln appointed him colors, and a large amount of ammunition. judge-advocate general of the navy. and The Union Generals Berry and Whipple soon afterwards he was made Assistant were killed.

Secretary of the Treasury. He resigned

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in 1867, and began practising law in New his laborious life he suffered from Hampshire. During the Presidential ill - health. In 1822 he sought physicampaigns of 1868, 1872, and 1876 he ren- cal improvement by a voyage to Eudered effective work for the Republican rope, and in 1830 he went to St. Croix, party as secretary of the National Republican Committee. After the campaign of 1876 he was active in the investigation of the electoral counting in Florida and South Carolina; and in 1878-79 was an important witness in the cipher despatch investigation. He was appointed solicitor-general of the United States, March 23, 1881, but his nomination was rejected by the Senate; and in 1882-85 was Secretary of the Navy. In 1887 he was elected United States Senator to fill a vacancy; in 1889 and 1895 was re-elected; and in 1900 was defeated.

Chandler, ZACHARIAH, legislator; born in Bedford, N. H., Dec. 10, 1813; settled in Detroit, Mich., in 1833. In 1857 he was elected United States Senator, and

WILLIAM ELLERY CHANNING held the seat until 1874, when he was appointed Secretary of the Interior; and in W. I., for the same purpose. With a col1879 was again elected to the Senate. He league he occasionally officiated in the was active in the organization of the Re- pulpit until 1940, when he resigned. In publican party; and sent a famous letter to August, 1842, he delivered his last public Governor Blair, of Michigan, on Feb. 11, address at Lenox, Mass., in commemora1861, in which he used the words, “ With- tion of the abolition of slavery in the out a little blood-letting this Union will West Indies. Mr. Channing contributed not, in my estimation, be worth a rush." much towards stimulating anti - slavery He died in Chicago, Ill., Nov. 1, 1879. feeling. He died in Bennington, Vt., Oct.

Channing, EDWARD, historian; born in 2, 1842. Dorchester, Mass., June 15, 1856; was Chantilly, BATTLE OF. On the morngraduated at Harvard College in 1878; ing after the second battle at Bull Run and became Professor of History there. Pope was joined at Centreville by the His publications include The United corps of Franklin and Sumner. The next States, 1765-1865; A Student's History of day (Sept. 1, 1862), Lee, not disposed the United States; Town and County to make a direct attack upon the NationGorernment in the English Colonies of als, sent Jackson on another flanking North America: Narraganset Planters; movement, the latter taking with him Companions of Columbus, in Justin Win- his own and Ewell's division. With insor's Narrative and Critical History of structions to assail and turn Pope's right, America: Guide to Study of American he crossed Bull Run at Sudley Ford, and, History (with Albert B. Hart); and Eng. after a while, turning to the right, turnlish History for Americans (with Thomas ed down the Little River pike, and marchW. Higginson).

i ed towards Fairfax Court - house. Pope Channing, WILLIAM ELLERY, clergy- had prepared to meet this movement. man; born in Newport, R. I., April 7, Heintzelman and Hooker were ordered to 1780: graduated at Harvard in 1798 different points, and just before sunset with highest honors; was a teacher in a Reno met Jackson's advance (Ewell and private family in Richmond, Va., for a Hill) near Chantilly. A cold and drenchyear afterwards; and, returning in feeble ing rain was falling, but it did not prebealth in 1802, studied theology, and be- vent an immediate engagement. Very came pastor of the Federal Street Church soon McDowell, Hooker, and Kearny came in Boston, June 1, 1803. All through to Reno's assistance. A very severe battle raged for some time, when Gen. Isaac J. authorities in establishing civil governStevens, leading Reno's second division ments. in person, was shot dead. His command Chaplain, originally a clergyman who fell back in disorder. Seeing this, Gen. performed divine service in a chapel, for a Philip Kearny advanced with his division prince or nobleman. In the United States and renewed the action, sending Birney's one who holds divine service in the army brigade to the front. A furious thunder- or navy or for any public body. storm was then raging, which made the Chapultepec, BATTLE OF. The city of use of ammunition very difficult. Unheed. Mexico stands on a slight swell of ground, ing this, Kearny brought forward a bat- near the centre of an irregular basin, and tery and planted it in position him- encircled by a broad and deep navigable self. Then, perceiving a gap caused by canal. The approaches to the city are the retirement of Stevens's men, he push- over elevated causeways, flanked by ditched forward to reconnoitre, and was shot es. From these the capital is entered by dead a little within the Confederate lines, arched gateways; and these, when the just at sunset, and the command of his victorious Americans approached the city division devolved on Birney, who instant- (August, 1847), were strongly fortified. ly made a bayonet charge with his own When El Molino del Rey and Casa de brigade of New York troops, led by Colo. Mata had been captured (Sept. 8, 1847), nel Eagan. The Confederates were pushed the castle of Chapultepec alone remained back some distance. Birney held the field as a defence for the city—this and its that night, and the broken and demoral- outworks. The hill, steep and rocky, ized army was withdrawn within the lines rises 150 feet above the surrounding counat Washington the next day. See KEARNY, try. The castle was built of heavy stone PHILIP.


masonry. The whole fortress was 900 feet After the battle at Chantilly, the Army in length, and the terreplein and main of Virginia was merged into the Army of buildings 600 feet. The castle was about the Potomac, and General Pope returned 10 feet in height, and presented a splento service in the West. The loss of Pope's did specimen of military architecture. A army, from Cedar Mountain to Chantilly, dome, rising about 20 feet above the walls, in killed, wounded, prisoners, and missing, gave it a grand appearance. Two strong. was estimated at 30,000. Lee's losses ly built walls surrounded the whole structduring the same time amounted to about ure, 10 feet apart and 12 or 15 feet high. 15,000. He claimed to have taken 7,000 The works were thoroughly armed, and prisoners, with 2,000 sick and wounded, the garrison, among whom were some ex. thirty pieces of artillery, and 20,000 pert French gunners, was commanded by small-arms. Of the 91,000 veteran troops General Bravo. The whole hill was spotted from the Peninsula, lying near, Pope re- with forts. and outworks. ported that only 20,500 men had joined To carry this strong post with the him in confronting Lee. .

least loss of men, Scott determined to Chapelle, PLACIDE Louis, clergyman; batter it with heavy cannon. Accordborn in Mende, France, Aug. 28, 1842. ingly, on the night of Sept. 11, four He came to the United States in 1859; and batteries of heavy cannon were erected on was graduated at St. Mary's College, and a hill between Tucabaya and Chapulteordained a Roman Catholic priest in 1865. pec, commanded respectively by Captains For five years he was a missionary, and Drew, Haynes, and Brooks, and Lieutenfrom 1870 to 1891 held pastorates in ant Stone. They were placed in position Baltimore and Washington. He was made by the engineer officers Huger and Lee coadjutor archbishop of Santa Fé in 1891; (the latter afterwards commander-in-chief archbishop in 1894; and archbishop of of the Confederate army). On the mornNew Orleans in 1897. The following years ing of the 12th these batteries opened he was appointed by the Pope Apostolic fire, every ball crashing through the casDelegate to Cuba, Porto Rico, and the tle, and every shell tearing up the ramPhilippines, and after a brief service in parts. The fire of the Mexicans was not Cuba he went to the Philippines, where less severe, and this duel of great guns in 1901 he greatly aided the American was kept up all day. The next morning


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