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THE TREATY OF PARIS.
On Christmas Eve, 1898, the Peace Commission delivered to the President of the United States a copy of the treaty of peace drawn up and signed in the city of Paris, December roth, 1898. By this treaty, Spain lost her sovereignty over Cuba and ceded to the United States the Island of Porto Rico and her other possessions in the West Indies, the Island of Guam in the Ladrones, and all her possessions in the Philippines.
The Spanish Commissioners asked an indemnity for the expense Spain had incurred in the war with the Filipinos.
As a compromise of this claim, the United States agreed to pay Spain $20,000,000 within three months after the ratification of the treaty.
In the United States the ratification of the treaty was bitterly opposed in many quarters, and it was not until February 6th, 1899, that the Senate voted its approval.
Its action was accelerated, no doubt, by the fact that the Filipinos had attacked the American forces at Manila on February 5th, and although a brilliant victory had been won by our troops, several of the brave soldiers had been killed and wounded. The American spirit at . home was thoroughly aroused. Patriotism arose above party. Republicans, Democrats, Populists and Silverites voted to sustain the government by a vote of 57 to 27.
COST OF TIIE WAR IN 1898 TO BOTH NATIONS.
COST TO SPAIN. Although we have not official figures concerning the losses of the Spaniards, the following may be considered a very good estimate:
LOSS OF TERRITORY.
Area in sq. miles. Population. Financial value. Cuba ..
41,655 1,631,687 $300,000,000 Philippines
114,650 7,670,000 450,000,000 Porto Rico . 3,670 813,937
150,000,000 Caroline and Sulu Islands*
II1,000 Cost of war..
$ 125,000,000 Loss of commerce.
20,000,000 Thirty ships lost..
Total financial loss.
*These are unimportant, except for naval stations.
LOSS OF LIFE.
. 2,500 . 3,000
COST TO THE UNITED STATES.
Over against the enormous losses by Spain we find ours to be the following: Battleship Maine..
$ 2,500,000 Cost of war....
200,000,000 Indemnity to Spain.
·3,843 These figures do not include those who died after being mustered out.
Country Expands and Becomes a World Power.
Senator Thurston, in apprising Governor McKinley of his nomination for the Presidency, said: "God give you strength so to bear the honors and meet the duties of that great office for which you are now nominated, and to which you will be elected, that your administration will enhance the dignity, and power, and glory of this republic, and secure the safety, welfare and happiness of its liberty-loving people.”
William McKinley seems to have been the chosen servant of the Almighty, through whom all those things were to be brought about. Cnder his administration 124,340 square miles of territory was added to the public domain, and the country was raised to the rank of a world power. Before Dewey's guns spoke at Manila, the great powers of the earth looked upon the United States as a third-rate nation. They murmured somewhat because her enterprise was undermining their commerce, but in the main, they held her lightly. Dewey's victory raised their estimate of the calibre of the people, and when Commodore Schley, at Santiago, smashed the fleet of the Spanish Admiral Cervera, the world rubbed its eyes and awoke to the consciousness that Brother Jonathan had grown as big as any member of the national family, and would have to be respected accordingly.
From the purchase of Alaska, in 1867, down to 1893, there had been no additions to the public domain. The following table shows the growth of the country in territory from the beginning of the government: ANNEXATION FROM 1783 TO 1893:
Amount Paid. Square Miles. Louisiana
$15,000,000 1,171,931 Florida
28,500,000 376,133 California
545.783 Gadsden Purchase.
ANNEXATION FROM 1893 to 1901.
$20,000,000 Porto Rico
124,340 Square Miles.
3,721,224 President McKinley was not one of those who believed that the United States should never extend her power outside of the territory between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, and the twentieth and fiftieth parallels of latitude. He believed in the people, in government by the people, and hence when Hawaii knocked at the doors of the White House and said, “Let us come in and be members of your family of states," he lent a ready ear. In his second annual message to congress, President McKinley said concerning Hawaii:
“Pending the consideration by the senate of the treaty signed June 16, 1897, by the plenipotentiaries of the United States and the republic of Hawaii, providing for the annexation of the islands, a joint resolution to accomplish the same purpose by accepting the offered cession and incorporating the ceded territory into the Union was adopted by congress and approved July 7, 1898. I thereupon directed the United States steamer Philadelphia to convey Rear Admiral Miller to Honolulu, and intrusted to his hands this important legislative act, to be delivered to the President of the republic of Hawaii, with whom the admiral and the United States minister were authorized to make appropriate arrangements for transferring the sovereignty of the islands to the United States.
"This was simply but impressively accomplished on the 12th of August last by the delivery of a certified copy of the resolution to President Dole, who thereupon yielded up to the representative of the government of the United States the sovereignty and public property of the Hawaiian islands.
“Pursuant to the terms of the joint resolution and in exercise of the authority thereby conferred upon me, I directed that the civil, judicial and military powers theretofore exercised by the officers of the government of the republic of Hawaii should continue to be exercised by those officers until congress shall provide a government for the incorporated territory, subject to my power to remove such officers and fill vacancies. The President, officers and troops of the republic thereupon took the oath of allegiance to the Cnited States, thus providing for the uninterrupted continuance of all the administrative and municipal functions of the annexed territory until congress shall otherwise enact.
"Following the further provisions of the joint resolution, I appointed the Hon. Shelby M. Cullom, of Illinois; John T. Morgan, of Alabama; Robert R. Hitt, of Illinois; Sanford B. Dole, of Hawaii, and Walter B. Freer, of Hawaii, as commissioners to confer and recommend to congress such legislation concerning the Hawaiian islands as they should deem necessary or proper. The commissioners having fulfilled the mission confided to them, their report will be laid before you at an early day.
“It is believed that their recommendations will have the earnest consideration due to the magnitude of the responsibility resting upon you to give such shape to the relationship of those mid-Pacific lands to our home union as will benefit both in the highest degree, realizing the aspirations of the community that has cast its lot with us and elected to share our political heritage, while at the same time justifying the foresight of those who for three-quarters of a century have looked to the annexation of Hawaii as a natural and inevitable consummation, in harmony with our needs and in fulfillment of our cherished traditions.
“The questions heretofore pending between Hawaii and Japan, growing out of the alleged mistreatment of Japanese treaty immigrants, were, I am pleased to say, adjusted befo:e the act of transfer by the payment of a reasonable indemnity to the government of Japan.
"Under the provisions of the joint resolution the existing customs relations of the Hawaiian islands with the United States and with other countries remain unchanged until legislation shall otherwise provide. The consuls of Hawaii here and in foreign countries continue to fulfill their commercial agencies, while the United States consulate at Honolulu is maintained for all proper services pertaining to trade anche revenue. It would be desirable that all foreign consuls in the Hawaiian islands should receive new exequaturs from this government."
Hawaii is, from a naval standpoint, the great strategic base of the Pacific. Under the present conditions of naval warfare, the result of the use of steam as a motive power, Hawaii secures to the maritime nation possessing it, an immense advantage as a depot for the supply of coal. Possessing Hawaii, the United States is able to advance its line of defense 2.000 miles from the Pacific coast, and, with a fortified harbor, and a strong fleet at Honolulu, is in a position to conduct either defensive or offensive operations in the North Pacific to greater advantage than any other power.