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CHAPTER XV.
Country Expands and Becomes a World Power.

Senator Thurston, in apprising Governor McKinley of his nomination for the Presidency, said: "God give you strength so to bear the honors and meet the duties of that great office for which you are now nominated, and to which you will be elected, that your administration will enhance the dignity, and power, and glory of this republic, and secure the safety, welfare and happiness of its liberty-loving people."

William McKinley seems to have been the chosen servant of the Almighty, through whom all those things were to be brought about. Under his administration 124,340 square miles of territory was added to the public domain, and the country was raised to the rank of a world power. Before Dewey's guns spoke at Manila, the great powers of the earth looked upon the United States as a third-rate nation. They murmured somewhat because her enterprise was undermining their commerce, but in the main, they held her lightly. Dewey's victory raised their estimate of the calibre of the people, and when Commodore Schley, at Santiago, smashed the fleet of the Spanish Admiral Cervera, the world rubbed its eyes and awoke to the consciousness that Brother Jonathan had grown as big as any member of the national family, and would have to be respected accordingly.

From the purchase of Alaska, in 1867, down to 1893, there had been no additions to the public domain. The following table shows the growth of the country in territory from the beginning of the government:

ANNEXATION FROM I/83 TO 1893:

Amount Paid. Square Miles.

Louisiana $15,000,000 1,171,931

Florida 5.000,000 52,268

Texas 28,500,000 376,133

California 545.783

Gadsden Purchase 10,500,000 45,535

Alaska 7,200,000 577.390

$66,200,000 2,769,040

ANNEXATION FROM 1893 TO I9OI.

Amount Paid. Square Miles.

Hawaii 6,740

Philippine Islands §20,000.000 114,000

Porto Rico 3,600

$20,000,000 124,340

Square Miles.

Original territory 827,844

Annexed first 110 years 2,769,040

Annexed last three, years. . . 124.340

3.721,224

President McKinley was not one of those who believed that the United States should never extend her power outside of the territory between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, and the twentieth and fiftieth parallels of latitude. He believed in the people, in government by the people, and hence when Hawaii knocked at the doors of the White House and said, "Let us come in and be members of your family of states," he lent a ready ear.- In his second annual message to congress, President McKinley said concerning Hawaii:

"Pending the consideration by the senate of the treaty signed June 16, 1897, by the plenipotentiaries of the United States and the republic of Hawaii, providing for the annexation of the islands, a joint resolution to accomplish the same purpose by accepting the offered cession and incorporating the ceded territory into the Union was adopted by congress and approved July 7, 1898. I thereupon directed the United States steamer Philadelphia to convey Rear Admiral Miller to Honolulu, and intrusted to his hands this important legislative act, to be delivered to the President of the republic of Hawaii, with whom the admiral and the United States minister were authorized to make appropriate arrangements for transferring the sovereignty of the islands to the United States.

"This was simply but impressively accomplished on the 12th of August last by the delivery of a certified copy of the resolution to President Dole, who thereupon yielded up to the representative of the government of the United States the sovereignty and public property of the Hawaiian islands.

"Pursuant to the terms of the joint resolution and in exercise of the authority thereby conferred upon me. I directed that the civil, judicial and military powers theretofore exercised by the officers of the government of the republic of Hawaii should continue to be exercised by those officers until congress shall provide a government for the incorporated territory, subject to my power to remove such officers and fill vacancies. The President, officers and troops of the republic thereupon took the oath of allegiance to the United States, thus providing for the uninterrupted continuance of all the administrative and municipal functions of the annexed territory until congress shall otherwise enact.

"Following the further provisions of the joint resolution, I appointed the Hon. Shelby M. Cullom, of Illinois; John T. Morgan, of Alabama; Robert R. Hitt, of Illinois; Sanford B. Dole, of Hawaii, and Walter B. Freer, of Hawaii, as commissioners to confer and recommend to congress such legislation concerning the Hawaiian islands as they should deem necessary or proper. The commissioners having fulfilled the mission confided to them, their report will be laid before you at an early day.

"It is believed that their recommendations will have the earnest consideration due to the magnitude of the responsibility resting upon you to give such shape to the relationship of those mid-Pacific lands to our home union as will benefit both in the highest degree, realizing the aspirations of the community that has cast its lot with us and elected to share our political heritage, while at the same time justifying the foresight of those who for three-quarters of a century have looked to the annexation of Hawaii as a natural and inevitable consummation, in harmony with our needs and in fulfillment of our cherished traditions.

"The questions heretofore pending between Hawaii and Japan, growing out of the alleged mistreatment of Japanese treaty immigrants, were, I am pleased to say, adjusted before the act of transfer by the payment of a reasonable indemnity to the government of Japan.

"Under the provisions of the joint resolution the existing customs relations of the Hawaiian islands with the United States and with other countries remain unchanged until legislation shall otherwise provide. The consuls of Hawaii here and in foreign countries continue to fulfill their commercial agencies, while the United States consulate at Honolulu is maintained for all proper services pertaining to trade anc „"ie revenue. It would be desirable that all foreign consuls in the Hawaiian islands should receive new exequaturs from this government."

Hawaii is. from a naval standpoint, the great strategic base of the Pacific. Under the present conditions of naval warfare, the result of the use of steam as a motive power, Hawaii secures to the maritime nation possessing it. an immense advantage as a depot for the supply of coal. Possessing Hawaii, the United States is able to advance its line of defense 2,000 miles from the Pacific coast, and, with a fortified harbor, and a strong fleet at Honolulu, is in a position to conduct either defensive or offensive operations in the North Pacific to greater advantage than any other power.

For practical purposes, there are eight islands in the Hawaiian group. The others are mere rocks, of no value at present. These eight islands, beginning from the northwest, are named Niihau, Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Kahoolawe, Maui and Hawaii. The areas of the islands are:

Square miles.

Niihau 97

Kauai 590

Oahu 600

Molokai 270

Maui /60

Lanai 150

Kahoolawe 63

Hawaii 4,210

Total 6,740

On Oahu is the capital, Honolulu. It is a city numbering 30,000 inhabitants, and is pleasantly situated on the south side of the Island. The city extends a considerable distance up Nuuanu Valley, and has wings extending northwest and southeast. Except in the business blocks, every house stands in its own garden, and some of the houses are very handsome.

The city is lighted with electric light, there is a complete telephone system, and tramcars run at short intervals along the principal streets and continue out to a sea-bathing resort and public park, four miles from the city. There are numerous stores where all kinds of goods can be obtained. The public buildings are attractive and commodious. There are numerous churches, schools, a public library of over 10,000 volumes, Y. M. C. A. Hall, Masonic Temple, Odd Fellows' Hall, and theater. There is frequent steam communication with San Francisco, once a month with Victoria (British Columbia), and twice a month with New Zealand and the Australian colonies. Steamers also connect Honolulu with Japan. There are three evening daily papers published in English, one daily morning paper and two weeklies. Besides these, there are papers published in the Hawaiian, Portuguese, Japanese and Chinese languages, and also monthly magazines in various tongues.

The population of the Islands, in 1897. consisted of 109,020 persons, of whom 72,517 were males, and 36,503 females.

The other territory acquired was purely a result of the Spanish war. Porto Rico came into the Union with little resistance on the part of the people. They were as anxious, almost, to be rid of Spanish rule, as were the Cubans, and its 3,600 square miles of territory will one day be among the fairest States of our Union.

The Philippines were not so ready to receive American rule as were Hawaii and Porto Rico. No better statement of the Philippine question will be found than that of President McKinley in his message of December, 1899. He said:

"On the 10th of December, 1898, the treaty of peace between the United States and Spain was signed. It provided, among other things, that Spain should cede to the United States the archipelago known as the Philippine Islands, that the United States should pay to Spain the sum of $20,000,000, and that the civil rights and political status of the native inhabitants of the territories thus ceded to the United States should be determined by the congress.

"The treaty was ratified by the senate on the 6th of Febuary, 1899. and by the government of Spain on the 19th of March following. The ratifications were exchanged on the 11th of April, and the treaty publicly proclaimed. On the 2d day of March the congress voted the sum contemplated by the treaty, and the amount was paid over to the Spanish government on the 1st day of May.

"In this manner the Philippines came to the United States. The islands were ceded by the government of Spain, which had been in undisputed possession of them for centuries. They were accepted not merely by our authorized commissioners in Paris, under the direction of the executive, but by the constitutional and well-considered action of the representatives of the people of the United States in both houses of congress.

"I had every reason to believe, and I still believe, that this transfer of sovereignty was in accord with the wishes and the aspirations of the great mass of the Filipino people, not to make war.

"From the earliest moment no opportunity was lost of assuring the people of the islands of our ardent desire for their welfare, and of the intention of this government to do everything possible to advance their interests. In my order of the 19th of May, 1898, the commander of the military expedition dispatched to the Philippines was instructed to declare that we came not to make war upon the people of that country, "nor upon any party or faction among them, but to protect them in their homes, in their employments, and in their personal and religious rights."

THERE TO PRESERVE PEACE.

That there should be no doubt as to the paramount authority there, on the 17th of August it was directed that "there must be no joint occupation with the insurgents;" that the United States must preserve the peace and protect persons and property within the territory occupied by their military and naval forces; that the insurgents and all others

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