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good will but with the confidence of the country. If his past life had nct already been a revelation of high character, great ability, and patriotism, which have won the admiration of hundreds of thousands of his fellow-citizens, his bearing during the trying days which have passed since the death of Mr. McKinley would have firmly established him in their affections. Indeed, there is a ring of manliness in Mr. Roosevelt's words and deeds which inspires faith in him.
During these cruel days of national tragedy and grief his bitterest old-time critics-he seems to have no hostile critic for the momentmust have feit his admirable bearing in the presence of the awful responsibility which had been thrust upon him.
As we saw him emerging from the car in which he had retired from view as he rode across the state to take upon himself the burden dropped by the murdered President he seemed a man who had already risen to the occasion, and every word and act of his spoken or done since he took the oath of office have confirmed this first impression.
To a waiting and anxious country he said that it would be his "aim to continue, absolutely unbroken, the policy of President McKinley for the peace, the prosperity, and the honor of our beloved country.” This was enough, for no one doubts the word of Theodore Roosevelt. But since then every one of his official acts, one of them at least being of the first importance and of great significance, have been in harmony with this promise. The McKinley Cabinet is to remain, and this is a renewal of the assurance given in the parlor of the Wilcox house at Buffalo,
The word anarchy comes from the Greek term anarkos, without head or chief, and its primary definition in English nomenclature is: “The absence of government; the state of society where there is no law or supreme power; a state of lawlessness, hence confusion, disorder."
That the theories which are advocated by anarchists are correctly named is constantly shown by the inability of any two of them to agree even upon the same definition.
When at the World's Congress Auxiliary in Chicago, an international congress of anarchists was held, a proposition was made that for the information of the people and the furtherance of their work, a document should be drawn up stating just what their belief is, and what its advocates are trying to accomplish. The confusion resulting from this effort to systemize their teachings nearly broke up the congress, for it was found that each delegate present had his own idea of what anarchy really is, and that no definition given could be satisfactory to more than one or two. Anarchists are always found in small groups, held very loosely together, and small as the several groups may be, they are always much more likely to subdivide than to consolidate. The only things upon which they seem to agree is the doctrine that there is no God, and no moral government in the world,—that all rulers should be stricken down by the red hand of the assassin, all legal codes rendered inoperative and universal chaos should prevail—a condition seems to be considered ideal in which every man may be for himself, and brute strength shall be the basis of superiority.
When Johann Most, the typical representative of the cult, was in Chicago, he declared in German that the first thing anarchists had to do was to "destroy every altar, to extinguish every religion, to tear down God from the heavens.” “What right,” he asked, “would any man have to govern another unless God gave him that right? Down with God!
In this declaration he was only the echo of Karl Marx and others. The assassin of President McKinley, like his teacher, Emma Goldman, and her coadjutors, has been blatant in declaring that he had "no use for God.” Truly: “The fool hath said in his heart, there is no God.”
The definition of anarchy, then, may be covered by the words lawlessness and atheism.
The theory of anarchy is not new; it is as old as the middle ages, and it was gravely discussed by learned pessimists five centuries ago. As a practice it was first taught in France, but the German propagandists soon followed. In both countries it caught the attention, and then secured the endorsement of the unthinking and emotional masses, to whom it was made to appear as the remedy for the real or supposed mistakes of the government. It was then, as now, ably argued by leaders who were capable of better things—men who turned their talents and their learning towards the destruction of society instead of its upbuilding, and we are still reaping the bitter fruit of their teachings. One generation after another has caught up their mistaken ideas, and sent them broadcast upon their mission of massacre.
Anarchy in its modern form is founded upon the teaching of Karl Marx and his followers, and it aims directly at the destruction of all forms of society, religion and government. It offers no solution of the problems of humanity—no hope beyond the grave, or even on this side of it—no recognition of the conditions which must obtain if they should succeed in destroying society, but it contents itself with declaring that the present duty is tearing down, and the work of building up, if it comes at all, must come later.
It was in London that speculative anarchy was largely cultivated by men who had been expelled from Germany, and from there much of its results have perhaps been directed, but the attention of these men was largely given to the work of fomenting discontent upon the continent of Europe.
The anarchy which is found in America is only one phase of the general conspiracy against all governments. It is not that form which obtained under Napoleon, and which brought about the reign of terror. It is not the nihilism of Russia, nor the doctrines which were taught in France, and still it is closely akin to them all.
It comes to us largely from Germany, and represents the features of the German school. It is true that despotism and oppression have sometimes been the cause of revolt in the Old World, but no such excuse is found in America—anarchism upon our soil is a weed which should be uprooted and thrown out. The only rational cause of discontent here is found in the avarice which is never satisfied, but, like "the horse leech and her two daughters,” ever cries for more—which is ever wrapping within its greedy folds all smaller methods of business and destroy
ing all competition, which is the very life of trade. This trouble is not confined to our shores; it is fast becoming world-wide, but this and all others should be met with legitimate effort along constitutional lines. Nothing can be gained by violence which is directed against the head of the state.
The anarchists outrun all social democrats. They refuse to have anything to do with any politics but revolution, and with any revolution but a violent one, and they think the one means of producing revolution now or at any future time is simply to keep exciting disorder or class hatred, assassinating state officers, setting fire to buildings and paralyzing the bourgeoise with fear.
With the great revolt of the common people which has some time resulted from oppression we have nothing to do. It is the policy which aims at the destruction of all the sacred institutions of home and country, and which culminates in the treacherous hand of murder. It is this with which America has to deal—the Judas principle which, under the cover of a cordial hand-clasp given by our Chief Executive, will send the fatal bullet to his heart.
We must beware of including the American socialism which seeks to better the conditions of the masses with the anarchy which aims at the destruction of society, and still there are certain forms of what Europe calls socialism, from the results of which every civilized government is now suffering.
The purpose of anarchy is becoming only too apparent in various parts of the world.
In pursuit of their avowed purpose to “extinguish every religion," they would, if possible, destroy all the God-given liberties of humanity and set up a despotism more terrible than the Dark Ages ever knew. The results upon a merely human scale would be much the same as would result in the whole universe, had they the power to tear the sun from its orbit and wrest every planet from its course, allowing each star to pursue its erratic way at random through the fatal course of anarchy and confusion.
The anarchist assassin wages war upon all society by striking at whoever may be the political chief of the country in which he has found freedom and protection. His violent and unreasoning hate is impersonal, he seeks to destroy whoever and whatever represents law and order, whether it is a despot or a beneficent ruler.
All equitable systems of jurisprudence are based upon divine law. Blackstone says: “An enactment is not a law when it violates a law of God.” The anarchists have therefore logically begun at the beginning, and aim at the destruction of all the legal codes of the civilized
world by destroying, if possible every sentiment of reverence for divine law. Its avowed purpose is the murder of all who represent the hand of legislation. “Extirpate the miserable brood, extirpate the wretches!" is the published demand of one of the prominent leaders of the cult, and in pursuance of his purpose he publishes explicit directions for making bombs and putting them in public places where as many persons may be reached as possible by either death or hopeless mutilation. He publishes a dictionary of poisons and gives explicit directions for getting them into the food of government officials and other public men. This is not the criminal tendency of one man—not the vagaries of an individual to whom we have charitably applied the term "lunatic,” it is the official utterance of the murderous cult which now assails all law and threatens all public men.
The anarchist congress of Geneva in 1882 issued a manifesto, which began thus:
“Our enemy, it is our master. Anarchists—that is to say, men without chiefs—we fight against all who are invested or wish to invest themselves with any kind of power whatsoever. Our enemy is the landlord who owns the soil and makes the peasant drudge for his profit. Our enemy is the employer who owns the workshop, and has filled it with wage-serfs. Our enemy is the state, monarchical, oligarchic, democratic, working class, with its functionaries and its services of officers, magistrates and police. Our enemy is every abstract authority, whether called Devil or Good God, in the name of which priests have so long governed good souls. Our enemy is the law, always made for the oppression of the weak by the strong, and for the justification and consecration of crime."
A meeting of 600 anarchists—chiefly Germans and Austrians, but including also many others—was held at Paris on April 20, 1884 and passed a resolution urgently recommending the extirpation of princes, capitalists and parsons by means of “the propaganda of the deed.”
The congress held at London in 1881, which sought to re-establish the international on purely anarchist lines, adopted a declaration of principles, containing among other things the following:
"It is a matter of strict necessity to make all possible efforts to propagate by deeds the revolutionary idea and the spirit of revolt among that great section of the mass of the people which as yet takes no part in the movement, and entertains illusions about the morality and efficacy of legal means. In quitting the legal ground on which we have generally remained hitherto, in order to carry our action into the domain of illegality, which is the only way leading to revolution, it is necessary to have recourse to means which are in conformity with that