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end. * * * The congress recommends organizations and individuals constituting part of the international Working Men's Association to give great weight to the study of the technical and chemical sciences as a means of defense and attack."

The object of this violence is partly, as we see from the above quotation, to inflame the spirit of revolt and disorder in the working classes; and it is partly to terrorize the bourgeoisie, so that they may yield in pure panic all they possess. But for its expressly violent policy, anarchism would be at least formidable or offensive manifestation of contemporary socialism. For, in the first place, its specific doctrine is one which it is really difficult to get the most ordinary common sense puzzled into accepting. Men in their better mind may be ready enough to listen to specious, or even not very specious, schemes of reform that hold out a promise of extirpating misery, and in their worst mind they may be quite as prone to think that if everybody had his own, there would be fewer rich; but they are not likely to believe we can get on without law or government. Even the vainest will feel that however superfluous these institutions may be for themselves, they are still unhappily indispensable for some of their neighbors.

The results of this fatal teaching have left many a crimson stain upon two continents.

NOTABLE ASSASSINATIONS AND ATTEMPTS DURING THE NINETEENTH

CENTURY.

George III. of England, attempt by Margaret Nicholson on August 2,

1786, and by James Hatfield on May 15, 1800. Napoleon I. of France, attempt by use of an infernal machine on De

cember 24, 1800. Czar Paul of Russia, killed by nobles of his court on March 24, 1801. Spencer Percival, premier of England, killed by Bellingliam on May 11,

1812. George IV. of England, attempt on January 28, 1817. August Kotzebue of Germany, killed by Earl Sand for political motives

on March 23, 1819. Charles duc de Berri, killed on February 13, 1820. Andrew Jackson. president of the United States, attempt on January

30, 1835. Louis Philippe of France, six attempts: By Fieschi, on July 28, 1835;

by Alibaud, on June 25, 1836; by Miunier, on December 27, 1836; by Darmos, on October 16, 1840; by Lecompte, on April 14, 1846;

by Henry, on July 19, 1846. Denis Affre, archbishop of Paris, on June 27, 1848.

Rossi, Comte Pellegrino, Roman statesman, on November 15, 1848.
Frederick William IV. of Prussia, attempt by Sofelage on May 22, 1850.
Francis Joseph of Austria, attempt by Libenyi, on February 18, 1853.
Ferdinand, Charles III., Duke of Parma, on March 27, 1854.
Isabella II. of Spain, attempts by La Riva on May 4, 1847; by Merino

on February 2, 1852; by Raymond Fuentes on May 28, 1856. Napoleon III., attempts by Pianori on April 28, 1855; by Bellemarre on

September 8, 1855; by Orsini and others (France) on January 14,

1858. . Daniel, Prince of Montenegro, on August 13, 1860. Abraham Lincoln, president of the United States, at Ford's Theater,

Washington, by John Wilkes Booth, on the evening of April 14;

died on April 15, 1865. Michael, Prince of Servia, on June 10, 1868. George Darboy, archbishop of Paris,by communists, on May 24, 1871. Richard, Earl of Mayo, governor general of India, by Shere Ali, a con

vict, in Andaman Islands, on February 8, 1872. Amadeus, Duke of Aosta, when King of Spain, attempt on July 19, 1872. Prince Bismarck, attempt by Blind on May 7, 1866; by Kullman on

July 13, 1874. Abdul Aziz, Sultan of Turkey, on June 4, 1876. Hussein Avni and other Turkish ministers, by Hassan, a Circassian

officer, on June 15, 1876. . William I. of Prussia and Germany, attempts by Oscar Becker on July

14, 1861; by Hodel on May 11, 1878; by Dr. Nobiling on June 2,

1878. Mehemit Ali, pasha, by Albanians on September 7, 1878. Lord Lytton, viceroy of India, attempt by Busa on December 12, 1878. Alfonso XII. of Spain, attempts by J. O. Moncasi on October 25, 1878;

by Francisco Otero Gonzalez on December 30, 1879. Loris Melikoff, Russian general, attempt on March 4, 1880. Bratiano, premier of Roumania, attempt by J. Pietraro on December 14,

1880. Alexander II. of Russia, attempts by Karakozow at St. Petersburg on

April 16, 1866; by Berozowski at Paris on June 6, 1867; on April 14, 1879, Salovieff shot at the emperor of all the Russias in the streets of St. Petersburg, but without effect, though the assailant was punished for his crime. In the same year the royal train was wrecked by dynamite, but again the czar escaped. On February 17, 1880, the dining-room of the winter palace was wrecked by a terrific explosion, but the czar had not yet entered the room, as the anarchists supposed. Ten soldiers of the guard were destroyed in this dastardly attempt upon the life of the emperor. The final and successful attempt upon the life of Alexander II. was made March 13, 1881, when the bomb thrown by Ryaskoff missed the mark and immediately another was thrown by Elnikoff, which

killed the emperor and also the murderer. James A. Garfield, president of the United States, shot by Charles J.

Guiteau on July 2, 1881. Mayor Carter H. Harrison of Chicago, shot by Prendergast on October

28, 1893. Marie Francois Carnot, president of France, stabbed mortally at Lyons

by Cesare Santo, an anarchist, on Sunday, June 24, 1894. Stanislaus Stambuloff, ex-premier of Bulgaria, killed by four persons,

armed with revolvers and knives, on July 25, 1895. Nasr-ed-din, shah of Persia, was assassinated on May 1, 1896, as he

was entering a shrine near his palace. The man who shot him was disguised as a woman and is believed to have been the tool of a band of conspirators. He was caught and suffered the most

horrible death that Persian ingenuity could invent. Prim, marshal of Spain, on December 28; died on December 30, 1870. Antonio Canovas del Castillo, prime minister of Spain, shot to death by

Michel Angolillo, alias Golli, an Italian anarchist, at Santa Agueda,

Spain, while going to the baths, on August 8, 1897. Juan Idiarte Borda, president of Uruguay, killed on August 25, 1897, at

Montevideo by Avelino Areedondo, officer in Uruguayan army. President Diaz, attempt in the City of Mexico by M. Arnulfo on Sep

tember 20, 1897. Jose Maria Reyna Barrios, president of Guatemala, killed at Guatemala

City on February 8, 1898, by Oscar Solinger. Empress Elizabeth of Austria, brilliant, beautiful and well beloved,

stabbed by Luchini, a French-Italian anarchist, at Geneva, Switzer

land, on September 10, 1898. William Goebel, democratic claimant to the governorship of Kentucky,

shot by a person unknown on Tuesday, January 30, 1900, while on

his way to the state capital in Frankfort, Ky. Humbert, king of Italy, shot to death on July 29, 1900, at Monza, Italy,

by Angelo Bresci. Albert Edward, then Prince of Wales, now king of England, attempt

by Brussels anarchist on April 4, 1900. William McKinley, president of the United States, shot at Buffalo on

September 6, 1901. Died September 14, 1901. Unfortunately, this is not the first appearance of the cult on American soil. On the night of May 4, 1886, a circular call had gathered several hundred anarchists together in Haymarket square, Chicago.

There had been more or less trouble between the police and this class of incendiaries who made the vehicle of “free speech" the means of defying and insulting the power that protected them, even in their defiance of law, and on this fateful night, six companies of police, numbering 174 men, marched from the Desplaines street station to disperse the crowds. Inspector Bonfield and Captain Ward were in command. Captain Ward advanced to the wagon upon which Samuel Fielden stood, with others, and ordered them to disperse. “We are peaceable,” shouted Fielden, and this was evidently the signal which had been agreed upon, for at that instant a man upon the wagon arose, lighted a bomb and threw it into the ranks of the policemen, and this was followed by a fusilade of shots from both sides. When a semblance of order had been restored it was found that Officer M. J. Degan had been killed, six other policemen fatally injured and sixty-six persons wounded. Arrests followed, six of the principals were condemned to death and three others were sent to the penitentiary. For five years or more these salutary punishments had the effect of keeping the serpent of anarchy partially out of sight. Meetings were not often held in public, and when they were, the utterances did not counsel murder; the anarchists went back to their old haunts and held their secret meetings behind the closed doors of the saloons where their crimes had been so largely planned.

Thus for a century and more the black heart and cruel hand of anarchy have stained its pathway with blood in pursuance of its avowed object. Rooted in a theory which denies the very existence of God, they ignore the fact that man must and will obey something—if not the higher principles of law and order, then they become the slaves of their own brutal passions—the helpless victims of their own uncontrolled and vicious impulses. How truly are they “brought into captivity to the law of sin which is in their members.”

The dangerous class is not the illiterate. The leaders of this lawlessness are often those who have been trained in science and letters, but from lack of conscience and moral culture they become a menace to society. Secular education alone leads to a one-sided and morbid development; it is the brilliant and accomplished villain who perpetrates the great wrongs upon humanity; the people are robbed by the great manipulators of the markets and not by the petty thieves.

The unlettered negroes of the United States were always loyal to the government; the colored man is largely possessed of the faults of the white man, but disloyalty is not one of them.

Herbert Spencer says that: “The discipline of science is superior to that of our ordinary education because of the religious culture which it gives;" but we now have a cult who have degraded the lessons of science until it has become the act of murder. The leaders are now admonishing their followers to study the methods of wholesale destruction and apply the information thus obtained to the art of making bomb and infernal machines which shall do their work quickly and effectually. Following the assassination of Carnot, Most preached the doctrine of scientific murder in the following language:

“Whosover wants to undertake an assassination should at first learn to use the weapon with which he desires to accomplish his purpose before he brings that weapon definitely into play. Attempts by means of the revolver are utterly played out, because of twenty-five attempts only one is successful, as experience has thoroughly shown. Only expert dead shots may thoroughly rely on their ability to kill. No more child's play! Serious labor! Long live the torch and bomb!”

Their admonitions also come from other sources and they are being carefully followed out. They show how greatly the destroying spirit has developed since the French revolution, when twenty-eight chemists were taken to the guillotine together. Lavoisier pleaded in vain for a few minutes which might enable him to finish an important experiment, and produce results which he hoped might be of immense value to the scientific world. But even this was denied him and he was hurried away to execution with the cry: “We have no need of science; we have no need of savants.” Now, however, they have “need of science” in order to the more perfectly execute their carefully laid plans.

Surely these are purposes and results which call for stringent measures and the public is now waking up to the fearful responsibility resting upon it. Governments, too, are becoming more watchful concerning the movements of the common enemy. The doctrine of the bomb and the dagger has found its way into the capitals of all countries, while even the villages and country places are not exempt, but when a man or a woman stands out boldly to advocate the cause of murder, the name of the criminal is placed in the lists of the secret service headquarters of a dozen countries. The photographs are filed as in the rogue's gallery of the police departments and all friends and associates of the party are marked as dangerous characters. His habits of life are tabulated and his goings and comings are under the eye of some officer of the service. The United States government at Washington has a list of the names and also the photographs of all the known anarchists of the world, and the members of the cult are under surveillance in all civilized countries.

France has been especially active in this scrutiny; the government has a detective system which is nearly perfect and it is almost impossible

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