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Cleveland Leader: Nobody should be permitted to preach the gospel of murder in this country under the guise of anarchism or any other cloak. There should be freedom of speech, but that should not be extended to mean criminal license. It is time to call a halt.

Fond du Lac Commonwealth: Let such safeguards be provided as will drive every anarchist organization out of existence and every anarchist out of this country. Give these villains to know that this is one country where they cannot propagate their dangerous doctrines.

Minneapolis Times: What is to be done? The United States is proud of the fact that it offers an asylum, a home and a chance for freedom and livelihood to the oppressed of every nation. To anarchists, who are not oppressed but oppressors, the free ingress hitherto given must and shall be stopped.

Syracuse Standard: It has taken a bitter lesson to teach us the truth, that American liberty does not mean the setting up of a refuge for men and women whose creed is murder. Our easygoing way of hoping for the best and giving everybody the benefit of the doubt is to be amended in the case of anarchism.

Montana Record: The privilege of free speech has been abused and turned to bad ends, and should be restricted to exclude the ravings of these followers of the red flag. They should be exterminated so thoroughly that no sign of the red flag and no word of anarchistic doctrines will be heard in this land.

Boston Herald: Perhaps all governments may unite to establish an island colony where those who hold and promulgate the doctrine of anarchy can be compelled to go and live together as best they may, not as felons, but as persons affected with a peculiar insanity. Experience in governing themselves might work a cure.

Nashville Banner: Anarchist emigrants should be excluded from our shores, and those who have already found lodgment here should be deported. There is no country on earth that should afford a refuge for anarchists. To expel them is not to persecute for opinion's sake, but to take proper precaution against commission of crime.

New York World: If the public utterances of dangerous anarchist sentiments, such as the advocacy or approval of assassination, either by speech or in print, were made sufficient cause for deportation it would at least be impossible for these foreign fanatics to meet and glorify the assassin of an American president with inipunity.

Pittsburg Dispatch: It was time long ago that the preaching of the anarchist violence should have been punished on the same basis as the crimes for which it was directly responsible. Had this been done for some years back the homicidal cranks would not have had the temptation which has resulted in their attempts on the lives of so many rulers.

Salt Lake Herald: The question is whether it is not time to restrain the liberties of certain classes; whether it is not a duty of the government when men are known to preach or to indorse the preaching of assassination or of treason, whether, as a just self-defense, it is not proper and right to put such men in places where they can do no more harm.

Richmond Dispatch: All of the infernal cult and all affiliated with them should be hunted down mercilessly and driven from American soil, and we would add that were it not for the danger of making an occasional mistake in identity it would be justifiable, we believe, in the sight of both God and man, to shoot any who refused to obey the order to go as one would a mad dog.

Boston Globe: We are a free republic, but surely we have the right to say that any man who publicly and expressly advocates a violent attack upon our political institutions or their lawfully chosen representatives, thereby forfeits the privileges and protection of the government which he would destroy. No man can be in a community and out of it at one and the same time. No man should be suffered to invoke a law which he has defiantly forsworn. No man should enjoy the rights of a citizenship which he has deliberately renounced. These several propositions rest upon a truth so obvious that they need no argument for their support.

Omaha Bee: Manifestly, however, anarchism cannot be permitted to flourish in this country unrestrained. It is certainly possible to break up such an organization of anarchistic conspirators as that at Paterson, N. J., and the governor of that state is to be heartily commended for his determination to proceed against this band of conspirators who boldly and defiantly proclaim their purpose and who are known to be in constant communication with like organizations in Europe. If the governor of New Jersey shall succeed in breaking up this association of would be assassins his example may be followed wherever in this country similar organizations exist.

Memphis Commercial-Appeal: One thing is certain. Anarchy must be suppressed. To do this it may be necessary to surrender something that we prize highly, but the sacrifice must be made. Crazy people who go about the country are liable to do wrong and take a life on some mad,

momentary impulse, and many of these cannot be restrained because they cannot be singled out from among the common herd. They do not reveal their insanity, and they give no warning of impending danger. With the anarchist it is different. He boasts of his willingness and readiness to commit murder at any time when opportunity presents itself. He is always a murderer at heart. He should be given no chance to take life. He should be looked on as a menace to society and his tribe as ferine vermin.

Chicago Tribune: Anarchists are always atheists. Their fundamental proposition that there is no rightful government begins with the assertion that there is no God. If there is no God there is no moral government of the world, and in the general chaos it is every man for himself. If anarchy has any logic, anything beside its brutal hatreds, that is it.

It is a remarkable fact, and one that will not soon be forgotten, that just when the assassin imagines he was doing something to usher in the new social condition, in which there would be neither God nor government of any sort, there came from the heart of the President such an acknowledgment of God as had the effect to waken in the hearts of all the people such a sense of the relation of God to human affairs as had never before in our history found more impressive utterance.

Philadelphia Ledger: A conspiracy to commit crime is punishable under the laws of the states. The transactions at many of the anarchist meetings constitute breaches of the peace. Inciting others to commit crime is a breach of the peace and makes participants amenable to the penalties for an unlawful assembly. The penalties are insufficient for breaches of the peace committed by anarchists, but such laws as apply should be rigorously enforced until stronger legislation can be enacted. Since the lamentable occurrence which took place at Buffalo our law expounders have been ingenious in suggesting improvements of new legislation. These are ex post facto suggestions, and, unfortunately, do not apply to Czolgosz; but the police power can be invoked to make the propagation of anarchism much more difficult than it has been in the past.

Boston Transcript: It is a serious question whether protective measures should not be adopted in this country to check the growth of anarchism. The most obvious method of procedure that suggests itself is restraint upon immigration. But it is difficult to see how this remedy could be made immediately effective. There are no earmarks by which

an anarchist can be infallibly identified. If an anarchist were not disposed to confess himself as such he could not be prevented from entering this country. To be sure persons who had made themselves conspicuous in Europe as leaders or members of anarchistic societies could be refused admission. But something more than an immigration act is required to stamp out anarchism. So long as anarchists are allowed their present freedom of organization, meeting and publication, they will continue to flourish. Nothing short of complete abrogation of that freedom will accomplish any substantial results. They should be placed beyond the pale of the law. The formation of anarchistic clubs should be prohibited; their publications should be suppressed and their leaders outlawed.

Washington Star: As for those reds now within this country the issue would rest between their direct expulsion or the enactment of laws calculated to render residence here unbearable for them. The choice between such alternatives need not be seriously difficult. The latter course recommends itself as the more effective of the two. For instance, this government can, by constitutional amendment, enlarge the definition of treason to cover attempts upon the life of the president and extend the range of treasonable crimes to permit the severe punishment of agitators who preach the destruction of governments and the murder of rulers. It can proscribe the holding of meetings and prevent the publication of journals devoted to the murder cult. It can prevent the deliverance of lectures such as those of Emma Goldman and her kind, intended to fire morbid minds with murderous intent. With such laws, enforced always with due regard for the enjoyment by citizens of the fundamental prerogatives of comment and criticism, this government could not only repress to a very large extent the diabolical doctrines which are poisoning thousands of minds today, but it could set an example of wise restrictions which, emulated by other powers, would render every portion of the civilized world an unsafe place in which to hatch conspiracies to murder.

CHAPTER XXX.

Trial and Condemnation of the Assassin,

INTRODUCTION TO TRIAL. Respect for the law dominates the American people, and this was shown in the disposition of Leon Czolgosz. Saved from the fury of a mob, late an admiring, cheering throng, through the prompt intervention of the detectives, and hurried away to a dungeon at police headquarters, the assassin was given a speedy, fair and dignified trial, without any of the delays and disgraceful scenes that attended that of Guiteau.

Placed in the “sweat box," as searching examinations by the detectives are designated, the prisoner inaintained a stolid demeanor, declaring that he had no accomplices. As no defense save insanity could reasonably be set up, the mental condition of Czolgosz was critically investigated, many experts being called to examine him. On September 9 he was declared to be sane. Dr. Carlos MacDonald, of New York, an insanity expert of wide reputation, saw the prisoner on September 21 and declared that he was not insane. It was understood that Dr. MacDonald was acting in the interests of justice, preparing himself to testify in the murderer's behalf, had he found him not accountable for his awful act. The following day Dr. MacDonald, assisted by Dr. Heard, a famous alienist, and Dr. James W. Putnam, of Buffalo, made a second examination, with the same result.

On September 16 the grand jury found an indictment against Czolgosz, charging him with murder in the first degree. This was immediately returned to Judge Emery, in the county court. Soon afterward the prisoner was brought to the jail in a carriage from the penitentiary, a mile distant. From the jail he was taken through a tunnel to the city hall, where the court was in session. This precaution was taken to avoid crowds of incensed people. He was shackled and held his eyes in a downcast position, and, in the opinion of alienists, was shamming insanity.

District Attorney Penney informed him that an indictment had been found against him and asked him if he wanted a lawyer. Czolgosz made no reply and the judge repeated the question, with the same result. The court then appointed two eminent lawyers and ex-judges, Loran L. Lewis and Robert C. Titus, to act as his attorneys. There was some doubt

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