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instruction in Sanskrit and Linguistics, a question will present itself as to the practicability of its present introduction into Southern institutions; and we may here advert briefly to the subject. We do not forget the untowardness of the political and financial condition of the country. Unsettled and excited as we are, there may be difficulty in arousing the popular mind to a due consideration of the importance of so abstract a thing as a science which has to do chiefly with words, or so remote a thing as the dead language of an Oriental people. And even if sufficient interest were excited, there might be difficulty in finding the money to give it practical expression.
While this is true, its importance seems to us to be greatly diminished by the following considerations: In the first place, the cultivation of science depends on the few, rather than on the many. Even in the most flourishing Art-periods, as at Athens and Florence, it was the power
of a few men that gave encouragement and direction to Art. And, universally, the first impulse must come, not from the mass, but from individuals; since it is not to be expected that the body of men will have time, or capacity, to make themselves acquainted with the good results which flow from a mental energy so different from their own. In the present case, then, if there be only a few to lay hold, though we may wish it otherwise, we are not to regard it as necessarily a ground of discouragement, and certainly not as a reason for holding back. In the next place, in spite of financial and other difficulties, much has been done lately for the support of education, and the encouragement of literature. The war left us crippled, - our lands devastated, our capital lost, our buildings destroyed, our commerce ruined,— a completer picture of prostration could hardly be found. And yet within three years, the majority of the colleges of the South have resumed operation, some of them with encouraging success, and literary periodicals have fared as well, certainly, as before the war. This shows the existence of a real interest in the matter, and proves that we may rely on the cultivated consciousness of our people, with whom now education is not an accomplishment, but a necessity. And if so much has been done, then certainly more may be done. But the establishment of a new chair in a uni
versity or college would not necessarily demand any expenditure of its funds. Such chair may be self-supporting. In this particular case, the proceeds from tuition-fees might not at first be large. But they would yield a support, and the income would gradually increase. It is the general experience, that the extension of the course of instruction is pecuniarily beneficial to a college; and naturally, since it offers greater inducements to students, and heightens the enthusiasm for study, it extends and intensifies the literary atmosphere. It is deficiency in this subject, which has been a source of weakness in our educational institutions. A new chair acts beneficially on the others, and is in its turn benefited by them. In the present case, it is probable that the subject would need only to be introduced to meet with support. And, in the last place, we must recognize it as a duty to foster science, even if it cost labor and self-denial. Generally, we are not called on to exercise the latter largely. A little hearty interest, a few well-directed efforts, will work wonders. Whatever men regard as a necessity, they usually accomplish. According to the scheme of the divine providence in the world, science is a necessity. For this particular direction of scientific effort, we have the ability and the opportunity. Undoubtedly, it will be followed in time; but the sooner we begin, the better. The purer our devotion to truth, the more splendid the gifts it confers.
ART. VI.- 1. An Historical View of the Government of Mary
land from its Colonization to the Present Day. By John V.
L. McMahon. Baltimore: F. Lucas, Jr. & Co. 1831. 2. The History of Maryland, from its first Settlement in 1633
to the Restoration in 1660. By John Leeds Bozman. Baltimore: Lucas & Deaver. 1837.
3. The Landholder's Assistant. By John Kilty, Register of the
Land Office, &c. Baltimore: S. Dobbin & Murphy. 1808. 4. A History of Maryland, from its Settlement in the year 1634
to the year 1848. By James McSherry. Baltimore: Jno.
Murphy & Co. 1850. 5. The Day-Star of American Freedom, or the Birth and Early
Growth of Toleration in the Province of Maryland. By George Lynn-Lachlan Davis. New York: Scribner. Bal
timore: Murphy. 1855. 6. Terra Mariæ, or Threads of Maryland Colonial History.
By Edward D. Neill. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Co. 1867.
It is, and it ought to be, a genuine refreshment to the wayfarer over the rugged road of life, to find among our fellow men, whether living or dead, examples of the combination in one person of the two rare qualities of greatness and goodness. There are, indeed, ingenuous thinkers who deem these qualities, to a certain extent, inseparable; or, at least, who imagine there is no true greatness without that aggregation of virtues recognized as goodness; but this is a mistake which may be disproved by nearly every page of general history. We have seen it somewhere asserted, by an over-zealous champion of Christianity, that there was no true eloquence but that inspired by Christianity, in utter ignorance or oblivion of the fact that Demosthenes and Cicero have now, and have ever had, more admirers than Paul and Chrysostom; and those champions of goodness, who deem it necessary to greatness, must likewise ignore or forget that Alexander, Cæsar, Cromwell, and Napoleon, are conspicuous among the great men of the earth. We fear that, in point of fact, greatness and goodness are as little akin as Petruchio's stirrups; and yet they are, happily, sometimes combined. To say nothing of the great and good of the Christian ministry, living lights, or shining through all Christian ages and nations, we may offer as familiar examples or representative men, an Alfred the Great, a Sir Thomas More, a Christopher Columbus, and last, not least, the great American — no, let us give him his local habitation,—the great VIRGINIAN, whose name towers above all others, sprung from this new and vigorous western world of
The seventeenth century abounded in men of mark, in every line of human distinction; and prominent among them were the founders of the various American colonies, which were the sources or fountain heads of states already great and powerful; but which are, as yet, but slightly developed in comparison with their future destinies. All of these founders are more or less objects of the world's admiration ; all were cast more or less in the same heroic mould; all were brave, resolute, and self-reliant; men of bold emprise, who won, without exception, the ' bubble reputation', while seeking, for the most part, much more substantial rewards.
For ourselves, we believe that among the colonial founders there are none more worthy of love, of praise, of admiration, or, in like circumstances, of imitation, than George Calvert. In the seventeenth century, knowledge was making immense strides; and men's minds were expanding with what may be considered the world's expansion. And yet, in some respects, and those the most interesting as well as the most important to the happiness of the human race, the darkest shadows were lowering over the face of Christendom; and that faith which in intelligent minds must needs be free to be real, was subject, in the mother country especially, to civil or military power, or to the caprice of any reigning tyrant.
Under the reign of James I., religious persecution was very active, and Catholics and Protestants had to bear penalties that were sometimes almost beyond human endurance, for adhering to the faith of their fathers, on the one hand, or, on the other, for diverging from the tenets approved by the British Solomon. This king himself, born of a Catholic mother, and bred a Presbyterian, 'half Pope and half Puritan', gave to both Catholics and Calvinists a foretaste in this world of what he supposed they were to endure in the world to come. Without dwelling upon these matters, we may say briefly, that numbers of the sufferers were driven to seek homes beyond the seas. The virgin soil of America offered the highest inducements to the persecuted, of whatever denomination. The Puritan emigrants made a lodgment, first in Holland, where they were free from persecution, but where they found no prospect of material
advancement; and then they wisely determined that their promised land was in the new world, whither many of them directed their steps, to build up a new nation in the wilderness.
The Catholics, sorely beset in their native land, knew not where nor how to find a place of peace and safety. Fortunately for them, in the last year of the reign of King James, a courtier, a gentleman, a scholar, a man of unquestioned ability in wielding either the sword or the pen, publicly announced his attachment to the Catholic faith. This was in 1624. It has been a matter of keen controversy as to whether this conversion, or perversion, as it was respectively considered, took place in 1624, or at an earlier date. From the data furnished by the various disputants, as well as by the most trustworthy authorities, we infer that the gentleman in question adopted the Catholic faith positively in the
year 1624, although his inclination had been tending that way for some years. Be this as it may, the able, accomplished, and favorite courtier, Sir George Calvert, made his public profession in the year above mentioned ; and, with this public profession, he resigned the offices with which the King had honored him. He held the office at that time, inter alia, of Chief Secretary of State. This place he discharged', says Fuller, in his Worthies of England, above five years ; until he willingly resigned the same, 1624, on this occasion. He freely confessed himself to the king that he was then become a Roman Catholic, so that he must either be wanting in his trust, or violate his conscience, in discharging his office. This, his ingenuity, so highly affected King James, that he continued him privy councillor all his reign, (as appeareth in the council book), and soon after created him Lord Baltimore, of Baltimore, in Ireland.'
The courtier knew full well that his religious principles would be of no worldly advantage to him; but, being stout of heart and strong in faith, he declared them frankly, and prepared to abide the consequences. In the words of Bancroft, 'preferring the avowal of his opinions to the emoluments of office, he resigned his place and openly professed his conversion.' Being a personal favorite of the king, whom he had served with fidelity and zeal, hë retained position at court in spite of the clamor of a rising party in the State, whose influence became much more potent in subsequent years.