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deemed and taken to be the acts of said court. Each judge when appointed shall take the oath prescribed for judges of courts of the United States.— Act of June 30, 1902 (32 Stat., Part 1, p. 520).

(Repealed.) (Sec. 42. CONSTITUTION.—There shall continue to be a police court in the District, as at present, consisting of two judges learned in the law, appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of Senate, for the term of six years, who shall each receive a salary of three thousand dollars per annum. The said judges shall hold separate sessions and may carry on the business of said court separately and simultaneously, and are empowered to make rules for the apportionment of the business between them, and the acts of each of the said judges respecting the business of said court shall be deemed and taken to be the acts of the said court. Each judge, when appointed, shall take the oath prescribed for judges of the courts of the United States.]

Sec. 43. JURISDICTION. The said court shall have Palmer v. Lenooriginal jurisdiction concurrently with the supreme 474; Randallo? court of the District, except where otherwise expressly App., 489; Gasherein provided, of all crimes and offenses committed senheimer v. D. in the said District not capital or otherwise infamous 106, U.S.C. Mills and not punishable by imprisonment in the penitentiary, Callan v. Wilson;

; except libel, conspiracy, and violation of the post-office 127 U.S.,540; 8 s.

., . and pension laws of the United States; and also of all offenses against municipal ordinances and regulations in force in the District of Columbia. The said court shall also have power to examine and commit or hold to bail, either for trial or further examination, in all cases, whether cognizable therein or in the supreme court of the District

Sec. 44. That prosecutions in the police court shall be Bowles v. Dist. on information by the proper prosecuting officer. In all App., 327; War

: prosecutions within the jurisdiction of said court in on App., 85, 89; which, according to the Constitution of the United States, Harris v. Nixon the accused would be entitled to a jury trial, the trial shall be by jury, unless the accused shall in open court expressly waive such trial by jury and request to be tried by the judge, in which case the trial shall be by such judge, and the judgment and sentence shall have the same force and effect in all respects as if the same had been entered and pronounced upon the verdict of a jury.

In all cases where the accused would not by force of the Constitution of the United States be entitled to a trial by jury, the trial shall be by the court without a jury, unless in such of said last-named cases wherein the fine or penalty may be fifty dollars or more, or imprisonment as punishment for the offense may be thirty days or more, the accused shall demand a trial by jury, in which case the trial shall be by jury. In all cases where the said court shall impose a fine it may, in default of the payment of the fine imposed, commit the defendant for such a term as the court thinks right and proper, not to exceed one year.

'27 D. C. App., 94.

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Sec. 45. JURY.--The jury for service in said court shall consist of twelve men, who shall have the legal qualifications necessary for jurors in the supreme court of the District, and shall receive a like compensation for their services, and such jurors shall be drawn and selected under and in pursuance of the laws concerning the drawing and selection of jurors for service in said court. The term of service of jurors drawn for service in said police court shall be for three successive monthly terms of said court and, in any case on trial at the expiration of such time, until a verdict shall have been rendered or the jury shall be discharged. The said jury terms shall begin on the first Monday in January, the first Monday in April, the first Monday in July, and the first Monday in October of each year, and shall terminate, subject to the foregoing provisions, on the last Saturday of each of said jury terms. When at any term of said court it shall happen that in a pending trial no verdict shall be found, nor the jury otherwise discharged before the next succeeding term of the court, the court shall proceed with the trial by the same jury, as if said term had not commenced.

Sec. 46. At least ten days before the term of service of said jurors shall begin, as herein provided for, such jurors shall be drawn as herein before directed, and at least twenty-six names so drawn shall be certified by the clerk of the supreme court of said District to the said police court for service as jurors for the then ensuing term. Deficiencies in any panel of any such jury may be filled according to the law applicable to jurors in said supreme court, and for this purpose either judge of said police court shall possess all the powers of a judge of said supreme court and of said court sitting as a special term. No person shall be eligible for service on a jury in said police court for more than one jury term in any period of twelve consecutive months, but no verdict shall be set aside on such ground unless objection shall be made before the trial begins. Service on such jury shall not render any person exempt, ineligible, or disqualified for service as a juror in said supreme court, except during his term of actual service in said police court. The marshal of said District, by himself or deputy, shall have charge of said jury, and may appoint a deputy for that purpose, who shall be paid three dollars a day while so employed.

Sec. 47. JUDGMENT TO BE FINAL.-In all cases tried before said court the judgment of the court shall be final, except as hereinafter provided.

Sec. 48. POWERS. --The said court shall have power "to issue process for the arrest of persons against whom information may be filed or complaint under oath made and to compel the attendance of witnesses; to punish contempts by fine not exceeding twenty dollars and imprisonment for not more than forty-eight hours, or either, and to enforce any of its judgments by fine or

Bowles v. D.C., 22 D. C. App.,, 32L

imprisonment, or both, and to make such rules and regulations as may be deemed necessary and proper for conducting business in said court. In all cases where the said court shall impose a fine it may, in default of the payment of the fine imposed, commit the defendant for such a term as the court thinks right and proper, not to exceed one year.

That every person charged with an offense triable in the police court of the District of Columbia may give security for his appearance for trial or for further hearing, either by giving bond to the satisfaction of the court or by depositing money as collateral security with the appropriate officer at the said police court or the station keeper of the police precinct within which such person may be apprehended. And whenever any sum of money shall be deposited as collateral security as hereby provided it shall remain, in contemplation of law, the property of the person depositing it until duly forfeited by the court; and when forfeited it shall be, in contemplation of law, the property of the United States of America or of the District of Columbia, according as the charge against the person depositing it is instituted on behalf of the said United States or of the said District; and every person receiving any sum of money deposited as hereby provided shall be deemed in law the agent of the person depositing the same or of the said United States or the said District, as the case may be, for all purposes of properly preserving and accounting for such money. And all fines payable and paid under judgment of the said police court shall, upon their payment, immediately become, in contemplation of law, the property of the said United States or the said District, according to the charge upon which such fine may be adjudged; and the person receiving any such fine shall be deemed in law the agent of the said United States or the said District as aforesaid, as the case may be; and any person, being an agent as hereinbefore contemplated and defined, who shall wrongfully convert to his own use any money received by him as hereinbefore provided shall be deemed guilty of embezzlement, and upon conviction thereof be punished by a fine not exceeding five thousand dollars or by imprisonment not exceeding five years, or both: Provided, That nothing herein contained shall affect the ultimate rights under existing law of the Washington Humane Society, or the policemen's fund (by whatever name the same may be called or known), or the firemen's relief fund, of the District of Columbia, in or to any fines or forfeitures paid and collected in the said police court.

Sec. 49. SEAL.—The said court shall have a seal, and each of the judges shall have power to take the acknowledgment of deeds and to administer oaths and affirmations to public officers.

1

Harris, warden, Sec. 50.-TERMS.— The said court shall hold a term
o. Nixon et al., 27
D.C. App., 94, 97; on the first Monday of every month, and continue the
645; 50 2. Ed., 903" same from day to day as long as it may be necessary for

the transaction of its business.

Sec. 51. DISABILITY OF JUDGE.-In cases of sickness,
absence, disability, expiration of the term of service of or
death of either of the judges of said court, any one of
the justices of the supreme court of the District of Colum-
bia may designate one of the justices of the peace to dis-
charge the duties of said police judge until such disability
be removed or vacancy filled. The justice so designated
shall take the same oath prescribed for the judge of the
police court.-Act of June 30, 1902 (32 Stat., Part I, p.
520).

(Repealed.)
[Sec. 51. DISABILITY OF JUDGE.-In cases of sickness, absence, or
disability of either of the judges of said court, any one of the justices
of the supreme court aforesaid may designate one of the justices of
the peace to discharge the duties of said police judge until such dis-
suility be removed. The justice so designated shall take the same
oath prescribed for the judge of the police court, and shall receive the
sum of ten dollars per day for the time that he shall serve, to be paid
in the same manner as the salary of the judge of the police court.]

Sec. 52. CLERK.—The court shall have power to ap-
point a clerk, at a salary of two thousand dollars per
annum, who shall hold his office at the pleasure of the
court, and he shall give bond with surety and take the
oath of office prescribed by law for clerks of the district
courts of the United States, and said clerk shall charge
no fee for any service rendered by him.

Sec. 53. DEPUTIES.—The said clerk may appoint four deputies, with the approval of the court, if the business of the court requires it, to be paid, each, such compensation as may be allowed by the court, not exceeding one thousand five hundred dollars per annum as to two of such deputies and twelve hundred dollars as to the other two.

Sec. 54. The said clerk and deputy clerks shall have power to administer oaths and affirmations.

Sec. 55. BAILIFFS AND OTHER OFFICERS. — The said court may appoint not exceeding three bailiffs, who shall receive for their services nine hundred and thirty-nine dollars each per annum, on the certificate of service by the court. Said bailiffs may act as deputies to the marshal for service of process issued by the court. The said court may also appoint a doorkeeper at a salary of five hundred and forty dollars per annum, an engineer at a salary of nine hundred dollars per annum, and a janitor at a salary of four hundred and fifty dollars per annum,

Sec. 56. SALARIES, HOW PAID.—Thesalaries of the judges, clerk, deputy clerks, bailiffs, deputy marshal, doorkeeper, engineer, and janitor of the said court shall be paid as other salaries of the District of Columbia, from appropriations made by Congress as provided in the Act of June eleventh, eighteen hundred and seventy-eight.

Sec. 57. EXECUTIONS AND FORFEITED RECOGNIZANCES.The said court shall have power to issue execution on all forfeited recognizances, upon motion of the proper prosecuting officer, and all writs of fieri facias or other writs of execution on judgments issued by said court shall be directed to and executed by the marshal of the District.

Sec. 58. Fines to be paid to the clerk of the police court: All fines, penalties, costs and forfeitures imposed or taxed by the police court shall be paid to the clerk of said court, either with or without process or on process ordered by the court. The clerk of the police court shall, on the first secular day of each week, deposit with the collector of taxes the total amount of all fines, penalties, costs and forfeitures collected by him during the week next preceding the date of such deposit, to be covered into the Treasury to the credit of the District of Columbia, subject to the requirements of the provision of the Act of June eleventh, eighteen hundred and ninety-six, to meet any deficiency in the police fund or the firemen's relief fund. The said clerk shall render an itemized statement of each deposit aforesaid upon such forms and in such manner as shall be prescribed by the auditor of the District of Columbia.

Sec. 59. ACCOUNTS, HOW AUDITED.-It shall be the duty of the auditor of the District of Columbia, and he is hereby required, to audit the accounts of the clerk of the police court at the end of every quarter and to make prompt report thereof in writing to the Commissioners of the District of Columbia. In order to enable the auditor of the District to perform the duty hereby imposed upon him, he shall have free access to all books, papers, and records of the said court.

Subchapter 1.-SUPREME COURT OF THE DISTRICT OF

COLUMBIA.

Sec. 60. CONSTITUTION.—The supreme court of the District shall continue as at present constituted, and consists of a chief justice and five associate justices, appointed by the President of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, and holding their offices during good behavior. The chief justice and each associ- 32 Stat., 825. ate justice shall receive a salary of [five] six thousand dollars per annum, which amounts shall be paid in monthly installments, out of the Treasury of the United States, and one-half thereof shall be charged against the revenues of the District of Columbia.

Sec. 61. JURISDICTION—The said court shall possess kel, enss"U: 5.,1, the same powers and exercise the same jurisdiction as the 14,' McGowan' o? circuit and district courts of the United States, and shall App., 157; Moss v. be deemed a court of the United States, and shall also have and exercise all the jurisdiction possessed and exer- S. 1. B. &0. R. cised by the supreme court of the District of Columbia 581 Foot v. Ed under the Act of Congress approved March third, eighteen wards, 29 D. c. hundred and sixty-three, creating that court, and at the date land, 30 D. c. of the passage of this code.

v

S., 23 D. C. App., 474, 484; U.

App., 365, 379.

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