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THE BEGINNINGS OF A NAVY.

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this?" giving an

that were killed illustration of

numit. Then he fell

ber of bad habasleep.

its and charOctober 19.

acteristics, and To-day he said,

those who help“Isn't twice

ed to kill them twenty, forty?"

were the good I replied: "Yes.

fairies. The How much is

following questwice nineteen?"

tions are mine, He said, “I

and the andon't know un

swers his—and less I go straight up." I asked, How his understanding of his own nature is do you do it?" He replied, “Why, twice pretty accurate. twelve is twenty-four, 2 x 13=26, 2 x 14= Bad temper? Half dead. Carelessness? 28," and he went on until he reached Nearly dead. Selfishness? Half dead. twice nineteen is thirty-eight, evidently Laziness? Dead. Disobedience? Dead. having found out

Lies? Dead. Unthat the two table

tidiness? Half dead. up to twelve was

Exaggeration? Pretmade by adding

ty nearly dead. two each time; so

Fear ? Half dead. he experimented up

Love of praise ? to forty and asked

1-16 to kill. Boastme as above. This

fulness? Dead. Conis the way he has

a

cealment (which experimented and

he called sneakfulfound out much

ness)? 1-100 to kill: that he knows about

nearly dead. Bitter numbers.

words? 1-1000 to November 6,1896.

kill. Hate? Quite -He said to-day,

dead. Anger? 1-10 ** What does at

to kill. Cruelty ? mosphere mean ?”

Dead. I can't ? I said, “The air

1-1,000,000,000 to around us." Then he said: “Does the air kill. Delay not? Pretty nearly dead: half mean atmosphere, or does atmosphere to be killed. Bashfulness? Nearly dead. mean air? I thought atmosphere meant Proudfulness (his own term)? Dead. a kind of sickness. Oh, it's esterics He said, from memory, that the fairies [hysterics] I meant-what I was thinking to help you kill the giants were lovefulof. Why do they call it

ness, courage, self-control, "esterics?' They might call

obedience, honesty, pait can't stop it.?”

tience, good temper, kindI heard him say to-day

ness, diligence, courtesy, to a little girl whose word

gratitude, and

perseverhe doubted, “Honest and

ance, which he said meant truthly?"

“try, try again." November 24, 1896.- To

October, 1896.-The notes day he asked his mother

on page 134 show how he whether the germs of

tried to learn to write. A whooping - cough got it

vertical writing.chart was theinselves (meaning the

placed above his little tacough by "it"). She said,

ble, and we saw that paper "No." He said, “ Then

and pencils and his chair how do they give it to

always ready for

him, should he want to try We have been reading a

it. He wrote a letter to story in which the giants

favorite kindergartner

HIS EXPLANATION OF THE PARTS OF AN ENGINE.

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us?"

HIS PET BUTTERFLY FEEDING ON

HIS FINGER.

a

received ear anita

me

over

re

as

and

the first day

ther to-day: he

“Mamma, I anita. Y have it, asking me

am like a lithow to spell cat and a rat

tle tree growthe words he

ing; bad boys did not know,

pull but hunting out December 16 1896

crooked, and you the letters for Olar PERD

straighten me. If himself by

Sarea

mothers didn't do peating the al

this, the

boys soldier phabet

and
ware
he

couldn't

grow looked for the

Magic
lantorn

a box of candy straight when letter he wanted.

they get older, Before six weeks

but would little roze good-bye. had passed he

crooked." knew the whole n

April 24, 1897. chart from mem

– To-day he wantory, yet he never

ed to know what received direct

adding meant. I teaching from it,

put down some nor did I tell him to join the letters to- numbers, as shown in the illustration on gether when making the words. He did page 135, and explained to him how to this from the beginning, for the chart carry 1 by placing a figure 1 over the he used was carefully prepared to meet next column to the left when he had

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SPONTANEOUS WRITING FROM MEMORY.

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this need. One day I saw him slip a counted beyond 10, and put down the recover over some of the letters on the up- maining number underneath the column per row of the chart, by hanging an en- he had just added. He needed but one velope by its flap on

telling, and the figthe upper edge of the 234

468

underneath, chart. I asked him

234
234

with the l's, are lis why he did it. He 468 addition. 234 subtraction.

own. The final ilreplied, “I wanted it

234

lustration is his own so I can learn the let

2

altogether. ters without seeing 2) 468 multiplication.

July 21, 1897.- The them-so," illustrat

234 divisiou.

accompanying illusing by first covering

tration shows one of a and b and then

234

his efforts to underwriting the letters,

2

stand the principle then moving the en0

underlying addition, velope along over e

subtraction, multiand d, and so on.

16

plication, and diviApril 23, 1897. –

sion, after I had exHe said to his mo

SUBTRACTION, DIVISION, AND MULTIPLICATION. plained to him with

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on

the figures BIG

ory, which, with page 134.

his indicated selfHe experiment

control, will make ed then for him

all future work self for a long

easy. He shows time, using his

no sign of physown numbers and LITTLE

ical strain; he is using them cor

only a romping, rectly, as indi

hearty, obedient cated.

boy of seven, full In this way he

of fun; and inis daily enlarging

stead of taking the boundaries of

his lessons as a his knowledge ;

task, he is always and the more he WEEKS' STUDY AND PRACTICE.

eager to acquires the great

learn than his er is his desire for study. The record parents are willing to have him taught. shows that he is keen to observe, quick to His mind is thus rapidly expanding withcomprehend, and has an excellent mem- out endangering his physical equilibrium.

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WRITTEN SPONTANEOUSLY FROM MEMORY AFTER SIX

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A CENTURY OF CUBAN DIPLOMACY-1795 to 1895.

BY PROFESSOR ALBERT BUSHNELL HART,

of a mighty Spanish empire in America. naturally parts of the North How Cuba has been governed and exAmerican continent is a question of curi- ploited for four centuries is a matter of ous speculation," said Thomas Pownall history; the colonial policy of Spain has in 1780; "the whole must in the course from the beginning, and in all her coloof events become parts of the great North nies, aimed to throw the profits of colonial American domain.” That a century and trade into the hands of home merchants. a fifth have passed without the fulfilment The rigor of the system has defeated its of this prophecy is a marvel in the his- own ends, for it invited evasion; and cortory of a changeful world; and it is the ruption of the colonial official has from purpose of this article to show why Cuba, time immemorial been a part of the forthe most valuable of the West Indies, eign merchant's expense account. Yet has so long lain within the boundary of from the first one colony has furnished the Spanish Empire.

enough taxes and customs to give a large What Cuba has been and is, all the revenue to the mother-country; that colworld knows—the first important land to ony is Cuba. be discovered by Europeans; with its For this tropical island has the natuneighbor, Porto Rico, the last remnant ral elements of great wealth ; its area of

VoL, XCVII.-No.577.-18"

43,000 square miles has a sea-coast of over Cuba to live; and a small but ardent 2000 miles; it is accessible in nearly every class of native Cubans, often Spanish subpart, and stands at the crossways of two jects, has made the United States a base international highways, from the United of revolutionary schemes. Finally, in States to eastern South America, and from all the Cuban troubles there have been Europe to the Gulf of Mexico. Besides its plenty of Americans born who were eager staple crops of sugar and tobacco, it has to join in expeditions to Cuba, and thus valuable timber, fruit, and minerals, and in war on Spain. its exports were in 1894 worth more than Diplomatically speaking, Cuba has been a hundred million dollars. Politically it not a subject, but an object; it has no is now the only West India island of con- authority to negotiate or settle any forsequence; and it has steadily increased in eign question. Cuban diplomacy is only population and importance.

Spanish diplomacy at long range, for the As for the Spaniards in Cuba, they are Captains-General have great authority to not governors, but masters; they have disturb foreign residents and to take forheld by military garrison, and they are eign property, but none to redress grieva race not much disturbed by human ances or to make indemnities. Every suffering. They were worse slave-mas- disputed question is settled-or, rather, is ters even than Anglo-Saxons; they have put off--at Madrid, and impatient Anglofor ages been accustomed to a vindic- Saxons get weary of the Spanish Foreign tiveness in war which finds vent in the Office, where everything is promised and massacre of prisoners and the pillage of nothing is done. non-combatants. Their system of legal One reason for habitual diplomatic deprocedure, like that of all Latin nations, lays is that Spain has been for a century shocks the Anglo-Saxon by its harshness a declining power, and takes refuge in to the suspect and its cruelty to the con- procrastination. The Spaniards governed victed. Colonial authorities have a des- ill in 1795, but at least they governed potic power, and they cannot be effec- widely; from the Mississippi River to tively controlled from Spain. The Cu- the Pacific, from Oregon to Cape Horn, bans are of the same race, but in all the from the boundary of Georgia to the Spanish colonies the native Spaniard has Dutch in Surinam, from the La Plata held himself, and is held by the home southward - coasts, islands, and interior government, above the colonist whose were Spanish. Yet that seeming empire father was a Spaniard. Under such cir- was already shattered; and in the first cumstances, the administration of Cuba third of the century the Spanish contihas always been exasperating to neigh- nental empire crumbled away, till Spain boring peoples, and most of all to the remained an American power only in reUnited States.

taining Cuba and Porto Rico, Political and race elements in Cuba The Spanish nation was still warlike have been much confused, owing to the and tenacious; it lost its colonies not benegro population, and to a division of sen- cause they were strong, but because the timent among white Cubans. Up to 1878 home country was decaying. In 1795 six classes might be distinguished in the Spain was swept into the maelstrom of population-Spaniards, white Cubans ad- the Napoleonic wars, and the French herent to the Spaniards, white Cubans treated her in succession as an enemy, opposed to the administration, mulattoes ally, dupe, dependent province, and de(many of them owners of property), free spairing rebel. When in 1807 the King blacks, and slaves. In 1895 there were of Spain was put under lock and key by but two distinct classes-a Spanish party Napoleon, the Spanish colonies began to of Spaniards and Cubans, and a Cuban take charge of their own affairs, and party. Throughout the century, how they never for a moment acknowledged ever, others besides Spaniards and the French domination. In 1814 they reCubans have taken part in Cuban affairs. turned to a nominal allegiance to Spain; Professional Spanish - American revolu- but they had tasted the sweets of indetionists, such as Santa Anna and Lopez, pendence; they broke loose again, and by have planned to rouse the sluggish Cu 1823 Spain had nothing left on the conbans; for many years there has been a tinent of America except an empty claim class of Cubans who have naturalized in to sovereignty and the two castles of the United States and then returned to Callao and San Juan de Ulloa.

Since that time the hold of Spain on ciples have long ago got a lodgement Cuba bas always been that of a harsh in the national consciousness, and have administration in a disaffected province. held the nation back from interference. The Spanish principle has been that Toward Spain, for instance, the United of " stick fast” – to grant nothing in States has been usually friendly; and we privileges, reforms, territory, or humane have understood that no third power could treatment, except under pressure. If the take Cuba if Spain were upheld there; Cubans wanted a better government the but it has been a general belief that Spanonly method that they knew has been to ish rule would eventually break down by revolt. Under these conditions Cuba its own weight. Toward other powers would long since have ceased to be Span- the United States has always said “hands ish had there not been a third element in off” whenever they showed an inclithe problem-the will and the diplomacy nation for Cuba. Toward the Cubans of the United States of America.

there has been the feeling that in any

quarrel with Spain they must be in the Said John Quincy Adams in 1823: right, but that they could not give assur“From a multitude of considerations ance of a permanent, orderly government. Cuba has become an object of transcen- In any commotion in Cuba the rights of dent importance to the commercial and Americans are to be vigorously protectpolitical interests of our Union. Its ed, and no other nations have any right commanding position .... the nature of to take part in the controversy. As for its productions and of its wants, furnish- annexation, as often as an opportunity ing the supplies and needing the returns to acquire Cuba has come, the nation has of a commerce immensely profitable and deliberately refused. mutually beneficial, give it an importance It is the purpose of this article to show in the sum of our national interests with how these various principles have grown which that of no other foreign territory up during the hundred years from the can be compared, and little inferior to first Spanish treaty in 1795 to the second that which binds the different members Cuban rebellion of 1895. The century's of this Union together.”

diplomacy may be conveniently divided The commercial and military reasons as follows: (1) From 1795 to 1807 we deupon which Adams dwelt have grown sired friendship and commerce with all stronger in the last three-quarters of a the Spanish dominions, including Cuba. century, for trade has advanced, and the (2) In 1807–9 we feared the annexation enormous development of the Mississippi of the whole Spanish Empire to France. Valley and of the Gulf coast, and the (3) In 1819–26 we feared the annexation likelihood of an Isthmian canal, give new of Cuba by England. (4) From 1826 to strategic importance to the holder of Cuba. 1845 we feared and probably prevented the A strong national sympathy for the Cu- independence of the Cubans. (5) From bans has also shown itself whenever, as 1848 to 1861 successive administrations in 1822–6, 1849-51, and 1868–78, the Cu- feared both Spanish and Cuban mastery, bans have seemed likely to throw off the and strove to annex the island. (6) In the Spanish rule.

insurrection of 1868–78 the first care of Another factor is the land - hunger of our government was the protection of its the people of the United States — their own citizens, and its second interest was natural, hearty, and irrepressible desire the stopping of a devastating civil war; to make a large country larger; their though annexation seemed possible, it conviction that Anglo-Saxon civiliza- was put aside. (7) From 1878 to 1895 the tion must prevail over Latin civilization United States strove to extend its comwhere they come in conflict. Since so merce with Cuba and to protect investors, much of our present territory has fallen without questioning Spain's control. from or been wrested from the hands of No one can study Cuban diplomacy Spain or Spain's successors, perhaps we without coming to strong convictions; feel that the reversion of Cuba is ours. but it is not the purpose of this article to

With so many strong interests in Cuba, applaud, to defend, or to criticise, our nait was long ago predicted that the United tional policy. It is the historian's duty States would seize it; but a study of the to relate facts in their logical connection; records of the century's diplomacy shows the reader's privilege to make deductions that, on the contrary, conservative prin- for himself; the statesman's difficult task

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