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complished with capa, muleta, sword, ban- play with the capa soon liberated the hapderilla, and lance) of each man made less picador whose time had seemed so evident his individual grace, daring, or near at hand.

This " quite” was rapturacute powers of reasoning.

ously applauded to the echo, and was fol. The second toro's battle with the pica- lowed by some clever thrusts from a young dores was immediate and decisive, bring- picador named Zurrito,after which Antonio

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ing forward both Guerrita and Minuto to Guerra and Juan Molina-two of Guerthe rescue, and giving them an opportu- rita's banderilleros - aroused consideranity to display a very singular passe (al ble enthusiasm by their skilful work with alimon), rarely attempted, I was told. In the banderillas. Guerrita, imperturbable, this passe the capa was drawn by the two calm, never wasting a moment, making men underneath the toro, was rapidly each gesture count, and employing very waved backward and forward, and at the beautiful and wonderful passes — recogclose of this extraordinary exhibition nized and successively named by my neighthey fearlessly knelt before the bewilder- bors, whose running comments gave proof ed beast and tossed a handful of dust upon that it was really as marvellous an exhibihis foaming muzzle, an ovation being ac- tion as I intuitively felt it to be—finished corded them, and the uproar proving im- by a quick thrust at close aim, and with possible to repress for some time.

inimitable command of the resources of When Minuto's brindis had been pro- his art, persuaded the animal to follow nounced, for it was now his turn to take him, that it might die at his feet, as he up his sword, the battle between the two seated himself by the barrière and quietcombatants presented fearful odds because, ly, almost mournfully, regarded it. of his diminutive stature.

There was

Benona, of lustrous black coat and with much to praise in Minuto's clever work, weil de perdrix, permitted Minuto to disand his fearlessness prompted him to take play his dexterity and to accomplish wonrisks which stirred the people's enthu- ders with his capa, but the little diestro's siasm. His limitations sprung from his most surprising feat was in turning his lack of inches, for owing to this defect it back on the huge brute while he invited was impossible for him to render effective it with his muleta to follow him. the concluding thrust of the sword.

The fifth toro, Mojoso, a large red and It was Prevenudo, a black bull, who white bull, was really the toro of the day. next came before us. He entered slowly, The impetuous anger and savage force of but as suddenly Alung himself upon this toro made one tremble for the life of one of the horses with so ferocious an every one in the arena, and the picadores attack that rider and steed went down were kept busy from the moment it dashtogether in one awful quivering mass. ed from the toril. Several pairs of banBut Guerrita was there, and his wizard derilles d'honneu were presented by ceramazed at the perfect condition of the men who had taken such active part in the proceedings. Vaulting over high stone walls to escape the horns of the bull, running, using all of their force during the play of banderillas and sword, yet not one hair on their heads was ruffled; their immaculate linen and tight-fitting costumes were as free from stain or injury as if they had never stirred.

THE SIXTH BULL.-MINUTO BEFORE THE SWORD-THRUST.

Guerrita (and his cuadrilla) lingered a few days at Nîmes, and dined with us one evening. Minuto, whom I met, and who posed for me before his departure, proved attractive, and was extremely courteous in manner.

The little informal gathering gave tain societies or toro clubs, and these were me still better opportunities to weigh the placed by the two matadores themselves, peculiarities of the greater of the two matGuerrita courteously waiving his right of adores, and my impressions concerning precedence and allowing the dashing lit- his unusual intelligence and strength of tle Minuto to come forward in a rôle in character were confirmed. Several who which he was sure to shine. His pair knew him well told me of his virtues as were placed “au cuarteo," and the quick the best of husbands and of fathers, and movement with wbich he approached the assured me that his life was in all respects raging toro and plunged them deep in- a moderate, well-governed one. He cares, one wondered how he could reach up so it is said, but little for the excitement of high — raised a furor. Still, Guerrita's social life, being always far more ready to much greater finish and poise could not sit and talk over his beloved art with conbut take the color out of this really re- genial friends than to be made the hero markable little torero's most effective ef- of the hour at club or café. His distaste forts. His banderillas were placed so dif- for over convivial and not too sober adferently, with such quiet repose and exact mirers goes so far that he has been conregard for form, that the people simply went wild over him. For the estocada, Guerrita, with a nerve which made one hold one's breath, folded his muleta and arranged it as he wished beneath the eyes of the bull. There were two or three passes--it is necessary to get the toro in a certain position for a successful estocada -and Guerrita's voice rang out, “This is for France! I tell you he is going to die!" and a moment later it rolled over and expired at his feet.

The last of the six bulls had been disposed of by Minuto; the toreros had gathered their brilliant capas about them, and had filed away, accompanied by the cheers of the people and the music of the band. Everybody was talking of the splendid success of this corrida, and I was standing there, feeling as if I had dreamed of what had taken place, although in my stantly known to call for water and wash hand was one of the banderillas, posed his hands after being forced to submit to for me by Antonio Guerra, to be carried the grasp of such as are unpleasant to to my far-off home as tangible proof that him. The quarters secured for him at I had really witnessed a corrida. I was Nîmes proved uncomfortable, and his de

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THE SWORD-THRUST.

come.

parture was somewhat hastened by this first to take his up, lifting it quietly to fact. Why did he not move to one of the 'see if it had perfume, and fastening it in other hotels? There were several that the exquisitely embroidered shirt peculiar were excellent. He could not leave his to the torero. The action and the manmen. They were as badly placed as he, ner showed a certain unexpected refineand he was not willing to establish him- ment of feeling, and his fastidiousness in self in comfort while they were suffering; several respects struck me as suggestive. as it seemed impracticable to move so Much was said concerning the corrida, large a party of men for so short a time, and I was gravely pronounced an aficioit would be better to pass on to Marseilles, nada, and asked if I believed many Ameren route for Béziers, where there would icans would care to witness the scene. I be another corrida on Sunday next. could truly say that I believed Señor

Guerrita is a wealthy man, and in his Guerra's art must meet with recognition own country he is simply idolized; but all over the world, and that my countryhis tastes remain simple, and he is par- men were not slow to appreciate genius. ticularly free from an air of superiority Could corridas be given in New York? towards those of his comrades who are I thought our laws would prevent this. less famous than himself. Many people But such laws might possibly be overfind his manner forbidding, and he has

I turned to the quiet figure by my the reputation of being plain-spoken and side, and asked, “And if it could be so arbrusque, if not ungentle; but there were ranged, Señor Guerra, would you come?" little touches which made me believe that He looked me quickly in the face to see this to me wholly agreeable straightfor- if I was jesting, and answered decisivelywardness indicated much genuineness of quite sternly, in truth-"Yes, I will come.” feeling, and the reserve of his nature, Some one at the table raised a glass and which was very strong, doubtless led to proposed a toast to Señor Guerra's first his often being misunderstood. The even- corrida de toros in Nueva York; so we ing we dined together he expanded into a drank to this solemnly, and I almost felt very different being from the Guerrita of as if his coming was a fait accompli. the arena. He ate of the simplest food There are extenuating features of the by choice, scarcely touched wine, and— corrida, and, like every other sport in the for a Spaniard, most marvellous of all world, it has two very clearly defined instances of renunciation–did not light sides. It certainly develops qualities the accustomed cigarette until the ladies which are valuable and rare. But, at all at the table insisted on his doing so. events, I shall never forget the wonderful Some one had gathered together a few drama in the old Roman amphitheatre at yellow and red flowers for the centre of Nîmes, nor the meeting with Guerrita, the table, and to lay one at each napkin most justly famous as the very King of by way of boutonnière. Guerrita was the Matadores.

NOTES ON JOURNALISM.

BY GEORGE W. SMALLEY.

A

N eminent American journalist is in in the language. Whether, again, jour

the habit of saying in his own paper nalism be a profession or not, in the sense that there is no such thing as journalism. that law and medicine are professions, it He objects to the word. He objects to is at least an occupation, and one of great that view of the making of newspapers importance, both to those who follow it which regards it as a profession. He de- and to the community in general. And rides the notion that it is a way of life or if its place be doubtful, or the rules which an occupation for which any serious pre- govern its conduct less definite than those paration is possible. If he be right, it is which prevail elsewhere, the more reason quite clear that any attempt to write on for trying to ascertain its true relation such a subject is a mistake. But I ima- to social and political life, and the right gine that with him it is, first of all, a dis- methods to be followed in its pursuit. like to a word, which has nevertheless a There is, at any rate, more than enough good linguistic origin and a settled place to engage us during the few minutes

Vol. XCVII.-No.578.—28

which the amiable reader may find him- future; to resolve that, with the whole self able to spare.

The subject is large ocean of life before him, he will sail on enough for a series of articles. The most this or that sea, steer for some fixed point, I can now attempt is a brief discussion of and take the chances of sunshine and such points as seem most to need discus- storm, and of what may betide him should sion, or most likely to interest the non- he reach the port he wishes. It is not a professional public. I shall have to leave light thing to advise a young man who untouched most of those larger considera- comes to you for advice. There is always tions upon which a journalist would nat- a chance—a remote one, no doubt, but urally enter if he wished to form an esti- still a chance—that one's advice may be mate of the real place of the press in the taken. It is a responsibility I should not world, of the causes which have brought care to accept unless for cause. At the it to its present height of power, of the same time I have a feeling that if any extrue nature of its mission, if it have a perience of mine can be useful to any of mission, and of the probable future which the younger men whom I hope to reach, lies before it.

they are entitled to it.

I need not put it An authority still more eminent than in the form of advice. I offer it to them the eminent journalist I have quoted, simply as a record of experiences, or at Prince Bismarck, once scornfully defined most, if anybody should prefer, as a sugjournalism as only printer's ink on paper. gestion. It was at a moment, I make no doubt, Every man, said Bacon, owes a debt to when the press was expressing, on some his profession. He said it of the law, and high matter, a view contrary to his own. he paid it to the law, which did not preThen he would belittle it-he never stopped vent him from paying it to his country at means when he wanted to discredit an and to the world, taking as he did the opponent. But Prince Bismarck, the most lead of modern thought. I humbly acmasterful and wide-reaching intelligence knowledge my debt to journalism, but of his time, is, among other things, a stu- not without some reserve. I am ready dent. He has been a great reader. He enough to stand or fall with the profeswould hardly describe the writings of sion and with my colleagues in the proPlato or Goethe as only printer's ink on fession if there be any question of attack paper. Does he, then, mean that to the or defence. But when it is a question of making of newspapers there goes no great a sober estimate of its real nature and posiamount of thought or ability? And if he tion, and of the career it offers to a young means that, how is it that never in the man, then I think it the duty even of a whole history of politics, diplomacy, states- journalist to say what he really thinks. manship, government, has any man made When the ill-fated Prince Alexandersuch constant use of the press as Prince a gallant soul if there was one in Europe Bismarck himself? He has always known —went to ask Prince Bismarck whether how to find the instrument he wanted. he should accept or not the offered throne Sometimes it was a king, sometimes a of Bulgaria, the Prince for a time put Moltke, sometimes the press of Germany. aside the question, and finally said, “Well, Perhaps, therefore, we may neglect even to have been a ruler of Bulgaria will Prince Bismarck's dictum. An influence always be an interesting souvenir.” By which throughout Europe and America the side of that I will put the equally is so great as that of the press is not to well-known remark of Thiers that jourbe disposed of by an epigram.

nalism is a very good profession if you Perhaps I may assume that if I get a get out of it soon enough. What Thiers hearing on journalism it is because I am said may seem particularly applicable to myself a journalist, and may be supposed America, where we change occupations, to have some practical knowledge of the as we change the fashion of our clothes, business. There are, I may also assume, from year to year. But it had much some young readers who have journalism more meaning in France, where it was in mind as a profession, who intend to de- uttered, because in France nearly every vote their lives to it, to adopt it as a career. man eminent in civil life since the RevoWell, it is a solemn thing to make choice lution has begun by writing for the press. of a career; to undertake, as every young Thiers himself was a journalist, so was man must, to arrange his life for himself; Guizot, so was Gambetta, and so were a to construct for himself a chart of his own score of other ministers and statesmen. There it was, and to some extent still is, of all, what his equipment is, and that the recognized door to public life in the would involve the other not less imporservice of the state. Here it is much less tant question how he is to begin. The so, and I may set it down as one of the eminent journalist whom I quoted has many paradoxes of the profession—which expressed the opinion that no training is in itself the least settled and conven- is possible or useful for the beginner. I tional of all-that when it has once en- should reverse that, and say that there tangled a man it so seldom relinquish- is no training, no acquisition, no form of es its grip. His service is apt to be for knowledge or experience, which is not life. If we ask why, we come near to useful both to the beginner in journalism the answer, or to one of the answers, and to the life-long practitioner. If it had which the journalist must give when he not been denied, I should have thought is asked to advise anybody whether to that a commonplace. The eminent jourenter upon it or not. It must be ad- nalist no doubt really meant his opinion mitted that in the majority of cases it to be taken satirically. He meant that does unfit a man for other duties. Once journalism, as now practised in some very a journalist, always a journalist; that is conspicuous instances, had no use for the rule, which the exceptions, as usual, history, or for political economy, or for a do but prove.

knowledge of the laws and constitutions The exceptions are mostly those jour- under which we live, or for any form of nalists who have a capacity for business. culture. Even then he went too far-so There is a business side to journalism, of far that his too cynical view need not be course, and an extremely important one. combated seriously. Cynicism is a mark A newspaper is a commercial enterprise. either of immaturity or of a perverse menTo write for it and edit it is one thing; tal development. His view is too much to own it is another, or to manage it or like that of the late Lord Beaconsfieldto control its finance. So broad is the still perhaps more familiarly known in distinction that the first question a young this country as Disraeli. Lord Beaconsman has to ask himself is what he means field one evening asked the party whip by journalism, and with which of its sev- what sort of a man a certain new member eral departments does he mean to occupy of the House of Commons was. “Oh, a himself. This business side would need very honest man indeed.” Then,” said an essay all to itself, and the essayist the great Parliamentarian, “he had better should be somebody who has made a for- go somewhere else. We have no use tune in a newspaper, or who has lost one. for that sort of thing here.” Parliament Perhaps the latter might be the more in- and journalism, said Matthew Arnold, structive. We all know who the men are are the two most effective means of bringwho have created great newspaper prop- ing the signs of the time to the notice erties, as it were out of nothing. They of the public. Would either of them be are not numerous — far less numerous effective if in neither of them there was than those who, with less risk and less ca- scope for either honesty or learning? No pacity, have accumulated their millions one of us believes that. in some other business. But that also I To say that the journalist, like the poet, put aside, for I must again assume that is born, not made, would be going too far. the reader who looks to journalism looks It goes too far when it is said of the poet. to it rather as an intellectual pursuit than But it is true of both that certain natuas a financial adventure. He is probably ral gifts or qualities are essential if any considering how he shall begin, not how real distinction is to come to either. Why he shall end; and if he meditates a plunge does any one look to journalism as a into newspaper life, it is because he feels profession? Not merely, I think, because in himself some gifts for writing, or has other professions are over-crowded. Danideas which he wants to express, or thinks iel Webster was once asked if the law he can gather news or serve as corre- was not over-crowded. “ There is always," spondent, or do something in some way said Webster, “room in the upper stories." toward producing the printed sheet which It is the upper stories at which you aim. interests him, and which he hopes, in his I have not a word to say to him who own time and way, to make interesting to thinks of entering on the lowest floor and others. Let us consider his case a little. staying there. He may earn his living,

He would ask himself, I suppose, first but he could that by making shoes,

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