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besides being inconvenient and uncom- animals, tends to discourage rather than fortable, greatly increased our weights. to spur them on, and Mr. Armitage selTo give an instance, my militza (fur dom used it. jumper), which on leaving the hut weigh- There is a popular picture of dog-drived a little under ten pounds, on our re- ing, of a man seated on a sledge twirling turn scaled nearly thirty pounds. The a long whip around his head, and careerrises of temperature and consequent wet ing gayly along at the rate of ten or twelve in the tent caused our furs to rot, and miles an hour, behind a team of dogs. the stench made thereby was absolutely This, unfortunately, is anything but a true indescribable.

We never thought of riding upon During our first sledge journey of last a sledge, but were more than contented if spring we were on several occasions cut it could be kept in motion at a slow walk off by open sea-water-of course with by the united efforts of the animals and masses of floating ice in it, running right ourselves. I hauled in a trace ahead of up to the ice precipices which fringe the the dogs, and led the way, while my comcoast, thus stopping all further advance panion, by continuous shouting and ocon the sea ice, and obliging us to search casional use of the whip, kept the dogs for a spot where, aided by high snow- at their work, and whenever the sledges drifts, we could haul our sledges by means stopped—which they did at the smallest of a purchase up the face of the glacier, obstruction-by hauling and shouting got and thus enable us to begin the climb them started again. up the steep incline of the ice-clad land. Ou more than one occasion we nearly This work entailed excessive labor, haul- lost our pony down crevasses, when toiling our sledges simply foot by foot, as ing over the high glacier land. the five remaining dogs stopped every One day last spring I was leading as eight or ten yards, and could only be usual with her, and Mr. Armitage was started again by hauling up the sledges following in my tracks with the dog and by shouting ourselves boarse. The team. On the even surface of the snow whip is of little use when every muscle there is nothing whatever to indicate the has to be strained to move at all, and be- yawning dark chasms, hundreds of feet sides being repugnant to any one fond of in depth, which lie concealed around us



by light bridges of snow, only a few inches in thickness. The snow-covered surface of the glacier looks as firm and stable as Piccadilly, not slight depression in the snow marks the hideous pitfall below, and the inexperienced traveller would probably tramp on with a feeling of perfect security. We, however, had been on glaciers many times before. Suddenly, without a moment's warning, “ Brownie" dropped through the crust with all four legs, and hung sus- ski—which are a great protection in such pended by a light bridge of snow over a cases—and at once dropped through into gaping abyss, the black depths of which the crevass up to his arms. I must conthe eye could not fathom. Fortunately fess that the next few seconds were anxshe was too much frightened and too ex- ious ones as I endeavored to hold up the hausted to move a muscle, otherwise she pony with one hand, and to render aswould have disappeared at once, taking sistance to Mr. Armitage with the other. her sledges with her. My companion, However, he fortunately managed to seeing what had happened, at once came scramble out into safety, and by passto my help, but unwisely stepped off his ing a line round the pony's neck we suc




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ceeded in extricating her from her peril. remaining dogs had been getting weaker ous position.

and weaker, and we still knew not the Two days later we sustained a severe distance that separated us from our hut loss in the death of our poor pony.

We on Cape Flora, or how far we yet had to had been confined to our tent by a hard travel. gale of wind, combined with heavy driv- On the evening of the second day of ing snow and dense mist, and our little this charming weather I heard her strugencampment was all but buried in the gling to get upon her feet, and I went drifts. The view from our tent was lim- outside the tent to render assistance, in ited to ten yards, beyond which we could which Mr. Armitage shortly afterwards see nothing “ Brownie" and our five joined me. For an hour, in the howling

gale, we endeavored to get her up, but she was too weak to stand. We wrapped her up in her blanket coat and made her as comfortable as we could, giving her the last handful of oats kept for an emergency. I knew it was all over with her. Next morning I found her dead and frozen hard.

We felt very sad at the loss of our poor old pony. At the hut she had become quite one of the family, and in good weather ran about loose as she pleased. She had been a faithful servant to us, and I

had been promising her all sorts of good times for the rest of her life if I could only get her back to England in safety. Poor animal, she deserved a better fate than to leave her bones on that dismal, silent glacier. With her, too, died more than half





maining draught-power, and necessitating On the 28th of July we left Cape Neale, our discarding three sledges and a great which headland had never been landed portion of our equipment, taking with us upon before.

upon before. I will now quote from my such articles only as were essential to life journal written at Cape Grant, immedior for scientific investigations.

ately after our escape from a severe gale, Our travels in Franz Josef Land were in which the expedition nearly came to not confined to sledging alone, but in the an abrupt end.

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summer, when the breaking up of the ice “We left Cape Neale about 11 A.M., rendered it possible, boat journey's were and rowed round the cape to clear a lot undertaken.

of drift-ice, and then set sail across the In the summer of 1895, as soon as the bay. After proceeding some distance Windward had broken loose from her Cambridge Bay began to open out, and winter quarters, I selected a crew of six, we could clearly make out the large, bold and in our whale-boat, twenty-five feet headland, with pockets running up on in length, and undecked, started off to either side, forming a prominent cape. explore the western land beyond Mr. On the western side the water appears to Leigh Smith's farthest.

run out in the form of straits, connecting Franz-Josef Land has a very dangerous Cambridge Bay with sea to the northcoast to boat upon. The greater portion ward. of its shores is faced with perpendicular “At 4.30 P. M. we passed Cape Ludlow, glacier walls, varying in height from which is merely an ice-covered and glathirty to eighty feet, and it is only at cier-faced promontory, with the upper very long intervals that black basaltic ridges of a rock showing through the ice. rocks jut out of the ice near the sea, ren- Landing was impossible here. Fisher dering landing possible. Everywhere made a rough sketch of it, and after we else the ice-cap overruns everything. had passed it some distance I took a pho

Violent gales are frequent and sudden, tographic snap-shot of it. We had gone accompanied by snow and dense mists through much ice, and as we sailed on even in summer.

toward Cape Lofley it became much closer. This, and the fact that the wind us, and had every appearance of a tight had freshened, and that the whole coast pack; and the wind was increasing in was glacier-faced, rendering landing im- force, with an ugly-looking sky and a possible and offering no shelter, made our rapidly falling barometer. Things lookprogress more and more risky. At 9 P.M. ed very threatening. It would be exwe rounded Cape Lofley and ran on to tremely nasty to be caught in a gale in within five or six miles of a cape west of our cockle-shell, especially amongst the it (Cape Mary Harnisworth), which I had ice we were in, which, although not first definitely seen from the summit of heavy enough to break the force of the Cape Neale. Beyond it lay a dense bank sea, was quite sufficiently so to smash our of fog. The wind had now increased to boat to match-wood. The whole coast is nearly a moderate gale, and the ice had fronted by high, overhanging glacier become very close, but of a low, level faces, rendering landing impossible. I description, of about four to five feet in decided to try and get back to Cape thickness, and being in motion, we had Neale, which was apparently the nearest many narrow escapes from it. We had spot we could land upon, and to wait taken in a reef in the lug-sail, and we there until the storm passed over before had now continually to put the boat's proceeding. head up into the wind and to shake the * The whole coast, reaching from the sail to avoid gusts.

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throat of Cambridge Bay as far as we “Cape Lofley is of the same character could see to the west, is one unbroken as Cape Ludlow, with just a little more glacier face, with the tops of basaltic rocks rock showing above the ice, but is glacier- jutting out of the ice, and with very high faced, and there was no place where it country behind it (it appeared to rise about was possible to land, still less to haul a 2000 feet). A more utterly desolate scene boat out. Cape Mary Harmsworth ap- it is impossible to imagine. Nothing but pears to be very similar in these respects. one huge glacier is discernible. Cape Heavy ice lay to seaward and ahead of Mary Harmsworth appeared to


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