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THE PATERNAL STATE IN FRANCE AND This modest title covers an interesting little

GERMANY." book, by far the most intelligent and satis- MR. GAULLIEUR classes together French defactory account yet published of a great experi- mocracy and German imperialism, so different ment in the reorganization of industry. The in form, as each a state — that is, a governBritish schools of economists have taken the ment corporation – practically unlimited in lead in defiving rigidly the distinct provinces its control of the lives, fortunes, and destiny of inanagement, capital, and labor in the so- of its citizens, and assuming to be wise enough cial tasks of production and distribution, so as to regulate these in minute detail. He traces to make it appear impossible that working- the origin and growth of each organization, meu could ever, as a class, take part in the describes its workings, crushing out individcontrol of important enterprises or share in ual energy and personal freedom, and depicts their profits. Yet it is in Great Britain that the results as a decaying civilization. It the doctrines of these schools have been prac- would be absuril to accept bis sketclı as a comtically refuted by associations of working-men plete account of society, or even of political organizing and directing vast manufactures, life, in each nation. Ho takes no adequate acwarehouses, and markets on the basis of a count of a multitude of ways in which the partnersbip, finding among their own mum- spirit of liberty is at work, through schools, ber every type of ability, and every grade the press, public and private debates, and tbe of skill needed. The movement began in a influence of foreign opinion, to counteract the small way more than fifty years ago; but it forces making for the enslavement of mind. It was for a long time limited by many difficul- is easy, then, to pronounce his sketch of these ties. Capital derived from the savings of countries a gross exaggeration; and the conwage-earners accumulated with painful slow- clusions he draws unsound. ness; leadership trained in the boldness and But no such short method of refnting Mr. breadth of enterprise was still harder to fiud; Ganllieur will avail with the thoughtful readthe habit of association was unt beginning to His picture of the paternal state in itself, be formed by laborers. But the gradual re- and in its effects, is true in principle, and moval of each obstacle accelerated the progress would be complete in fact but that the ideal of the principle. Already more thau one hun- of that state is nowhere realized. There dred and fifty associations of this class are is enough in the political and social effects in operation ; their annual product and sales of meddlesome omnipotence in the two great amount to ten millions of dollars; and there military nations to support his terrible inis a tendency regard this form of co- dictment of the theory that governments operation as the niost efficient means of in- should be vested with anthority to set riglit all proving the condition of working-men. Cer- that is wrong. This theory is not lield in the abtain it is that the movement, defying the tra- stract by any influential thinkers. But it has ditions of economical science, and introducing a thonsand concrete fornis, one and another of a new and potent element into the social life which is perpetually finding advocates even in of productive laborers, deserves careful study this country. It underlies, as a silout asby those who wish to understand the present sumption, the political thought of multitudes tendencies and hopes of industrial progress. of voters, and inspires the entire creed of wbat

Mr. Lloyd studies these highest successes of is called populism. The older sniperstition co-operation in Great Britain with some won- which has always been the antithesis of civilder that they are so little understood and not ization, which formerly upheld the divine at all rivalled in other countries, especially in right of kings to the obedience of subjects, our own. He is convinced that with a know- now strives to confer on the corporation called ledge of what their British contemporaries the state supreme powers, and to expect from have accomplished, and with intelligent lead- it superhuman wisdom in their exercise. This ership, American laborers are capable of as- book shows with startling clearness aud emsociation no less effective and beneficent. phasis why every such expectation is vain, Recognizing in co-operation, with its varied and proves that the future welfare of society forms, "the most important social movement depends not on the extension of the functions of our times outside of politics," and appreci- of government, but on the development of inating at their full value its grand achiere- dividual character, enterprise, and freedom. mients in many fields, he holds that “labor copartnership is its most advanced element,"

METAPHYSICS likely to take the lead in its future develop- One of the most acute thinkers of the age ment. All who desire the trne elevation of sums up in this work a lifetime of reflection labor in dignity and in its material conditions upon the question, "What is reality ?" The will regard the widest possible circulation of great lesson which the humau mind spends its this book as a valnable contribution to the

3 The Puternal State in France and Germany. By harmony of interests among classes.

HENRY GAULLIEUR. Post 8vo, Cloth, $1 25. Harper

and Brothers : New York and London. 1898. ? Labor Copartnership. By HENRY DEMAREST LLOYD. * Metaphysics. By BORDEN P. BOWNE. 8vo, Cloth, Illustrated. Post 8vo, Cloth, $100. Ilarper and $160. llarper and Brothers : New York and Loudon. Brothers : New York and Londoll. 1898.


years and its ages in learning is tbat "things stract categories, but intellect as the concrete are not what they seem.” The world of sense realization and source of both.... The couis material to construct the world of thought; ception of a reality existing by itself, apart and the more thorongh the process, the more from thouglt, independent of thought, and amazing the transformation. To adopt Mr. baving separate outological laws of its own, is Bowne's own illustration, the untaught eye a fiction of the first magnitude" (p. 86). “We gazing on the visible heavens takes in certain find thought able to save itself from contradicimpressions, which may have a value and a tion and collapse only as all reality is taken meaning, but wbat are these compared with up into mind.... A thongbt world is the ouly the new heaven and new eartlı in the mind knowable world; and a thought world is the of the astronomer? The reader who searches only real world” (p. 294). "The world of the foundations of his belief under the guid- things can be defined and understood only as ance of this work will experience a change po we give up the notion of an extra-mental reless radical in his view of the universe. Far ality altogether, and make the entire worki a more so, indeed, if he accepts its teachings as thought world; that is, it worlıl that exists final; for astronomical science but adjusts, rec- only throngli and in relation to intelligence. tifies, and develops the object of contemplation, Mind is the only ontological reality. Ideas hare while metaplıysical science destroys it as an only conceptional reality. Ideas energized by object, and creates it anew within the con- will bave plenomenal reality. Beside these templating mind.

realities there is no other" (pr. 422, 423). Professor Bowne first published his Meta- The jiealism of which Plato caught glimpses physics seventeen years ago. There was 110- throngli mist, of which Berkeley beard suggesthing revolutionary in its attitnde towards its tions from beyond the veil, became in the predecessors. Its leading positions had been mighty hands of Kant a product of steely foreshadowed by a series of philosophers, from logic, with which be fashioned the philosophy Berkeley and Kant onward, and liad been for- am theology of Germany for two generations. mally defended by Lotze. Yet the work was But no one has over set it forth with such conrevolutionary, in two ways; first, as it appear- sistency, such completeness, and in such a fascied just when a crass materialism in natural nating form as our author. His mental vision is science was exulting in having driven from often a mighty telescope which resolves the nethe universe, as veedless hypotheses, freedom, bulæ of Plato and of Berkeley into well-defined spiritual existence, and God. Metaphysical stars. He undermines the structure of Kaut's inquiry had become almost a curiosity; the Transcendental Æsthetics, and sets its repaired assumption that science is but the natural his- pinnacles upon better foundations. He shuns tory of phenomena, and is measured by the the paradoxes of Fichte, absorbs the lofty progress in their classification, threatened to aspiratiou of Schelling while silently spurning become the basis of education. At such a liis helpless logic, rejects all sides of Hegel's time a voice that challenged the whole fabric ambignity, and not content with translating as built upon a void, and with the anthority Lotze, extends his thought into new planes, of insight and logic compelled a hearing, was and fits it to new andiences. In the presence startling indeed. In the second place, vur au- of such an achievement, which does honor to thor applies to the subject a new method and our country and our time, minor criticisms a new style. Witbont lowering its dignity, he may be left to technical writers. These will brings it nearer to the common thought than doubtless fiud several passages in which the liis predecessors. Where many writers exact argument seems to be merely verbal, and the a painful attention, le invites and stimulates conclusion to turn upon ambiguity in terms. an eager curiosity. Hence minds accustomed They will even find a few of needless obscurity, to regard his theme as visionary need but to surprising the reader in a work whose general enter with bim on its discussion to be hurried tenor is, for its stiliject, miraculously clear. into new worlds of thought.

As a whole, the book must be carnestly comThe original work has now grown into two mended, not only to the special stndent of phivolumes. In the Theory of Thought and Know- losophy, but to every mind which feels a weariledge the conceptions or necessary assumptions ness of the apparent and longs for the real; upon which all beliefs are founded were evolved which is conscions that the facts of phenomand described. In the Metaphysics each of enal science and the dazzling dexterities of the them is analyzed, and its essential value de- arts lie all on one side of that firmament which termined. Sir William Hamilton proclaimed is its own dwelling, and feels an inner necessity that “in the world there is nothing great but of looking to the other side. Whether or not man; in man there is nothing great but such a mind find rest in the philosophic faith mind.” Professor Bowne, with Lotze, goes bere taught, it will gather new strength as further, avoiding a self - centred view of the well as richer store in the study; and will universe, to the more simple and stronger po- attain by it, if not the repose of trust, at least sition that in the world there is nothing but much of that sane and reverent scepticism mind. His confession of faith is bold, clear, which is the best safeguard against serions and consistent: "The deepest thing in exist- · error, avd for many the highest attainable wisence is neither being nor cansation, as alı- dom.


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With the Fifth .'

Frontispiece. Drawn FREDERIC REMINGTON Torpedo-boat Service.....

LIEUTENANT J. C. FREMONT, U.S.N. 829 Five Illustrations. From Drawings by H. REUTERDAHL, and from a Photograph.

Bad Weather.- The Porter" with the Squadron, awaiting the Admiral's Orders.— The Porterengaging the Batteries off San Juan.- The captured Schwarzkopf.-Ensign Gillis

attempting to unscrew the War-nose on a Spanish Torpedo. Hannah the Quakeress. A Poem.

EDNAH PROCTOR CLARKE 838 Pancho's Happy Family..

HENRIETTA DANA SKINNER 840 Sun-Down's Higher Self. A Story....


846 Two Illustrations by the Author. Our Seaboard Islands on the Pacific

..JOHN E. BENNETT 852 Heading, Eleven Illustrations, and Tail-piece. From Drawings by HENRY MCCARTER, Orson LOWELL, and Harry Fenn, and from Photographs by ROGERS (Santa Barbara) and BARLOW.

Avalon, Santa Catalina. -On the North Coast of Santa Cruz Island. - The two Caves at Val Dez Harbor, Santa Cruz.-On the North Farallones. Looking into Val Dez Harbor.The Interior of Santa Catalina Island. - Santa Cruz Island: the Main Ranch. - One Day's Catch.-Sheep-shearing.– The Great Murre Rookery, South Farallones.- A Gull's Nest.-An

Egg-picker's Cabin.- À Handful of the Flock, Santa Cruz Island. The Cardinal-Flower. A Poem..

FRANCIS STERNE PALMER 862 Old Chester Tales. VIII. Sally...

.MARGARET DELAND 863 Two Illustrations by HOWARD PYLE. Social Life in the British Army. Third Paper...


Orderly-Men receiving Meat Rations.-Reading Orders of the Day to Change of Guard. Reveille. -Pack Drill.— The Queen's Senior State Drummer, Grenadier Guard. At the

Sergeant's Quadrile Party: dressed to Kill.-Kit Inspection. Some Recent Explorations

.J. SCOTT KELTIE, LL.D., SEC. R.G.S. 892 With Four Maps.

Central Asia: Illustrating Dr. Sven Hedin's Journey, 1894-97.-Mr. A. H. Savage
Landor's Dash at Lhasa.-North Polar Regions : showing Recent Explorations.-Franz- Josef

The Apotheosis of War. A Poem...

VIRGINIA FRAZER BOYLE 902 The Span o' Life. A Story. Part II.

WILLIAM McLENNAN AND J. N. MCILWRAITH 903 Five Illustrations by F. DE MYRBACH. The Reprisal. A Story.....

H. W. MCVICKAR 925 Four Illustrations by the Author. Eastward Expansion of the United States.

ARCHIBALD R. COLQUHOUN 932 An Angel in a Web. A Novel. Part III. (Conclusion.).

.JULIAN RALPH 938 Four Illustrations by W. T. SMEDLEY. With the Fifth Corps

FREDERIC REMINGTON 962 Initial and Six Illustrations (including Frontispiece) from Drawings by the Author.

Captain Grimes's Battery going up El Poso Hill.—The biggest Thing in Shafter's Army was my Pack.Before the warning Scream of the Shrapnel."At the Bloody Ford of the San Juan.— The temporary Hospital, Bloody Ford. -The llounded, going to the Rear, cheered

the Ammunition."--In the Rear of the Battle: wounded on the San Juan Road. Bismarck

SIDNEY WHITMAN 968 With a Portrait from a photographic study, hitherto unpublished, made by Professor FRANZ

LENBACH, in 1896, while engaged on his celebrated portrait. Engraved by E. SCHLADITZ. Her Answer. A Poem ..


Illustrations by W. A. ROGERS, D. A. McKellar, H. B. Eddy, and OLIVER HERFORD.
Literary Notes.


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