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workmanship, that Mr. H. B. Marriott Watson in his thrilling story The Red Are? From becomes a strong eshibit for the romancers. first to last this is essentially a story of action, To begin with, he kuows how to construct a and those who are of that pleasant and good story; and, to finish, he knows how to write old-fashioned habit of identifying themselves

His “Galloping Dick," a collection of with the beroes or heroines of whom they read tales of the road, was, as far as we are aware, will do well to finish the book at one sitting, the first of his notable efforts in this direction. lest, sleeping over the complications besetting His parration of the several “ Episodes in the Hugo and the beautiful Helene, they find Life of Richard Ryder, Otherwise Galloping themselves the victims of nightmare of most Dick, Sometime Gentleman of the Road,” in- soul - harrowing quality. From the moment cluded in the little collection referred to, seemed of her first appearance amid scenes of blood, to a number of discriminating readers to pre- the young woman is sore beset, at first by the sage a future for Mr. Marriott Watson, whoso- trials which are inevitable for a inaiden in ever he might be. He had the manner of the love pretending that she is not, and later, as romancer, and he had the material which the the story progresses, by the more nerve-disromancer needs, and he had the art. These all turbing troubles which are the result of unshone conspicuously in “Galloping Dick," and scrupulous intrigue against her safety and one naturally looked forward to the author's honor by those who are either jealous of her next work. This bas come in the story The lover or hopelessly enamoured of her beauty. Adventurers.' Here again the autbor bas The hero Hugo is a sturdy figure, vigorous and indicated his power to hold the attention of aggressive, yet, when occasion requires, capable those who read him, and to impress them, if of betraying small weaknesses which show that so be they are of a critical inclination, with the he is, after all, human, and not a puppet clad workmanliness of his essay. Anthony Hope set in the immaculate armor of impossible virtue. the fashion of placing a mediæval romance in Mr, Crockett has studied his romauce thorthe nineteenth century, but he did this by con- oughly, and, it may be suspected, bis human juring up a mythical country which be called nature as well, and he has succeeded in makRuritauia. It is in no sense deprecatory of Mr. ing of his Hugo a most admirably living cavaHope's work to say that an anthor with lier. He does not compel him to do the imtain amount of imagination can do anything be possible to create an effect, but he requires chooses with an imaginary country. It becomes him to face an extraordinary amount of danger, a republic, an empire, a despotism, anything and in such a fashion withal that it all seems the pleases, according to his whim, in so far as to be the very thing nature herself intended it exists only in his own mind; and Mr. Hope the young man to do. Had it been otherwise, has been singularly restraintful in dealing with the unfortunate Ysolivde, a sort of fortmea land that is to be found now here on the map. telling villainess, for whom the reader acqnires, On the other hand, Mr. Marriott Watson bas as her character unfolds itself, a somewhat terdared to write of a sixteenth-century situation rified sympathy, would have found Hugo an in the late eighties of this nineteenth century, easy prey to her wiles, which her personal and to place the scene of action in a section of charms re-enforced to an alarming exteut, and England not entirely unknown to those who before which many a man of less heroic mould have travelled, Here treasure is to be found, would have fallen early in the combat. and the extraordinary bebavior of those on the Both the fighting and the loving are well scent form the burden of Mr. Watson's story. handled in “ The Red Axe," and while one The hero, Greatorex, starting out to make a breathes more freely when all the villains are fortune, becomes the unexpected heir of landed slain and the young couple come into their property, for which he is offered £20,000 within own, with every prospect of happiness ahead, twenty-four hours of his knowledge of the one is apt to regret that a new crop of adrenfact. Certainly, even in these days of fabulous turers without morals and of bloodthirsty infortunes, this onght to be sufficient for the clinations might not have been conjured up most grasping of adventurers. As a man of to keep Hugo and his Princess on the anxious sixteenth-century instincts, however, Greatorex seat for a dozen more chapters. aspires to more; and how he fails to get it, and in the end finds himself where he was at HOWEVER the peace - loving citizen may the beginning, minus some sleep and a good choose between the opposing schools of fiction, bit of blood and much vigor, Mr. Marriott there can be no doubt that for his own living Watson tells. It is not too much to say that he prefers the calmer mode of existence. Few, the story is such that any modern romancer if indeed any, of us would care personally to might well bave wished that he had writ- find ourselves confronted by the conditions of ten it.

life which prevailed under the reign of the

Duke Casimir, in the story of the “Red Axe.". ANOTHER striking exhibit for the cause of the Man has developed a habit of enjoying peaceromancers is provided by Mr. S. R. Crockett ful surroundings, and of feeling moderately 1 The Adventurers.

By H. B. MARRIOTT 2 The Red Are. A Novel By S R. CROCKETT. N. WATSON. Illustrated by A. I KELLER Post 8vo, Cloth, lustrated. Post 8vo, Cloth, $1 50. New York and $1 50. New York and London: Harper and Brothers. London: Harper and Brothers.

A Novel

secure in his own home. He lies in no espe- lies in the pictures. Without these Mr. Sutcial fear to-day of a murderous onslaught from pheu's verses would be little more than of that anybody, least of all from his rulers, and be variety of poem which the critic calls fugitive. may be said to enjoy the immunity; yet there is With them they become entirely worthy of more nervous prostration among us to-day thau covers, as the book meu say. No one need pick there seems to have been in the days of which up the book with the notion that he is to learn Mr. Crockett writes. Just what this proves that anything about the ancient and royal game. we of to-day may felicitate ourselves upon is “The Golfer's Alphabet" is in no sense the not clear. Certainly most of us would prefer Alphabet of Golf. But one may take it in nervous prostration to an ever-present fear that hand confident that he will extract from it a rascally knight, followed by a mob of even many a good langh, if he bas any sense of niore rascally men-at-arms, should swoop down humor at all. Those who consider golf a fad upon us while we were enjoying our after-din- will enjoy it, because to their eyes it will seem ner cigar in the bosom of our respective fami- to poke fun at the golfiac. Those who play lies. As a matter of fact, we of to-day cannot badly without knowing it will enjoy it bebut marvel how these heroes and heroines of cause they will consider it a good joke on the ancient times escaped that baffling disease other fellow, and the real golfer, who has got which the French called Americanitis. One beyond the point where he is at all sensitive can scarcely imagine a man or woman of our about his beloved diversion, will find it a own time going through the turmoil of an on- pleasing companion “ between holes,” because slanght such as that of which our romancers of he will recognize in the work of artist and the Crockett order write, without bringing up author the touch of two who are in keenest ultimately against the walls of a padded cell. sympathy with all that is virtuous in the

It may be that in the ancient days what game, and who have the most good - natured golf is to us having one's family kidnapped tolerance of all that is villanons therein-and and one's own throat ent was to the people of that it has both its virtues and its villanies is that time. It may be that as golf mitigates, the thing that makes of golf so human a game. if it does not entirely dispel, our nervous pros- Mr. Sutphen is to be congratulated upon the tration, so in medieval times the mere act of inspiration wbich led him to prepare a foundabeing routed out of bed after midnight to keep tion of verse for the highly interesting superone's household gods intact avd to retain pos- structure which Mr. Frost bas built upon it. session of one's family lent vigor and health Mr. Frost is to be congratulated on baving and brought bappiness and prosperity to the made a “stroke" so wholly worthy of the “lie” old-timers. It may be that the old-timers liked Mr. Sutphen has given him. that sort of thing, and if they did, we of to-day must be glad that they got it. But we of to- A DISTINGUISHED gentleman, of much wit, day, on the whole, prefer golf. It may separate and bigh standing as a poet, once observed families, but it does not destroy them, and to that the proper study of mankind is man. This that extent are we the happier, although it is dictum of Alexander Pope has stood the test of hardly to be expected that the romancers of years, and within the past twenty has been the ages to come will find in our exploits on received with such marked consideration that the links quite as much material that will prove a large number of persons have gone deeply exciting to their readers as those of this latter into the question of how mankind may study end of the nineteenth century find in the ex- man scientifically. The conclusions of these ploits of the midnight marauder of the good investigators bave, of course, been various, but old times.

the general trend has been toward a common Golf, bowever, for us, possesses much charm proposition that a thorougbly scientific course in fiction, becanse it is by degrees becoming so in man must begin with the child, man having much of a factor in our daily lives, and the been a child at some period of his life. Some fictionist who takes note of this fact is certain extremists bave maintained that even infancy of av ultimate reward. Among the first to do is not a sufficiently early period at which to this is Mr. W. G. van Tassel Sutphen, who begin the process, and these have delved somesome months ago put forth a collection of wbat into the principles of heredity and preclever tales of the fair green under the title natal environment; but this would seem like of “The Golficide.” This he has now followed the starting of an endless chain, stretching up with The Golfer's Alphabet, which Mr. A. backward into the past to Father Adam and B. Frost has illustrated with that same rare Mother Eve, and beyond them to the link that and rich bumor which he brings to bear upon has escaped us, and at each step becoming everything he touches. It is in no spirit of more varionsly complicated. depreciation of the merit of Mr. Sutphen's work The study of a child, however, from the moiy “ The Golfer's Alphabet” that one observes ment it becomes a material fact in life, and that the greatest charm of the little volume breathes, and shows a sense of the discomforts

of existence, and manifests a capacity to resent .: The Golfer'8 Alphabel. Illustrations by A. B. Frost certain ills for which it is not responsible and Rhymes by W.G.VANT SUTPHEN. 4to. Illuminated which it has not deserved, seems to be a reasonBoards, $1 50. New York and London: Harper and Brothers.

able and useful field of endeavor for the speculative mind; and for so long a time as the specu- would like to see relegated to the limbo of lative mind interests itself in real children, aud such words as “ fail” and “can't”; the hints pot in theoretical ones, the conclusions reached as to the value of intelligent anticipation of a may be considered to be of value. The ab- child's reasonable wants as conducive to “ sestract child may be a comfortable sort of young renity”-these and many others go to make a person for a pbilosopher to get along with, but volume which at times seems somewhat too he becomes, after all, an impossible creature dryly analytical for any but the scientific, ove upon whom to base any definite conclusion well worthy of the attention of a father or a having scientific worth. The real child, the mother with an ivfant just launched upon the aggressive boy or the active girl, studied sym- seas of life. pat betically by one who regards children as By no means the least interesting feature of worth while, and not as necessary evils for the the book is its illustration, made from the boy's prolongation of the race, becomes a premise efforts with pencil and with crayon at various worthy of any logician's attention.

stages of his development. No one who has It is such a study as this that Mrs. Louise ever had a boy come to him with his first E. Hogan has given is in her book, A Study artistic venture in the drawing of a locomoof a Child. It is manifest from the out- tive, or in the portraiture of bis various uncles set that the author regards children as they and aunts, will view these with anything less should be regarded, not as young bundles of than a sympathetic interest. savage propensities and dangerous possibilities, inferior, and needing drastic treatment, Once the oluject of Mrs. Hogan's work is but as beings deserving of respect; having attained, a good finishing course in manfulness rights which their elders may not override or womanfulness becomes the quest of the truly at will, and tending more toward good than reasonable being, and even as it requires some toward evil. Every parent who cares for his knowledge in the art of training children to offspring must find in Mrs. Hogan's attitude achieve the best and surest results, so there is throughout sometbing which touches a respon- some science reqnired in learning How to Get sive chord, and marvel as well at her patience in Strong, and How to Stay So. We are not living observing so closely, and for so long a period of in the age of Samson, when it would appear that years, in the boy of her pages, so many seeming the acquirement of strength followed close ly trivial details, all of which, however, when upon an avoidance of the barber. We are, it gathered together, form a work of undonbted is true, living at a time when an abnormal hirvalue to the scientific investigator of the ways sute adorument is often an indication, among of the young. It is to be regretted that the young men, of cleverness at football; but it is early chapters show some lack of careful prepa- by no means trne that the best half and quarter ration, in that the text presents certain contra- backs are rated according to the length of their dictions, which, while not particularly impor- hair. What it is that induces strength Mr. tant in themselves, may lead the hypercritical Blaikie told us many years ago, when his little reader to doubt the accuracy of the study as book was first published. How to keep tbat a whole. It does not matter much, of course, strength after it was acqnired he also essayed whether a small youth pronounces the 1 in to say, and so successfully that bis work beclock for the first time on July 18 or on Octo- came a standard upon the subject. For this ber 20 in his third year of existence, but reason it has been thought wise to issue a when the diarist states that he did it for the new edition of the famous work, which Mr. first time on both of these dates, the reader nat- Blaikie bas revised wherever the developments nrally wonders which of the two statements is of the years succeeding the first publication correct, and some of the more scientific will wou- of his papers have seemed to make revision der if either is so. Similarly the word “papa” necessary. Of the new edition it need only is recorded to have been first used on a choice be said that it is the same anthoritative conof dates, as well as the word “kitchen." These sideration of a vital topic, by one who is inaccuracies, however, are not vital. They thoronghly versed in the science of acquiring merely show that the author has not the edito- strength, as was the old. It is a text-book rial instinct, which is not an uncommon failing that every student of his own physical well

While there can be no doubt that the book being should thoroughly digest. Whatever will convey more that is suggestive to the Mr. Blaikie says concerning the acquirement psychologist than to the ordinary lay reader, and the retention of a 'sound body may be there is much in Mrs. Hogan's study of the regarded as ex cathedra, and any reader who little lad that the uscientific parent will do accepts his hints as to pbysical development, well to take to heart. The suggestions as to and at the same time rejects the anthor's sinhappy environment in the nursery; as to the gular system of punctuation and italicization, mutual attitude of parent and child; the will find himself in a fair way to acquire muscle author's animadversions against the eternal and a reasonably good literary style. “ dov't,” which every healthy-minded child

5 How to Get Strong, and How to Stay So. By Wil 4 A Study of a Child By Louise E Hogan. Illus

Illustrated. Post 8). Post 8vo, Cloth, $2 50. New York and Lon- Cloth, $1 75. New York and London: Harper and don: Harper and Brothers.

Brothers

LIAM BLAIKIE.

New Edition.

trated

BOOKS ON POLITICAL, SOCIAL, AND MENTAL SCIENCE.

G C

THORPE'S CONSTITUTIONAL HISTORY.'

the popnlar mind at work upou the elements

of government, striving to define its purposes, MIVE to the Malays of the Philippines a and to devise the best methods of empowering

constitution and statute - book like our it to fulfil them, while preventing any perverown, yet you will not bave reorganized socie- sion of its powers. ty nor secured private rights and public order. From the first, conflicting theories come to Destroy every vestige of government and writ- light, each of which seeks to embody itself in ten law in England, and in a month they will institutions and control the future of the State be restored. The meaning of these indisputable and nation, but no one of them bas become facts is that the ultimate safegnards of civili- supreme. How to promote the welfare of the zation are not fornis of government and laws, whole vast community has been recognized as but beliefs, habits of thought and of customary the practical problem, not soluble in advance conduct in the people, of which constitutions by any wisdom, but to be worked out in deand laws are but the partial expression. It is tail under the pressure of successive needs as not the record of the fundamental law and its they arise. The solution actually reached in changes alone that Mr. Thorpe attempts to the present political organization of the counwrite, but the history of the popular mind in try could not have been foreseen at any earlier its attitude towards government, of those con- period, and may be said to differ as widely victions which form constitutions and make from the views of the founders of the republic the administration of them possible. This modo as the external life of the people differs from of approaching the subject gives fresliness and that of a century ago. But this organization interest to the whole inquiry. Between the is an evolution, a natural growth, and is still, date of the Declaration of Independence and as it must erer be while it has vital strength the middle of the nineteenth century a gradual and serves its end, in a formative state. Evrevolution took place in the political thought ery feature of it from the first has been open of the country, more profound and more mo- to challenge and discussion, as an experiment. mentous than any sudden transformation in the The perpetual discussion bas been the highest form of a government. It is this evolution of political education of the people. American democracy which Mr. Thorpe under- Yet the process bas, on the whole, been protakes to describe.

gressive and in well-defined lines. The princiThe industry with which he bas collected ple of equality before the law was from the his evidence deserves nnqualified praise. Al first a leading article of the political faith proready during the War of Independence the colo- fessed by all parties. But the traditional vies began to frame constitutions; and the rep- forms of society were founded in inequalities, resentative bodies through wbich this work and the new principle could only step by step was done gave the fullest expression of the make its way, as one after another the distincpeople's political thongbt in its formative tious and privileges of class were broken down. stage. The constitutional convention, which The elective franchise was steadily widened then took form as an institution, has contin- by abolishing qualification by property and ned to flourish thronghont our national life. reducing the required time of residence, and Such a convention has been commissioned by finally by removing restrictions of race. Electhe citizens of every State, and by some of the tion by the people was substitnted for apStates four times or more. The instruments pointment by the chief of the State, first in thus produced are themselves instructive; but selecting executive officers, and then even in it is the process of making them that best forming the judiciary. Each decade brought shows their significance. From the journals the government nearer to its source in the popand debates of these conventions Mr. Thorpe ular will, and broadened its basis by making bas drawn a mass of information of the high- the elections more and more the expression of est value, which has not heretofore been acces- that will. Mr. Thorpe has appreciated more sible to students. Selecting four typical com- bigbly, and therefore inore accurately, than bis monwealtbs, in which the varying processes of predecessors, the importance of this movement, political thoagbt sufficiently illustrate the in- though he has omitted to notice one most sigtellectual conditions of all parts of the coun- nificant aspect of it—the removal of social retry, he gives a sketch of the work done by strictions upon the suffrage. In the early days constitutional conventions in Louisiava, Ken- of the republic the polls were attended by tucky, Michigan, and California. Here we see but a small proportion of the qnalitied voters.

Partly from apathy, but largely also from the "A Constitutional History of the American People, pressure of a public opinion which regard1776-185). By FRANCIS NEWTON THOMPE with an insied with jealousy votes not sustained by propTwo Volumes, Crown 80. Cloth, $500. Harper and Brothers : New York and Lindou. 1898.

erty, intelligence, and respectability, multitudes of them refrained from voting. The suffrage. But his forecast of the possible fuprogress of tiie democracy is clearly seen in ture development of the conception of citizenthe gradual growth of a public sentiment ship deserves to be weighed with care. “The which regards the exercise of his franchise as Constitutional Convention of the eighteenth the right and the duty of every citizen. In century.... enfranchised the white man. The spite of the vastly greater proportion of un- New York Convention of 1821 enfranchisel naturalized immigrants, and in spite of the free persons of color. President Lincoln, the complaint so often heard that “the better reconstruction conventions, and Congress in classes ” take no part in politics, the percent- the Fourteenth Amendment of the Constituage of the adult freemen voting in recent elec- tion enfranchised the African slave. These tions for President is more than one-balf lar- are the three great steps in the process of poger than it was seventy years ago.

litical enfranchisement in American democracy, Nor cau this extension of the basis of our But each of these steps was taken practically institutions be regarded as a transfer from the by the States rather than by the United States, competent to the incompetent, from the more because the right to vote is a privilege granted to the less intelligent. On the contrary, de- by a commonwealth, not by the nation. The mocracy has not only made the whole people fourth step in the enfranchisement of a citizen rulers, but lias undertaken to fit them for rnde. may be the constitutional definition of his At the beginning of the century, in 1802, rights and privileges by the United States, and Congress authorized one-sixteenth of all the the necessary abolition of all common wealth land in the territory northwest of the Olio to distinctions in the elective franchise." (Vol. bo set aside for the support of schools. Yet a II., p. 354.) generation later public schools were almost It is impossible bere even to enumerate the unknown. But with the demand for universal important questious of policy, the history of snffrage came that for universal education, which will be found in Mr. Thorpe's pages. The experiment, feebly made at first in a few Many of thein, while of great bistorical interest, States, succeeded but imperfectly, and as late already belong wholly to the past. But other as 1840 could hardly be said to have enlisted questions, however they bave seemed at times popular favor. But a few years later the doc- to be finally decided, rise again into discussion trine that the community owes to every child and doubt. Sball the right to vote continue the training of an intelligent voter was ac- to be confined to males ? Is it best that judges cepted as a constitntioval principle. The con- be appointed or elected ? The nation cannot mon schools liave now become the chief source permanently continue one method and the of the nation's intellectual life, and each suic- States another. How sball the pardoning ceeding year those who have acquired in them power be exercised? How far shall the tena clear insight into the rights and duties of dency to restrict the powers of the State gov. citizenship form an ever greater majority of ernments be permitted to operate, while the its voters. This silent revolution is traced by powers of the President coutinne to grow? our author from its beginnings to its practi- low can bribery and corrupt influence be excal completion. But he has not inquired to cluded from legislatures! What degree of what extent these schools foster the desire for autonomy can safely be given to great cities! a paternal government, and accustom benefi- What limits should be set to the authority of ciaries to trust to organized society instead of legislatures over corporations? Wbat public to individual effort and enterprise, a qnestion improvements must be constructed by the which he may well consider, shonld be, as ev- State? To what extent should it build highery reader will wish, continue his history to ways, and control or even conduct transportathe present time.

tion? How can taxes be levied with approsiThe great controversy over slavery, which mate equity! Sball the State provide for a few ended with emancipation by civil war, has citizens a higher education than it is possible been described in hundreds of books, and every to give to all! Can prison discipline and aspect of it has its special literature. But the prison labor be reconciled with the claims of annals of the thoughts of leaders on both sides, the labor unions? How can the power of apof the expression they strove to give these pointment bo best controlled for the public thongbts in law, and of the ivfluences which interest? These and scores of other questions controlled them, are nowhere more instructive- are pending with experiments going on to ly written than here. Mr. Thorpe gives to illustrate the argnments on every side, and the the problem of the negro's share in American final answers will be embodied in the constilife its true place, and shows how it affected tutions of the future. No better training for all statesmanship, and mingled inextricably the consideration of them can be found than with every political question. He keeps stead- the study of this work, in which the princiily in view the resistless force of the doctrines ples on which each decision must turu are of liberty and equality, forever undermining traced from their simplest elements as revealed the oligarchy of the slaveholders. No doubt in the first experiments of democratic governbe ascribes too much importance, as a decisivement to those more mature if pot fival formulas moment in the struggle, to the action of New which have resulted from generations of es. York in 1821 in admitting free negroes to the perience in orderly freedom.

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