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REPORT OF THE SUPERVISOR OF THE GLACIER NATIONAL
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR,
GLACIER NATIONAL PARK,
Belton, Mont., September 28, 1915. SIR: I have the honor to submit the following report on Glacier National Park for 1915:
The Glacier National Park was established by the act of Congress approved May 11, 1910 (36 Stat. L., 354), and is located in northwestern Montana. It embraces over 1,400 square miles of the Rocky Mountains and adjacent territory, extending north from the main line of the Great Northern Railway to the Canadian border. The eastern boundary is the Blackfoot Indian Reservation, and the western boundary is formed by the Flathead River. The park, which is irregular in shape, has an area of approximately 915,000 acres. Its greatest length in a northwesterly-southeasterly direction is about 60 miles with a maximum width approaching 40 miles.
Within its borders are attractions for the scientist, nature lover, and tourist unsurpassed in any country in the world, tourists of world-wide experience pronouncing it the Switzerland of America. The elevations in the park range from 3,100 feet to over 10,400 feet. The central portion of the area on the northwestern-southeastern axis is high and rugged and in sharp comparison with the open plains of the east and the valley of the Flathead River on the west. Within its confines are 60 active glaciers, these ice sheets being the sources of beautiful cascades and roaring mountain streams flowing into innumerable clear placid lakes for which the park is famed, the most noted of these being Lake McDonald, Lake St. Mary, Lake Ellen Wilson, Iceberg Lake,
Red Eagle Lake, Kintla Lake, Bowman Lake, Waterton Lake, Logging Lake, Quartz Lake, Harrison Lake, and Two Medicine Lake.
Lake McDonald, the southern end of which is situated 27 miles from Belton, a station on the main line of the Great Northern Railway, is one of the most beautiful lakes in America. It is about 3,150 feet above sea level, nearly 10 miles long, 2 miles wide, and surrounded by mountains covered with virgin forests of western larch, cedar, white pine, Douglas fir, spruce, and hemlock. Upper Lake St. Mary is on the eastern side of the mountains about 32 miles northwest of Glacier Park station. It is about 10 miles long, with a maximum width of 1 mile, and toward the upper end the mountains rise in rugged walls not far from the water's edge. Its elevation is about
4,470 feet above sea level. The principal glaciers in the park are Blackfoot, Grinnell, Harrison, Pumpelly, Red Eagle, Sperry, Kintla, Agassiz, Chaney, Rainbow, and Carter. In most of the lakes of thi park there is excellent fishing at certain times of the year, and at others many streams afford fine sport with hook and line. Within the park boundaries there are many varieties of game which are indigenous to this section of the country, such as bear, elk, moose, deer, bighorn sheep, mountain goat, mountain lion, as well as the smaller furred animals of the forest.
There are now approximately 78 miles of road within the park available for vehiclo transportation.
St. Mary-Babb Road.—This road extends from St. Mary camp to the foot of the Lower St. Marys Lake, a distance of approximately 10 miles. Work was commenced on this road August 3' reported in my last annual report, since which time the roau graded to a minimum width of 14 feet and a maximum width of 20 feet. Additional drainage was installed and 520 yards of the road has been graveled.
Two Medicine Road.Four thousand nine hundred and nine fer was cleared 30 feet wide and graded to a width of 16 feet at a cost of $3,800.
Many-Glacier Highway.—Work of repairing this road started on April 28, 1915, and three teams and five men were employed on this road until the close of the last fiscal year. Approximately 5 miles of road was repaired and 6 new culverts were installed and drain ditches opened up. On July 19, 1915, the new work of graveling was started on this road and an average of 12 teams and 15 men were employed; 1,668 yards of the road has been graveled up to date. Two teams and four men were employed cleaning out drains, repairing road for graveling, and putting in culverts from July 20 to September 14, 1915.
On the Many-Glacier Highway between the park line and the St. Mary River, outside of the Glacier National Park, an average of 27 teams and 35 men were employed on this road since July 27 hauling and spreading gravel, cleaning drain ditches, and installing culverts
. Approximately 5,000 yards of gravel has been delivered and spread upon the road up to date.
Divide Creek Road—New drainage has been provided for this road and heavy slides removed from the grade at Divide Creek. Three hundred and eighty yards of the road has been resurfaced with gravel. Grader and drag has been placed upon the road after every heavy rain to keep it in repair.
Cut Bank Road.— The Cut Bank Road from the park line to the main traveled automobile road has been kept in repair. Eighteen new culverts have been installed and road has been graded approximately 3 feet wider for a distance of 4 miles. The repair work on this road was done out of the $1,000 allotted by the Department out of the 1916 Glacier National Park appropriation.
Lower Two Medicine Road.--This road extends from the park line to the main traveled automobile road. Approximately 3 miles of the road was repaired, culverts installed, grading and graveling work