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MUIR WOODS NATIONAL MONUMENT.

On December 31, 1907, the Secretary of the Interior, for and on behalf of the United States, accepted from William Kent and his wife, Elizabeth Thatcher Kent, of Chicago, Ill., in accordance with the act of Congress approved June 8, 1906, entitled "An act for the preservation of American antiquities," a deed conveying to the United States the following-described land, situate in Marin County, Cal.:

Beginning at a stake, A. 7, driven in the center of the road in Redwood Cañon and located by the following courses and distances from the point of commencement of the tract of land which was conveyed by the Tamalpais Land and Water Company to William Kent by a deed dated August 29th, 1905, and recorded in the office of the county recorder of Marin County, California, Book 95 of Deeds, at page 58, to wit: North eighteen degrees thirty-two minutes, east two hundred thirty-two and sixty-four hundredths feet, north sixty-six degrees thirty minutes, west one hundred and sixty-seven and thirty-four hundredths feet, north eighty-six degrees twenty-five minutes, west ninety-eight and sixty-two hundredths feet, north seventy degrees. no minutes, west two hundred and forty-one and seven hundredths feet, north fifty-seven degrees twenty-nine minutes, west one hundred seventy-eight and three-hundredths feet, north forty-six degrees twenty-two minutes, west two hundred thirty-five and thirty-nine hundredths feet, and north twenty-four degrees twenty-five minutes, west two hundred twenty-five and fifty-six hundredths feet; thence from said stake, A. 7, the point of beginning, south fifty-four degrees nineteen minutes, west fourteen hundred eighty-two and seven-tenths feet to Station A. 8, from which Station 4 of the survey of the tract of land conveyed to William Kent as aforesaid bears south fifty-four degrees nineteen minutes, west three hundred ten feet distant; thence from said Station A. 8 north forty-seven degrees thirty minutes, west twenty-six hundred eighty feet; thence due west six hundred fifty and eight-tenths feet; thence north fifty-two degrees thirty minutes, west eleven hundred feet; thence north nineteen degrees forty-five minutes, west ten hundred fifty-eight and four-tenths feet to Station A. 12, from which Station 16 of the survey of the tract of land conveyed to William Kent as aforesaid bears south eighty-three degrees forty-two minutes, west three hundred ten feet distant; thence north eighty-three degrees forty-two minutes, east thirty-one hundred nine and two-tenths feet; thence north fifty-five degrees twenty-eight minutes, east fifteen hundred fifty feet to an iron bolt, three-quarters of an inch in diameter and thirty inches long, Station 14; thence south seventeen degrees eighteen minutes, east twenty-eight hundred twenty and ninetenths feet; thence south four degrees ten minutes, east nine hundred thirty feet to a stake, A. 16, driven in the center of a graded road; and thence southforty-five degrees seventeen minutes, west two hundred ninety-eight and fivetenths feet to said stake A. 7, the place of beginning. Containing an area of two hundred ninety-five acres, a little niore or less.

On January 9, 1908, the President, by virtue of the power and authority vested in him by section 2 of said act, declared, proclaimed, and set apart the lands described as a “national monument to be known and recognized as Muir Woods National Monument." The Secretary of the Interior had, prior to the date last mentioned, withdrawn the lands from entry or sale.

On September 10, 1908, the department prescribed regulations as follows for the government and protection of said monument:

The following rules and regulations for the government of the Muir Woods National Monument, in the State of California, set aside under the provisions of the act of Congress approved June 8, 1906, are hereby established and made public pursuant to the authority conferred by said act:

1. Fires are absolutely prohibited.
2. No firearms allowed.
3. No fishing permitted.

4. Flowers, ferns, or shrubs must not be picked, nor may any damage be done to the trees.

5. Vehicles and horses may be left only at the places designated for this purpose.

6. Lunches may be eaten only at the spots marked out for such use, and all refuse and litter must be placed in the receptacles provided.

7. Pollution of the water in any manner is prohibited. It must be kept clean enough for drinking purposes.

8. No drinking saloon or barroom will be permitted.

9. Persons rendering themselves obnoxious by disorderly conduct or bad be havior or who may violate any of the foregoing rules will be summarily removed.

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Muir Woods National Monument, Cal., in T. 1 N., R. 6 W., Mount Diablo meridian ;

created January 9, 1908.

While the sundry civil act approved May 27, 1908 (35 Stat., 317), was pending before Congress attention was called to the fact that no provision was made for the salaries of custodians or for other protection of national monuments, as recommended in the estimates for these services, and that the department would be embarrassed in its efforts to protect monuments from vandalism and unauthorized exploration or spoliation because of a lack of funds. The department had recommended an appropriation of $5,000 for these purposes. No appropriation, however, was made by Congress for the purpose. On July 11, 1910, Andrew Lind, of California, was appointed custodian of the Muir Woods National Monument, at a salary of $900 per annum, payable from the appropriation “ Protection of public lands and timber," and he is still in charge.

These lands consist of one of the most noted redwood groves in the State of California, and were held in private ownership by Mr. Kent. The tract is of great scientific interest, contains many redwood trees which have grown to a height of 300 feet and have a diameter at the butt of 18 feet or more. It is located in a direct line about 7 miles from San Francisco, Cal., and is in close proximity to a large and growing suburban population.

In Mr. Lind's report for the year he states:

During the fiscal year 1915 the amount of $960 was expended from the appropriation for “ Protecting public lands, timber, etc., 1915," on account of the Muir Woods National Monument, this amount being expended entirely for services of the custodian and his assistant.

The custodian and his assistant have been engaged exclusively in patrolling the park, enforcing the rules and regulations governing national monuments, and in removing fallen trees, branches, etc., from the roads and trails.

It is estimated that approximately 25,000 people visited the park during the year. The bad weather experienced during the first five months of the calendar year 1915 has resulted in a reduction of the number of visitors.

The condition of the roads and trails in the park remains unchanged, except that in the Ocean View trail, along the east side of the park, the brush has grown to a considerable height. The brush in the fire lanes has also grown considerably.

It is recommended that the sum of $500 be expended for cleaning the existing fire lanes and for removing brush from the Ocean View trail. Attention is respectfully invited to the fact that these fire lanes have not been cleaned since July, 1912; in their present condition they are practically no protection to the monument.

PINNACLES NATIONAL MONUMENT.

This national monument, created by proclamation of January 16, 1908, embraces 2,091.21 acres of land, of which approximately 1,900 acres is under governmental control, a small portion having been patented to private ownership prior to creation of the monument.

The name is derived from the spirelike formations arising from 600 to 1,000 feet from the floor of the canyon, forming a landmark visible many miles in every direction. Many of the rocks are so precipitous that they can not be scaled. A series of caves, opening one into the other, lie under each of the groups of rock. These caves vary greatly in size, one in particular, known as the Banquet Hall, being about 100 feet square with a ceiling 30 feet high. The caves are entered through narrow canyons with perpendicular rock walls and overhanging bowlders. One huge stone, called the Temple Rock, is almost cubical in form. It stands alone in the bottom of the canyon and its walls rise perpendicularly to a height of over 200 feet. There are also several specimens of“ balancing rocks ” in each of the groups. The pinnacles, domes, caves, and subterranean passages of the monument are awe-inspiring on close inspection, and are well worth a visit by tourists and lovers of nature in its primitive state.

There are two groups of the so-called Pinnacles Rocks, known locally as the Big Pinnacles and the Little Pinnacles. The general characteristics of the two groups are similar. Each covers an area of about 160 acres very irregular in outline. There are springs of good water in what are known as the Chalone and Bear Creek gorges.

There are no stage lines to the monument. The best means of reaching the monument is by private conveyance over private roads

from either Soledad or Gonzales, in Monterey County, Cal., stations on the main line of the Southern Pacific Railway distant, respectively, 12 and 14 miles; or from Hollister, in San Benito County (also on the Southern Pacific), distant 35 miles. There is a good public highway from Hollister to within about 6 miles of the monument, from which a private road runs through several ranches for about 4 miles that is passable for automobiles. Between the end of the private road and the main gorge of the monument a road passable for teams leads up the bed of Chalone Creek. The route from Hollister is the most direct, as it leads to the east side of the pinnacles, where the gorges and caves are easily accessible, while the routes from Soledad or Gonzales lead to the west side and necessitate a journey, either by foot or saddle horse, to the eastern side to reach the caves

and gorges.

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Pinnacles National Monument, Cal.; embraces parts of Tps. 16 and 17 S., R. 7 E.

M. D. M. ; created January 16, 1908.

TUMACACORI NATIONAL MONUMENT.

This monument embraces 10 acres of land in Santa Cruz County, Ariz., about 57 miles south of Tucson and 17 miles north of Nogales, relinquished to the United States by a homestead entryman for the purposes specified in the act of June 8, 1906. Upon the tract is located a very ancient Spanish mission ruin, dating it is thought from the latter part of the sixteenth century, built by Jesuit priests from Spain and operated by them for over a hundred years,

After the year 1769 priests belonging to the order of Franciscan Fathers took charge of the mission and repaired its crumbling walls, maintaining peaceable possession thereof for about 60 years. In the early part of the nineteenth century the mission was attacked by Apache Indians, who drove the priests away and disbanded the peaceable Papago Indians residing in the vicinity of the mission. When found by the Americans, about the year 1850, the mission was in a condition of ruin.

The ruins as they stand consist of the walls and tower of an old church building, the walls of a mortuary chamber at the north end of the church building, and a court or church yard, surrounded by an adobe wall 21 feet thick and 6 feet high.

The walls of the church building are 6 feet thick, built of adobe and plastered both inside and outside with lime mortar 1 inch thick. The dome over the altar and the belfry tower are constructed of burned brick, this being one of the characteristics of the architecture of the mission, in which respect the construction differs from other early Spanish missions. Inside the dimensions of the church are 18 feet wide by 75 feet in length. The part used for the altar is situate at the north end. It is 18 feet square, surmounted with a circular dome, finished on the inside with white plaster decorated or frescoed in colors. The plaster and decorations are in a good state of preservation, but the altar is entirely gone. On the east of the altar room there is a sanctuary chamber, 16 by 20 feet, 20 feet high, covered with a circular roof built of burned brick, supported in the center by an arch. This is the only part of the mission which is now roofed over. In the south end of the church there was an arched partition which formed a vestibule. This partition has been removed. The outside wall of the north end of the church building is decorated with white plaster studded at regular intervals with clusters made of fragments of broken slag and broken brick.

About 25 feet north of the church building, and in the center of the churchyard, there is a circular mortuary chamber. The wall is 31 feet thick by 16 feet high, built of adobe, surmounted on the top with a row of ornamental cornice brick (made of burned brick). The chamber has one entrance. The walls were originally decorated on the outside with white plaster studded with fragments of red brick.

T'le entrance to the church is at the south and has an arched doorway. The arch has partially broken out and the wall above thereby weakened. To the east of the entrance there is a room, about 18 feet square, with a winding stairway inside leading up to the belfry. The stairs, however, are gone, only the adobe walls on which the stairs were built being left. Access to the belfry is gained by means of this old stairway. This room is surmounted with the belfry tower, which is constructed of burned brick. The walls supporting the tower are adobe, and are rapidly wearing away. The support under the southwest corner of the belfry is now gone, and the brickwork is overhanging with no support and liable to fall at any time. Through action of the elements the church, appurtenant buildings, and inclosing walls are in a very bad state of ruin, most of the roofs having long since fallen in and portions of the main building having become undermined. No preservative or restorative measures have been taken, and until funds become available therefor much further deterioration is to be expected.

On March 19, 1915, the department appointed Mr. W. E. Balcom, of Tubac, Ariz., custodian of this monument. Mr. Balcom has for the past seven years lived on a ranch immediately adjoining the monument, and has done important service in protecting the ruins from vandalism.

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