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mite formations of great variety in size, form, and color, the equal of, if not rivaling, the similar formations in the well-known Luray caves in Virginia. The cavern has been closed to the general public for some time on account of depredations by vandals.

The cavern is located about three-quarters of a mile northeasterly from Cavern, a post office in Jefferson County, and a station on the Northern Pacific Railway about 45 miles southwest from Butte, Mont. It is situated in a massive deposit of what is known as Madi

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Monument Boundary

Lewis and Clark Cavern National Monument, Mont., embracing lot 12, sec. 17. T. 1 N.

R. 2 W.; Montana principal meridian; created by proclamations of May 11, 1908, and May 16, 1911.

son limestone, which at this place dips steeply to the southwest. The various chambers in the cave as far as explored extend for a distance of about 700 feet horizontally and 350 feet vertically, but there are many openings and passages that have never been explored. The chambers and passages seem in general to follow the dip of the formation. The cavern is best reached by following the railroad track easterly for about a quarter of a mile and then following a circuitous road or trail about 1} miles. The mouths of the cavern are 1,300 feet

above the railroad, and the climb requires about an hour and a half. Its two entrances, which are about 100 yards apart, are upon the walls of a deep canyon about 500 feet below the rim.

The second proclamation establishing this monument is as follows:

Whereas the unsurveyed tract of land containing an extraordinary limestone cavern and embracing 160 acres, situated in township one north, range two west of the Montana principal meridian, Montana, and which was created the Lewis and Clark Cavern National Monument by proclamation dated the 11th day of May, 1908, has recently been definitely located by an official survey thereof, made under the direction of the Commissioner of the General Land Office, and such survey having determined that the tract in question lies wholly within the limits of the grant of the Northern Pacific Railway Co., but has not yet been patented to that company ;

And whereas by its quitclaim deed the said Northern Pacific Railway Co. relinquished unto the United States all its right, title, and interest to lot 12, section 17, township 1 north, range 2 west of the Montana principal meridian, Montana, the same being the original tract proclaimed a national monument for the purpose of maintaining thereon the said Lewis and Clark Cavern National Monument, under the condition that the instrument of relinquishment shall become void and the premises immediately revert to the grantor should the monument no longer be maintained.

Now, therefore, I, William H. Taft, President of the United States of America, by virtue of the power in me vested by section two of the act of Congress approved June 8, 1906, entitled "An act for the preservation of American antiquities," do hereby set aside and confirm as the Lewis and Clark Cavern National Monument the said tract, embracing one hundred and sixty acres of land, at and surrounding the limestone cavern in section seventeen, township one north, range two west, Montana, subject to the conditions set forth in the relinquishment and quitclaim deed No. 18129E, dated February 14, 1911, of the Northern Pacific Railway Company, the said tract being in square form and designated as lot twelve in the survey and deed, with side lines running north and south and all sides equidistant from the main entrance of the said cavern, the center of said entrance bearing north forty-nine degrees, forty-two minutes west, fifty-three and thirteen hundredths chains distant from the corner to sections sixteen, seventeen, twenty, and twenty-one, as shown upon the diagram hereto attached and made a part hereof.

Warning is hereby expressly given to all persons not to appropriate, injure, or destroy any of the natural formations in the cavern hereby declared to be a national monument, nor to locate or settle upon any of the lands reserved and made a part of said monument by this proclamation.

In Witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed.

Done at the city of Washington this sixteenth day of May, in the year (SEAL.] of our Lord one thousand nine hundred and eleven, and of the inde

pendence of the United States the one hundred and thirty-fifth.

COLORADO NATIONAL MONUMENT.

This area was set aside as a national monument by the President's proclamation of May 24, 1911, and is situated near Grand Junction, Colo., from which that portion of the monument known as No Thoroughfare Canyon is reached by wagon road. Other parts of the monument are reached by foot trails. The site is in a picturesque canyon, which has long been an attractive feature of that portion of the State. The formation is similar to that of the Garden of the Gods at Colorado Springs, Colo., only much more beautiful and picturesque. With the exception of the Grand Canyon of the Colorado, it exhibits probably as highly colored, magnificent, and impressive examples of erosion, particularly of lofty monoliths, as may be found anywhere in the West. These monoliths are located in several tributary canyons. Some of them are of gigantic size, one being over 400 feet high, almost circular in cross section, and 100 feet in diameter at base. There are also many caverns within the monument which have not been explored. There are many fine springs in the park, which furnish water to visitors. During the winter hundreds of deer come down into the park.

Mr. John Otto, of Fruita, Colo., has acted as custodian of this monument since June 7, 1911, and has single handed surveyed and

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Colorado National Monument, Colo., embracing parts of Tps. 11 and 12 s., Rs. 101 and

102 W. of the sixth principal meridian, and part of sec. 32, T. 1 N., R. 2 W. of the Ute

meridian, Colorado, containing 13,833.06 acres; created May 24, 1911. built several good roads and trails and has carved steps in the monoliths which form the chief scenic features of the monument. Mr. Otto spends practically all of his time in the monument and is continually at work in making the monument more attractive and accessible.

By order of February 19, 1915, the President modified the proclamation of May 24, 1911, to the extent of authorizing the Secretary of the Interior to issue permits to the town of Fruita to occupy and use certain lands in this monument in township 11 south, range 102 west, sixth principal meridian, for construction, operation, and maintenance of a conduit and related works for municipal water supply and power development.

PETRIFIED FOREST OF ARIZONA.

The Petrified Forest of Arizona lies in the area between the Little Colorado River and the Rio Puerco, 15 miles east of their junction. This area is of great interest because of the abundance of petrified coniferous trees, as well as its scenic features. The trees lie scattered about in great profusion; none, however, stands erect in its original place of growth, as do many of the petrified trees in the Yellowstone National Park. The trees probably at one time grew beside an inland sea ; after falling they became waterlogged, and during decomposition the cell structure of the wood was entirely replaced by silica derived from sandstone in the surrounding land. Over a greater part of the entire area trees lie scattered in all conceivable positions and in fragments of all sizes. The localities where the petrified trees are found are known as the First Forest, Second Forest, and Rainbow Forest.

The First Forest lies 6 miles south of Adamana, a station on the Santa Fe Pacific Railway. In this forest there are not as many large tree trunks as in the other forests, the chief object of interest and perhaps the most prominent of all the scenic features of the region being the well-known Natural Bridge, consisting of a great petrified tree trunk 60 feet long spanning a canyon 45 feet in width, and forming a footbridge over which anyone may easily pass. The ends of the tree trunk are embedded in the surrounding sandstone, the canyon evidently having been formed after the tree had silicified.

The Second Forest lies about 24 miles south of the First Forest and contains about 2,000 acres covered with fragments of petrified wood and tree trunks up to 4 feet in diameter. The wood is all highly colored and beautiful specimens are in abundance.

The third or Rainbow Forest lies about 13 miles south of Adamana and 18 miles southeast of Holbrook, Ariz., also on the Santa Fe Railway. In this forest the tree trunks are larger than elsewhere, more numerous, and less broken. There are in this vicinity several hundred whole trees, some of which are more than 200 feet long, partially embedded in the ground. The color of the wood is deeper and more striking than in the other localities. The main traveled road from Holbrook to St. Johns passes through this forest.

The First and Second Forests are reached by team and wagon from Adamana. The Third Forest can be reached from Adamana, but it is a long drive and is seldom made; the better method is by either team or automobile from Holbrook. The roads to the First and Second Forests from Holbrook are too sandy for automobile travel and the distance is too great to make the trip comfortably by team.

Prof. Lester F. Ward, of the Geological Survey, has stated that, There is no other petrified forest in which the wood assumes so many varied and interesting forms and colors, and it is these that present the chief attraction for the general public. The state of mineralization in which much of this wood exists almost places them among the gems or precious stones. Not only are chalcedony, opals, and agates found among them, but many approach the condition of jasper and onyx. The degree of hardness attained by them is such that they are said to make an excellent quality of emery.

Dr. Walter Hough, of the Smithsonian Institution, who visited this monument, states that

In the celebrated Petrified Forest, which is some 18 miles from Holbrook, Ariz., on the picturesque Santa Fe Railroad, there are ruins of several ancient Indian villages. These villages are small, in some cases having merely a few houses, but what gives them a peculiar interest is that they were built of logs of beautiful fossil wood.

The prehistoric dwellers of the land selected

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Petrified Forest National Monument, Ariz., embracing secs. 1, 2, 11, and 12 and E.;

secs. 3 and 10; T. 16 N., R. 23 E. ; secs. 4 to 9 and W. 3 secs. 3 and 10, T. 16 N.,
R. 24 E. ; secs. 34, 35, 36, T. 17 N., R. 23 E., secs. 3 to 10, 15 to 22, 27 to 33, and w.
secs. 2, 11, 14, 23, 26, T. 17 N., R. 24 E., Gila and Salt River meridian, containing

40.04 square miles, set aside by proclamation of the President July 31, 1911.
cylinders of uniform size, which were seemingly determined by the carrying
strength of a man. It is probable that prehistoric builders never chose more
beautiful stones for the construction of their habitations than the trunks of the
trees which flourished ages before man appeared on the earth.

This wood agate also furnished material for stone hammers, arrowheads, and
knives, which are often found in ruins hundreds of miles from the forest.

Mr. Chester B. Campbell, custodian of the monument, reports that while the general condition of the monument is good, the natural bridge has become badly cracked and requires support, which could

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