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best be effected by installing a steel beam running the entire length of the bridge. About 700 visitors per month go to the forests from Adamana.

NAVAJO NATIONAL MONUMENT. The Navajo National Monument as originally created by proclamation of March 20, 1909, embraced approximately 600 acres within the Navajo Indian Reservation, which was reserved tentatively and with a view to reduction to such small tract or tracts as might thereafter be found to contain valuable prehistoric pueblo or cliff dwellings, when the extent of the same could be determined by an examination on the ground and their locus definitely fixed by traverse lines connecting them with some corner of the public survey. Both of these conditions having been fulfilled, the monument was reduced by proclamation dated March 14, 1912, to three small tracts aggregating 360 acres. Within two or these tracts are located, respectively, two interesting and extensive pueblo or cliff-dwelling ruins in a good state of preservation and known as Betata Kin and Keet Seel, and a third cliff-dwelling ruin called Inscription House.

The new boundaries of the Navajo National Monument under the latter proclamation are shown in figure 2.

The Betata Kin ruin gets its name from the fact that the buildings are situate on the steep sloping sides of a cliff, Betata Kin being the Navajo words signifying " sidehill house.” They were found August 8, 1908, by J. W. Wetherill and Prof. Byron Cummings, a Navajo Indian having informed Mrs. Wetherill of their existence.

This ruin is situate at an elevation of 7,000 feet, in a crescentshaped cavity 600 feet wide by 350 feet high, in the side of a soft red sandstone cliff which forms the walls of a small canyon. The location is about 2 miles west of Laguna Creek, 8 miles north of Marsh Pass, and 18 miles northwest of Kayenta, a post office and trading post on the Navajo Indian Reservation.

An inspection of the walls of the ruin indicates that there were originally 106 houses or rooms. The walls of 51 rooms are now standing, 17 of which have well-preserved roofs. The walls of the houses are constructed of sandstone blocks, held together with mud and mortar. The roofs are made of spruce timbers, placed crosswise to form joists, the ends projecting through the outer walls. Smaller poles are placed at right angles with these and then covered with a thatch of willows and mud, which forms the roof. Inside, the floors are plastered with mud; and in nearly every room there is a small circular or square hole about 9 inches deep, which was evidently used for a fireplace. The rooms have doorways or openings in the roofs and sides, the largest opening noted being 18 by 30 inches. The average size of the rooms is 6 by 6 by 6 feet.

The Keet Seel (Navajo for “broken pottery") ruins were discovered in March, 1894, by Richard Wetherill. They are situate at an elevation of 7,100 feet, in a crescent-shaped cave 400 feet long by 150 feet high, near the base of a soft red sandstone cliff on the west side of Laguna Creek, 12 miles north of Marsh Pass and 24 miles northwest of Kayenta.

These ruins are very much similar in construction to the Betata Kin ruins, but are in a much better state of preservation. This is doubtless due to the fact that the overhanging cliffs protect the

buildings from the action of storms. In the ruins there are several 2-story buildings and 2 circular-shaped rooms. There are 47 rooms with standing walls, the roofs having fallen in, and 56 rooms covered over with well-preserved roofs. The construction of the roofs in these buildings is similar to those in the Betata Kin ruins. The rooms are about 7 by 7 by 5 or 6 feet high. The openings or doorways are 18 inches by 30 inches, set about 2 feet from the floor of the structure.

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Navajo National Monument, Ariz., embracing all cliff-dwelling and pueblo ruins between the parallel of latitude 36° 30' and 37° north and longitude 110 and 110° 45' west from Greenwich, with 40 acres of land in square form around each of said ruins, as originally created March 20, 1909.

The ruins are difficult to reach, it being necessary to scale a steep sandstone cliff for a distance of 30 feet in order to reach the base of the ruins.

Inscription House Ruin is located on Navajo Creek, about 20 miles west of the Betata Kin Ruin. This ruin is regarded as extraordinary. not only because of its good state of preservation, but because of the fact that upon the walls of its rooms are found inscriptions written in Spanish by early explorers and plainly dated 1661. It is located about half way up the side of a steep cliff in a crescentshaped niche or cave 15 to 50 feet in depth by 500 feet in length and about 75 feet in height. There is very little sheltering cliff over the ruins, and they are in places easily reached by storms.

These ruins differ from the other ruins in the material used in their construction. The walls are constructed of mud bricks made by rolling bunches of straw in mud and then molding into shape. The bricks are about 4 inches square by about a foot or more in length and are laid into the walls with mud mortar. The walls thus formed are tough and rigid and are free from cracks. Several of the rooms

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A Monument Boundary Navajo National Monument, Ariz., containing 360 acres, embracing the Keet Seel and

Betata Kin ruins, located in two small tracts of 160 acres each, along Laguna Creek, and Inscription House ruins, on Navajo Creek, in a 40-acre tract, all within the Navajo Indian Reservation, as reduced by proclamation of March 14, 1912.

are made of reeds and tules, set vertical and plastered over and filled in with mud. The roofs of the buildings are made of the mud bricks placed on a framework of small poles covered over with reeds and tules. There are 64 rooms, 30 of which are roofed over. The rooms are small and mostly single story. Two of the buildings are two stories high. The doorways are small and are built with a small niche at the bottom.

The ruins can be reached only by saddle horse and pack outfit over a very rough trail from Marsh Pass or Kayenta. Řayenta can be reached by team from Flagstaff, Ariz., via Tuba, or from Gallup, N. Mex., either point being about 125 miles distant. At Kayenta pack horses and guides can be secured to make a trip to the ruins, two or three days being required to visit the Betata Kin and Keet Seel Ruins, and at least three days more to visit the Inscription House Ruin. The Inscription House Ruin can best be reached from Tuba, via Red Lake, a distance of about 60 miles, over a rough mountain trail. The Santa Fe Railway is the nearest and most accessible railroad from which to reach the ruins.

An interesting description of this national monument and vicinity is contained in Bulletin No. 50 of the Bureau of American Ethnology, which comprises results of explorations by Dr. Jesse Walter Fewkes, of that bureau, in 1909 and 1910.

These ruins are in an excellent state of preservation, their condition not having changed in the past 35 years. The houses are protected from the elements by the overhanging cliffs, and deterioration is very slow. No vandalism has occurred, as practically the only inhabitants in the vicinity are Indians, who refrain from molestation of the ruins in any manner.


This monument was created by proclamation of January 31, 1914, and embraces approximately 2,050 acres of rocky and desert land in Maricopa County, about 9 miles east of Phoenix, Ariz. Within the tract is found a splendid collection of characteristic desert flora, including many striking examples of giant cactus (saguaro) and many other interesting species of cacti, such as the prickly pear, Cholla, etc., as well as fine examples of the yucca palm, all of which are of great scientific interest and grow in this monument to great size and perfection. The saguaro is that variety of cactus which grows in a cylindrical form to a height of 30 or 35 feet, with from one to a dozen branches of the same character from the main stalk, generally near the top. There are also within the tract prehistoric pictographs which are found upon the faces of the rocks, adding to the interest of the reservation and to its ethnological and archäological value. Through the center of the tract, running northwest and southeast, is a ridge of low hills rising from the flat desert to a height of 150 to 200 feet. The rocks in the ridge have been worn considerably by the elements, resulting in numerous caves and a few openings extending entirely through the rocks. One of these openings, known locally as “Hole-in-the-rock,” is an aperture some 15 feet high and 25 feet long with an amphitheater approach to the hole on each side. These approach rooms are about 30 feet square, with the overhanging rock for a roof in each case. The monument is visited by several thousand people each year as a picnic ground, as it is readily reached by automobile or team, over good roads, from Phoenix or Tempe, Ariz, distant respectively 9 and 3 miles. Phoenix is reached by rail by the Santa Fe, Prescott & Phoenix Railroad, a branch of the main line of the Santa Fe Railway from Ash Fork, Ariz. Phoenix and Tempe are also reached by the Arizona & Eastern Railroad, which branches from the main line of the Southern Pacific Railway at Maricopa, Ariz. The monument is well located to be viewed in connection with a trip over the great irrigation system of the Salt River Valley, better known as the Roosevelt project of the Reclamation Service.

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Boundary of Monument Papago Saguaro National Monument, Ariz., embracing the SE. 1 of sec. 33, T. 2 N.,

R. 4 E.; W. ) of w. sec. 3, all sec. 4, 'NE. 1 and E. of SÈ. , sec. 5, W. and W. 3 SE. 1 sec. 10, N. ) N. SE. # and NE. of Sw. sec. 9, T. 1 N., R. 4 E., all east of Gila and Salt River meridian, containing 2,050.43 acres.


This national monument was created by proclamation dated October 4, 1915, and embraces 80 acres of land situated in Uinta County, northeastern Utah, east of Vernal, the same being the NW. I of the SE. 1 and the NE. 1 of the SW. 1, sec. 26, T. 4 S., R. 23 E., Salt Lake meridian. By this proclamation lands are reserved upon which is located an extraordinary deposit of dinosaurian and other gigantic reptilian fossil remains, of the Juratrias geologic period, which are of

8161°—INT 1915—vol 1 -69

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