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great scientific interest and value, the object of creation of the monument being to prevent their unauthorized excavation and removal.
CINDER CONE NATIONAL MONUMENT. The Cinder Cone National Monument was created by proclamation dated May 6, 1907. It is situated within the Lassen Peak National Forest, and with the adjacent area, embracing a lava field and Snag Lake and Lake Bidwell, is of scientific interest as illustrative of rolcanic activity, and is of special importance in tracing the history of the volcanic phenomena of that vicinity.
This monument may be reached by old secondary roads from Fall River Mills, on Pit River, or from Susanville, on the Fernley-Lassen
Cinder Cone National Monument, within Lassen Peak National Forest, Cal., embracing
part of T. 31 N., R. 6 E., Mount Diablo meridian ; created May 6, 1907. branch of the Southern Pacific Railway. The best route is by road from Red Bluff, Susanville, or Westwood, on the Southern Pacific Railway, or from Keddie, on the Western Pacific Railway, to Drake Hot Springs (now known as Drakesbad). From this point a good trail leads to the Cinder Cone National Monument, distant 12 miles
Hotel and camping accommodations are furnished at Drakesbad in summer, and the round trip by saddle horse can easily be made in s day to the Cinder Cone, taking in Twin Lakes and Snag Lake enroute.
LASSEN PEAK NATIONAL MONUMENT. The Lassen Peak National Monument was created by proclamation dated May 6, 1907. It is situated within the Lassen Peak National Forest and marks the southern terminus of the long line of extinct volcanoes in the Cascade Range, from which one of the greatest
volcanic fields in the world extends, and is of special importance in tracing the history of the volcanic phenomena of that vicinity.
This monument covers sections 31 and 35, township 31 north, range 4 east, Mount Diablo meridian, and takes in the summit of Lassen Peak, now an active volcano.
The monument may be reached from all sides, but the main trail goes up the southwest shoulder of the mountain. The mountain may be reached from Red Bluff on the Southern Pacific Railway, via Red Bluff-Susanville Road to Morgan Springs and thence io miles up the Mill Creek trail; or one may go on to Drake Hot Springs and thence 11 miles by trail up Kings Creek to the summit. Morgan Springs and Drake Hot Springs may also be reached by auto or team from Keddie, on the Western Pacific Railway, or Susanville or Westwood, on the Fernley-Lassen Branch of the Southern Pacific. Morgan and Drake Springs have hotel accommodations in summer.
Lassen Peak National Monument, within Lassen Peak National Forest, Cal., embracing
part of T. 31 N., R. 4 E., Mount Diablo meridian ; created May 6, 1901,
GILA CLIFF-DWELLINGS NATIONAL MONUMENT.
The Gila Cliff-Dwellings National Monument was created by proclamation dated November 16, 1907. These cliff-dweller ruins are neither very large nor very important, but are located in a district in which few prehistoric ruins are found.
The ruins are situated approximately 50 miles northwest of Silver City, N. Mex., and about 4 miles north west of the Gila Hot Springs. The best way to reach them is by wagon and trail from Silver City via Pinos Altos.
The ruins are located in the mouth of a deep, rough canyon, known as the Cliff Dwellers Canyon, flowing into the West Fork of the Gila River from the south. They occupy four natural cavities in the base of an overhanging cliff which is about 150 feet high and composed of a grayish yellow volcanic rock.
The largest cavity is nearly circular and about 50 feet in diameter. The arched rock forming the roof is about 10 feet above the center of the floor. In one corner is a small room 6 by 8 feet, built of rock and adobes and provided with a small entrance window. Natural archways lead into two smaller tributary cavities. These are divided into a number of small rooms by walls built of adobe and small stones which are in such a good state of preservation that finger imprints made in the adobe when the walls were built, can still be plainly seen. Above the small doorways and windows, pieces of timber were used which are perfectly preserved. In some of the higher walls holes can
Gila Cliff-Dwellings National Monument, within Gila National Forest, N. Mex., embrac
ing NE. # of sec. 27, T. 12 S., R. 14 W., New Mexico meridian; created November 16, 1907.
be seen where timbers which undoubtedly formed the joists for a second story have been burned out.
A fourth cavity, separate from the others, contains the walls of small rooms in a good state of preservation. There is still another cavity, high on the face of the cliff, which has never been explored. As the cliff overhangs, it is impossible to enter it by means of suspended ropes. It can be entered only by means of a ladder.
Part of the outer wall, which at one time evidently closed the openings into these cavities, is still partially preserved. The remainder shows that it was intended for defensive purposes, as small windows are the only openings.
When these cliff dwellings were first discovered by prospectors and hunters in the early seventies, a number of relics in the shape of sandals, baskets, water vessels, cooking utensils, spears, etc., were found. Corncobs can still be found in numbers. Some of the walls have been destroyed by vandals.
A mummy was found here a number of years ago which eventually was placed in the Smithsonian Institution. Another mummy, found in 1912, also was forwarded to the Smithsonian Institution.
TONTO NATIONAL MONUMENT.
The Tonto National Monument was created by proclamation dated December 19, 1907, and is located in Gila County, Ariz. Situated only 1 mile south of the ocean-to-ocean highway, 80 miles east of
Tonto National Monument, unsurveyed sec. 34, T. 4 N., R. 12 E., Gila and Salt River
meridian, Ariz., containing 640 acres ; created December 19, 1907.
Phoenix, 40 miles north of Globe, Ariz., and about 4 miles east of the Roosevelt Dam, the Tonto National Monument is one of the most easily accessible ruins of the vanished race of cliff dwellers. From the main road between Globe and Phoenix, Ariz., automobiles may be driven over a good branch road to within half a mile of the nearest of the groups of cliff dwellings.
The southern group of dwellings is located in a cavern formed by the peculiar weathering of argillite rock, which forms a perpendicular or overhanging wall, with a steep talus slope below, so plentifully studded with cholla cactus as to suggest their having been planted there by the cliff dwellers as a defense against their enemies. This natural cavern is about 125 feet across and the ledge upon
which the dwellings are built is 35 feet wide at the widest point. From the outer edge of the footwall to the overhanging roof of the cavern the perpendicular distance is 30 or 40 feet. The dwelling, evidently communal, contained originally about 15 chambers, each from 12 to 16 feet square and 6 feet in height. Ten chambers are in a fair state of preservation, and most of these are two or three storied, depending upon whether or not the inhabitants lived in the space between the second artificial roof and the cavern roof above. The construction of the dwellings shows careful planning and no mean knowledge of the art of masonry. The walls are of Hat rocks cemented together with a gravelly adobe. The ceilings are cleverly constructed of wooden poles with their ends deeply embedded in the side walls. A solid layer of fibers from the Sajauro or giant cactus rests transversely upon the poles, and upon them is spread about 4 inches of adobe, forming the floor of the chamber above. Small openings, or doors, generally about 2 by 4 feet, provided communication between chambers on the same level, but in only one instance (noted in the northern group of dwellings) is there an opening in the ceiling of a chamber to allow egress to the chamber above. There are occasional small holes in the side walls of the inner chambers, apparently for the purpose of ventilation, lighting, or communication, but so-called "arrow holes" in the outer walls, through which the beleaguered inhabitants are popularly supposed to have shot arrows at storming parties of their enemies, have every appearance of being simply apertures left by the removal of the roofing poles. Fragments of metates, or primitive stone utensils for grinding corn, and even corncobs, are to be found among the ruins.
The northern group of dwellings includes two caverns. One contains about 12 rooms in a better state of preservation than those of the southern group, although badly vandalized. One large interior chamber is in a perfect state of preservation. The other cavern of this group contains eight single-storied chambers, poorly preserved.
GRAND CANYON NATIONAL MONUMENT.
A considerable portion of the area set aside by the proclamation creating this national monument is covered by three different proclamations, one of which created the Grand Canyon Forest Reserve, one the game preserve embracing that part of the national forest north of the river, and the third the monument proclamation. The monument now comprises a tract of 800,000 acres lying within the Tusayan and Kaibab National Forests, and is partly coextensive with the Grand Canyon Game Preserve. It is believed that the most wonderful portion of the canyon is contained within the present limits of the national monument and game preserves.
The Grand Canyon of the Colorado was discovered in the year 1540 by Don Garcia Lopez de Cardenas, a captain under Coronado. The pioneer work in its scientific exploration was done between the years 1869 and 1882 by the late Maj. John Wesley Powell, United States Army, and formerly Director of the United States Geological Survey. In 1902 it became accessible by railroad and is now visited by 100,000 people each year.
All experienced travelers, with one accord, have given the Grand Canyon a high place among the great wonders of the world. It con