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and by physicians who have had an opportunity to observe the effects of the use of these waters.
The department has during the past caused to be made an analysis of the chemical contents of these waters, but the physiological action has never been scientifically determined with reference to the effects of the baths on either the normal or diseased subject. The baths have been given emperically for such ailments as they seem to benefit, based on the clinical experience of physicians who have prescribed the waters and observed in this way the results. No physician who is thorough and looks for the best results from the medicines he gives would think of prescribing a drug whose physiological effects and therapeutic value had not been scientifically proven and described. So a large number of physicians throughout the country hesitate to send their patients to this resort, believing, without an authentic physiological report, these waters to be of no more value than ordinary hot water.
Suitable investigation by the department, reported by the department as authentic, would change this attitude. I believe that an exhaustive experimentation should be made along the following lines:
1. To test elimination, it should be made before the subject takes the baths, using perfectly healthy subjects to get the true physiological effect, the total solids eliminated by the kidneys within twenty-four hours, this to be done on several subjects and successive days. Then these subjects should be given the baths and the total urinary solids determined each day; also an estimate by weighing the subject before and after the sweat, of the solids eliminated through the skin (the specific gravity of the sweat to be used in making this test), and added to the total urinary solids eliminated. This has not been done and can not be done without great trouble and expense, as healthy subjects would have to be employed.
2. To test the constructive effect of the increased cell activity of the blood-making system, anemic subjects should be selected and a hæmoglobin percentage and a white and red cell count made before beginning the baths and again after every few baths, say, every third, fifth, or seventh day. In the meantime a regular diet should be observed and no medicines be given which would affect the hæmoglobin or the blood-cell count.
This briefly outlines the first steps that would be taken in case a physiological test should be made, and it is estimated that approximately two years would be required to complete the work.
In view of the many thousands of people who visit Hot Springs annually for the benefit of the baths, and for the information it would give the physician who could prescribe more rationally and not empirically, I am decidedly of the opinion that an investigation should be undertaken and conducted completely with the object of ascertaining what definite and demonstrable physiological effects the water is capable of producing.
As the result of my observations and information gathered during my administration of the affairs of the Hot Springs Reservation for nearly a year past, I am firmly convinced that this is the most valuable holding in the possession of the General Government on account of its
life-giving and healing thermal springs and that in the near future Congress should provide liberally for the extensive improvement and beautification on an elaborate scale of the Hot Springs Mountain. In order that this matter may be laid before Congress intelligently I recommend that the general superintendent and landscape engineer of National parks, Mr. Mark Daniels, be authorized to cause to be prepared a complete and comprehensive plan and estimate of cost for the permanent improvement of the Hot Springs Mountain on a scale that would, when completed, surpass any of the European resorts. The work necessary to carry out a plan of this magnitude would of necessity extend over a period of several years and Congress could each year make an appropriation sufficient to complete that portion of the plan which might be deemed most advisable. Experience has demonstrated that work done systematically is much more satisfactory than if done haphazard. I have in mind several prospective improvements which I would be glad to discuss with the general superintendent, looking to their incorporation if feasible in a general plan as outlined above.
I have been surprised to find from personal conversation with visitors from all sections of the United States what a small proportion of the inhabitants as a whole have any knowledge of the Hot Springs Reservation, Ark., or the properties of its waters. To remedy this condition and give to the vast number of persons throughout the country who are afficted with diseases in which these waters are indicated and the efficacy of which is demonstrated by the Government at the Army and Navy Hospital here each year, I would suggest that some more effective method of publicity be adopted by which such persons could be reached with true information relative to the merits of Hot Springs as a health resort. Every effort should be made to convey to suffering humanity reliable information as to just what health features this Government has to offer for their benefit and relief.
As the department is so thoroughly familiar with the urgent necessity for the rebuilding or reconstruction of the present free bathhouse, I respectfully recommend that steps be taken at the earliest possible date looking to the rebuilding or reconstruction of this house along modern and sanitary lines in order that suitable baths may be 0vided for
persons who come to Hot Springs and are unable to obtain means with
which to pay for baths. It is believed that the new bathhouse should be constructed on the present site and it is possible that the present foundation and walls might be used in its reconstruction. However, this is a matter to be determined later. I have recommended that the amount of $75,000 be appropriated for this purpose, this estimate being based upon the cost of bathhouses which have been constructed on the reservation during the past four or five years.
I wish to renew the recommendation heretofore made for an appropriation of $237,840, which has been based on a scientific estimate, by the Government for the construction of a storm sewer and surface drainage system in the city of Hot Springs to care for the drainage from the reservation.
I also wish to renew the recommendation of an appropriation of $96,595, also based upon a scientific estimate, for the construction of a sewer system in Hot Springs to provide for the sewerage from the reservation.
A modern comfort station should be erected convenient to Bathhouse Row, preferably near the free bathhouse also, as in that way the necessary janitor work could be performed by the employees of the bathhouse.
It is recommended that Fountain Street, bounding the Hot Springs Mountain Reservation on the north, be paved with some suitable material from Central Avenue to a point even with Government Monument No. 36, at which point Fountain Street connects with the system of roads on Hot Springs Mountain; also Reserve Avenue, bounding the reservation on the south, should be similarly paved from Central Avenue to point even with monument No. 26, which would carry the pavement just beyond the grounds occupied by the superintendent's official residence. It is believed that the property owners on the opposite side of these streets from the reservation would be willing to pay their proportionate share for such a valuable and needed improvement.
It is recommended that Congress cede Whittington Lake Park to the city of Hot Springs for use as a municipal park, and in the event the city declines to accept the trust the Secretary of the Interior should be authorized to divide the park into lots and
blocks in his discretion and offer the same for sale at public auction. This park is far removed from the reservation proper, and while it would be a valuable adjunct to the city it is believed that its retention by the Government is impracticable, as expenditures by the Government for improvements in the future should be confined to the Hot Springs Mountain Reservation and its immediate vicinity.
I also recommend the completion of the system of rubblestone retaining walls and gutters on North and West Mountain Roads, and also that these roads be graveled in many places, which is now necessary on account of the heavy rains having disturbed the surfaces. The
terms of a recent act of Congress make it necessary to obtain specific appropriations for the maintenance of passenger-carrying vehicles in the Government service, and I have therefore to recommend an appropriation of $500 from the revenues of the reservation for the care and maintenance of passenger-carrying vehicles on the Hot Springs Reservation for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1917. This estimate contemplates the feeding, shoeing, and other care of the one horse, and the repair and maintenance of the two passenger-carrying vehicles now in use on the reservation and also the purchase of one new four-passenger vehicle which will be required before the expiration of the fiscal year 1917.
CITY OF HOT SPRINGS.
The city of Hot Springs is a municipality governed under State and municipal laws." The Department of the Interior exercises no control or supervision over any matters connected with the city.
It is situated in the midst of beautiful surroundings and enjoys all the modern facilities of cities ten times its size, although its resident population is only 16,000. Its new public utility service is unsurpassed and managed in a most satisfactory manner. It has splendid churches of every denomination, and the new Methodist, recently constructed at a cost approximating $100,000, is probably
unsurpassed for its size throughout the South. The hotels are modern in every respect and the boarding houses are cozy and inviting and the prices are moderate. Furnished apartments and cottages can be obtained at a moderate cost. The climate is good the year round, and the elevation of the city proper is 600 feet above sea level and the surrounding mountains 500 to 600 feet higher than the city.
The large area burned on September 5, 1913, has been nearly all rebuilt, mostly with modern and ornamental brick structures, which tends to show a prosperous and healthy condition.
In conclusion, I wish to state that from the standpoint of a disinterested physician I have the utmost confidence in the hot waters as a curative agency, and I predict for Hot Springs a most brilliant future as a health-pleasure resort and that each succeeding year will bring a greater number of visitors. The municipality of Hot Springs as well as its citizens should at all times work hand in hand with the General Government, and by this means of concerted action its world-wide reputation will be assured. Many disagreeable features have been eliminated by the city during the past few years and conditions generally improved. Closing this, my first annual report, I have the honor to be, Very respectfully,
WILLIAM P. PARKS,
Superintendent. The SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR.
RULES AND REGULATIONS, WITH ALL AMENDMENTS THERETO,
UP TO AND INCLUDING JUNE 30, 1915, FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF ALL BATHHOUSES RECEIVING HOT WATER FROM THE UNITED STATES RESERVATION AT HOT SPRINGS, ARK.
RULE 1. Batbhouses or hotels will be allowed such number of tubs as the Secretary of the Interior may, in his discretion, deem proper and necessary for the public service and the amount of hot water will justify.
Rule 2. The constant flow of hot water for vapor or other baths, even during business hours, or the unnecessary waste of water in any manner, is strictly prohibited, and will, if continued after written notice from the superintendent to stop such waste of water, be considered by the department sufficient grounds for the cancellation of the lease of such offending lessee.
RULE 3. Rentals must be paid quarterly, in advance, at the office of the superintendent, and if not paid within five days from the beginning of each quarter the supply of water may be cut off.
RULE 4. The charge for baths at the different bathhouses shall be at the rates fixed by the Secretary of the Interior, and no bath tickets shall be sold for more than said rate, and then only to such persons as intend to actually use them for bathing. The rate or rates so fixed for baths shall include, without extra charge, the supplying of each bather with one clean sterilized sheet to envelop the body of the bather while in the bath hall and cooling room. In event of charges in a less amount being exacted for baths, such new rate shall at once be reported to the superintendent, and when approved by the department shall thereafter become the maximum rate. No bath ticket shall be sold except at the office of the bathhouse where the bath is to be given, and tickets must show the date when issued, the serial number, the number of baths for which issued, the full name of the purchaser, and the amount paid therefor. Bath tickets shall be redeemable for the same proportionate price for which they were sold, when presented by the original purchaser: Provided, That when less than seven baths have been taken on any ticket presented for redemption the bathhouse may charge the rate for single baths for the number of baths taken on said ticket. No bath ticket or part of a ticket shall be reissued after having been redeemed. No bathhouse receiving water from the Hot Springs Reservation will be permitted to issue complimentary bath tickets, except that bathhouse lessees may, on written permission of the superintendent, issue complimentary bath tickets in such cases as in his judgment justify such action. The renting and selling of bath robes, towels, soap, toilet articles, or articles of merchandise in bathhouses is prohibited.
RULE 5. The owners or managers of bathhouses receiving waters from the Hot Springs Reservation are prohibited from bathing in