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being possible to haul at least five times as much water at twice the speed of the present horse-drawn vehicles and to give greater efficiency, for the power-propelled equipment could be used night as well as day. I believe that by the use of one power-driven sprinkler we could replace and do the same work that is at the present time carried on by five of the four-horse sprinklers, this being mainly of financial interest to the park, at the same time giving better service.
The Yosemite National Park is greatly in need of better roads. All the State roads connecting with the park are being macadamized and are of a much higher quality and much better kept than the roads within the park, and it becomes a point of continuous criticism from the visitors to the national park. It is, therefore, especially urged that an appropriation, available until expended, be made for the construction of first-class highways throughout the park, and the necessary steps should be taken, where the maps have not already been made, to relocate these roads on proper grades so that this work may be carried on at once. From a financial standpoint the building of new roads would in many ways be of great saving to the Government in the future from maintenance and repair standpoint and from that of sprinkling. These roads are of such a type that it is necessary for large expenditures of money to be made on them after the winter snows and spring rains so that they may be put into condition to be passable, and after the rainy season has ceased the large expense of sprinkling is added to the road cost; this would be greatly eliminated if the proper type of roads were constructed, making it possible to save for the Government the cost of construction of these roads in years to come by relieving the high cost of maintenance and repairs which will continue yearly under the present system.
The ranger department was reorganized under the new park system installed this year, the park rangers being divided into two classes, known as park rangers of the first class (mounted) anl park rangers of the second class (unmounted) or automobile checkers. The park-ranger force consists of a chief park ranger, Mr. 0. R. Prien, two assistant chief park rangers, and two park rangers, all permanent employees, and seven temporary park rangers, all of the first class, together with four rangers of the second class or automobile checkers. With this ranger department the Government has been able to handle the checking of the automobiles, as well as the protection of the park against forest fires and poachers, with the enforcement of the park rules and regulations. This park-ranger force has very capably taken care of the work performed in previous years by troops of Cavalry detailed from the United States Army and stationed in this park.
It is recommended that this park-ranger force be increased by at least two permanent yearly men, one to take charge of the insectcontrol work, which should be carried on each season and which has been under the direction of Mr. J. J. Sullivan, entomological ranger detailed for duty in this park from the Bureau of Entomology, Department of Agriculture, and the other to take charge of the newly established information bureau.
This season the forest fires did very little damage and were easily controlled by the park rangers, assisted by the other park employees.
Arrangements have been made and materials purchased for the construction of two fire-lookout stations or triangulation stations for the use of the ranger department for fire protection. Owing to the location of these stations, one being on Mount Hoffman and the other on Sentinel Dome, it will be possible with the high-power instruments at hand for the ranger department to instantly locate a fire or fires within the district and by the triangulation system be able to give the exact location of the fire immediately the fire starts. It is absolutely necessary that these two stations cooperate with the triangulation stations of the Forest Service where possible in the surrounding districts and that we have telephonic communication, so that we may work together in locating forest fires, for the protection of the park as well as the national forests surrounding the park. It would be well when funds are available to establish one or more of these triangulation stations in other districts of the park, as it will not be possible for these two stations to control the whole park area.
These stations will lessen the expense of fire protection as well as afford a great protection to the forests of the park.
LAMBERT SODA SPRINGS.
The Lambert Soda Springs at the Tuolumne Meadows, on the Tuolumne River, about 25 miles by trail from Yosemite Valley, have been of considerable interest to the visitors to the Yosemite National Park this year, owing to the fact that it has been the first time in the history of these springs that it has been practicable for tourists to make trips to this part and have fine service, such as was given them by the Sierra Club in connection with its camp located near the Soda Springs. There were registered at this camp this season 2,236 visitors. This was partially due to the Tioga Road, which has recently been opened and affords the tourist a convenient way of reaching that point by automobile. The Lambert Soda Springs have this year for the first time received any large extent of recognition, and it would be well for the Government to take the necessary steps to advertise these springs.
The following is an excerpt from the report of Mr. Gerald A. Waring, found on page 237 of Water-Supply Paper 338, of
pamphlet entitled “ Springs of California,” edition of 1915, prepared by the United States Geological Survey:
The springs rise at the northern edge of Tuolumne Meadows, about 125 yards north of the river's edge, at the upper border of a grassy slope. There is only one spring of appreciable flow, but water bubbles from numerous vents near by. The spring rises in a funnel-shaped pool about 14 inches in diameter in a little log cabin that protects it. In August, 1909, it yielded about 1 gallon a minute, but its discharge is said to vary somewhat. The water is clear, strongly car. bonated, and effervescing, but considerable iron is deposited in the pool. Within the cabin are also two small vents of inappreciable discharge marked by bubbling. Six other similar pools, a few inches in diameter, lie on a low mound of iron-stained lime carbonate beside the cabin, and another group of eight small pools is located 15 to 25 yards northeast of the cabin. The water in all of the
8161o -INT 1915—VOL 1-58
pools is carbonated and small amounts of iron and lime carbonate are deposited at nearly all of them. Eflorescent soda salts also appear in the adjoining grassy land. The following analysis shows the water to be primary and secondary alkaline in character:
Analysis of the Lambert Soda Springs. [Analyst and authority, F. M. Eaton (1909). Constituents are in parts per million.]
The work of falling and burning insect-infested trees with the object of eradicating injurious insects and protecting the remaining trees from other attacks has been continued this year under the direction of Mr. J. J. Sullivan, entomological ranger, detailed from the Bureau of Entomology, Department of Agriculture. Work has been done on the floor of the valley and in the district between the Pohono Bridge and Fort Monroe, between Cascade Creek and Ribbon Falls, in the vicinities of Mount Starr King, Clarks Fork, and Cascade Basin. It will be possible to complete this insect-control work the coming year to a point where it will be possible for one man in the future to take care of the infested trees, which will be only scattered throughout the park, if a sufficient amount of work is done the coming season. There are several districts which should be thoroughly treated, which can be done for a reasonable sum of money, which will appear later in the report of Mr. Sullivan. The work to date has been so effective that this office recommends that it be carried to completion next year.
This year this office has taken the necessary steps, both from an educational standpoint as well as a standpoint of interest not only to tourists but to the ranger department and park employees, to provide for a collection of the different varieties of animals, birds, insects, woods, flowers, and other specimens, to be placed in a room set aside for this purpose in the Government building. This work requires considerable time and study and it is recommended that the same be
carried on next year and that the necessary funds be allotted to carry this work to completion.
I wish to emphasize the recommendations of my predecessors in regard to the removal of the deposits of sand from Mirror Lake. This lake has been one of the wonders of this playground, giving a reflection of the mountain scenery of unusual beauty, and its reputation has gone far and wide. Tenaya Creek, which passes through the lake, has carried down from the mountain and deposited in the lake such a quantity of sand that the size of the lake has been reduced to a mere pond, almost disappearing during low water. There is also growing around and in the lake large numbers of willows, which have almost prevented the view of the tourist at even the high-water periods, when the lake is at its best. Funds should be provided for the dredging out of this sand and also the removal of these willows.
BIG TREES. The Merced and Tuolumne Groves of Big Trees have this year for the first time entertained visitors in large numbers, there being 4,219 people visiting the groves this season. This was due to the advertising of the groves by the transportation company which built a new section of road, making it possible for automobiles to run by a much shorter and better graded road between El Portal and the Yosemite Valley by way of the Merced and Tuolumne Groves. The route traversed between El Portal and the Big Trees is very scenic, containing many beautiful views on the journey.
The Mariposa Grove, which, of course, is much larger than the two groves above mentioned, has entertained 13,974 visitors this
Since the operation of automobiles into these groves of big trees in such large numbers by both the transportation companies and private individuals the roads have been in a very poor condition, and during the coming season the necessary steps should be taken to repair and widen them so that they will be more accessible to automobile travel.
There should also be some clearing of underbrush and fallen timber, so that the groves may be made more sightly and better protected against forest fires during the ensuing year.
Attention is invited to the recommendations of my predecessors to the effect that the title to all patented lands within the park be extinguished. I am in hearty accord with these recommendations. A summer resort and town, known as Foresta, has been maintained on patented lands within the park during the last three seasons. A tract of patented land on the Big Oak Flat Road at a place known as Gentrys has been subdivided into lots, with the purpose of establishing a town and summer resort. It is rumored that other owners of patented lands contemplate the establishment of camps for the accommodation of tourists, thereby having all the advantages afforded
by the Government's administration, without paying anything toward the maintenance of the park, as is required of all concessioners on the public lands.
Under act of Congress of April 9, 1912, the Secretary of the Interior and the Secretary of Agriculture, for the purpose of eliminating private holdings within the Yosemite National Park and to prevent cutting and keep intact the timber along and adjoining the road and scenic portions of the park on patented lands, exchanged certain timberlands within the Yosemite National Park and the Sierra and Stanislaus National Forests for other lands belonging to the Yosemite Lumber Co. which were within this park and lying along the scenic Wawona Road. This exchange prevented the Yosemite Lumber Co. from cutting such timber as would destroy the scenic beauty of this road.
INFORMATION BUREAU. A bureau of information was established at the superintendent's office, in Yosemite Village, May 15, 1915, in charge of Mr. T. H. Moore, for the purpose of keeping the tourists informed as to all points of scenic interest in the park; the heights, distances, trails, road and camp conditions; mapping out trips; assigning visitors to the various public camps; inaugurating a mailing list for the department's literature on the national parks; handling all correspondence relative to inquiries for camps, camping, guides and stock, rates, etc.; and everything that would facilitate and add to the pleasure of the tourists. Also a bureau for lost and found articles was established and the public invited to report all articles lost and found in the park.
It was the custom to post notices in conspicuous places of lost and found articles, and in this way many articles were returned to the owners. The money value of articles returned to proper owners during the season was $780.
This bureau also had charge of the collection of automobile fees under the accounting division, and issued the permits authorizing the entrance of automobiles over any of the roads of the park, the Tioga, Wawona, Coulterville, and Big Oak Flat Roads. Also the tickets of passage for all outbound cars were issued from this office. A report was made daily, showing the number of visitors staying at each hotel, camp, and public camp ground. Reports were also made of the arrival and leaving time of the automobile stage companies operating to the Mariposa Grove of Big Trees and also to the Tuolumne Grove. Other statistical reports on travel to the park and transportation, etc., have been kept.
The total number of automobiles entering the park during the period October 1, 1914, the date of last annual report, and September 30, 1915, was 2,270. The automobiles came in via the following park entrances: Via Coulterville Road.
476 Via Big Oak Flat Road-
654 Via Wawona Road.
950 Via Tioga Road--