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unmolested. There is little probability that this will be permitted if the opposing forces can prevent it. An attempt to force in provisions without reinforcing the garrison at the same time might not be advisable; but armed resistance to a peaceable attempt to send provisions to one of our own forts will justify the government in using all the power at its command to reinforce the garrison and furnish the necessary supplies.

Fort Pickens and other places retained should be strengthened by additional troops, and, if possible, made impregnable.

The naval force in the gulf and on the southern coast should be increased. Accounts are published that vessels having on board marketable products for the crews of the squadron at Pensacola are seized-the inhabitants we know are prohibited from furnishing the ships with provisions . water; and the time has arrived when it is the duty of the government to assert and maintain its authority.

Mr. Smith, Secretary of the Interior, wrote:

Viewing the question whether Fort Sumter shall be evacuated as a political one, I remark that the effect of its evacuation upon the public mind will depend upon the concurrent and subsequent action of the government. If it shall be understood that by its evacuation we intend to acknowledge our inability to enforce the laws, and our intention to allow treason and rebellion to run their course, the measure will be extremely disastrous and the administration will become very unpopular. If, however, the country can be made to understand that the fort is abandoned from ner sity, and at the same time Fort Pickens and other forts in our possession sha defended, and the power of the government vindicated, the measure will be popu. and the country will sustain the administration.

Believing that Fort Sumter cannot be successfully defended, I regard its evacuation as a necessity, and I advise that Major Anderson's command shall be unconditionally withdrawn.

At the same time I would adopt the most vigorous measures for the defense of the other forts, and if we have the power I would blockade the Southern ports, and enforce the collection of the revenue with all the power of the government.

Mr. Blair, Postmaster-General, wrote . .

Second. It is acknowledged to be possible to relieve Fort Sumter. It ought to be relieved without reference to Pickens or any other possession. South Carolina is the head and front of this rebellion, and when that State is safely delivered from the authority of the United States it will strike a blow against our authority from which it will take us years of bloody strife to recover.

Third. For my own part, I am unwilling to share in the responsibility of such a policy. Mr. Bates, Attorney-General, wrote:

It is my decided opinion that Fort Pickens and Key West ought to be reinforced and supplied, so as to look down opposition at all hazards — and this whether Fort Sumter be or be not evacuated.

It is also my opinion that there ought to be a naval force kept upon the southern coast sufficient to command it and, if need be, actually close any port that practically ought to be closed, whatever other station is left unoccupied.

It is also my opinion that there ought to be immediately established a line of light, fast-running vessels, to pass as rapidly as possible between New York or Norfolk at the North and Key West or other point in the gulf at the South.

As to Fort Sumter, I think the time is come either to evacuate or relieve it.

Abraham Lincoln, Complete Works (edited by John G. Nicolay and John Hay, New York, 1894), II, 26–28 passim.

71. Breaking of the Storm (1861)

BY SECRETARY LEROY POPE WALKER, BRIGADIER-GENERAL
PIERRE GUSTAVE TOUTANT BEAUREGARD, AND
MAJOR ROBER ANDERSON

T

Walker served as Confederate secretary of war during the first year of the Rebellion, but was not otherwise eminent. Beauregard had been an officer in the United States army, but resigned to take charge of the Confederate defences of Charleston: during the war he rose to the rank of general, and served with distinction in different parts of the Confederacy. Anderson was of southern birth, and a veteran of thirty-five years' service in the United States army; his firm stand for the Union and his sagacious operations in Charleston harbor, together with his sturdy defence of Sumter, give him a just claim to remembrance among the preservers of the Union. The attack on Sumter placed on the South the onus of aggression. - Bibliography as in No. 70 above.

1

CHARLESTON, April 8, 1861.

P. WALKER:

UTHORIZED messenger from Lincoln just informed Governor A Pickens and myself that provisions would be sent to Sumter peaceably, otherwise by force. G. T. BEAUREGARD....

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MONTGOMERY, April 10, 1861.

General BEAUREGARD, Charleston:

If you have no doubt of the authorized character of the agent who communicated to you the intention of the Washington Government to supply Fort Sumter by force you will at once demand its evacuation, and if this is refused proceed, in such manner as you may determine, to reduce it. Answer. L. P. WALKER.

CHARLESTON, April 10, 1861.

L. P. WALKER:

The demand will be made to-morrow at 12 o'clock.

G. T. BEAUREGARD,
Brigadier-General. . . .

HEADQUARTERS PROVISIONAL ARMY, C. S. A.,
Charleston, S. C., April 11, 1861.

SIR: The Government of the Confederate States has hitherto forborne from any hostile demonstration against Fort Sumter, in the hope that the Government of the United States, with a view to the amicable

adjustment of all questions between the two Governments, and to avert the calamities of war, would voluntarily evacuate it.

There was reason at one time to believe that such would be the course pursued by the Government of the United States, and under that impression my Government has refrained from making any demand for the surrender of the fort. But the Confederate States can no longer delay assuming actual possession of a fortification commanding the entrance of one of their harbors, and necessary to its defense and security.

I am ordered by the Government of the Confederate States to demand the evacuation of Fort Sumter. My aides, Colonel Chesnut and Captain Lee, are authorized to make such demand of you. All proper facilities will be afforded for the removal of yourself and command, together with company arms and property, and all private property, to any post in the United States which you may select. The flag which you have upheld so long and with so much fortitude, under the most trying circumstances, may be saluted by you on taking it down.

Colonel Chesnut and Captain Lee will, for a reasonable time, await your answer.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. T. BEAUREGARD,
Brigadier-General, Commanding.

Maj. ROBERT ANDERSON,

Commanding at Fort Sumter, Charleston Harbor, S. C.

FORT SUMTER, S. C., April 11, 1861.

GENERAL: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication demanding the evacuation of this fort, and to say, in reply thereto, that it is a demand with which I regret that my sense of honor, and of my obligations to my Government, prevent my compliance. Thanking you for the fair, manly, and courteous terms proposed, and for the high compliment paid me,

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBERT ANDERSON,

Major, First Artillery, Commanding.

Brig. Gen. BEauregard,
Commanding Provisional Army. . .

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MONTGOMERY, April 11, 1861..

General BEAUREGARD, Charleston:

Do not desire needlessly to bombard Fort Sumter. If Major Anderson will state the time at which, as indicated by him, he will evacuate, and agree that in the mean time he will not use his guns against us unless ours should be employed against Fort Sumter, you are authorized thus to avoid the effusion of blood. If this or its equivalent be refused, reduce the fort as your judgment decides to be most practicable.

L. P. WALKER...

HEADQUARTERS PROVISIONAL ARMY, C. S. A.,
Charleston, S. C., April 11, 1861.

MAJOR: In consequence of the verbal observation made by you to my aides, Messrs. Chesnut and Lee, in relation to the condition of your supplies, and that you would in a few days be starved out if our guns did not batter you to pieces, or words to that effect, and desiring no useless effusion of blood, I communicated both the verbal observations and your written answer to my communications to my Government.

If you will state the time at which you will evacuate Fort Sumter, and agree that in the mean time you will not use your guns against us unless ours shall be employed against Fort Sumter, we will abstain from opening fire upon you. Colonel Chesnut and Captain Lee are authorized by me to enter into such an agreement with you. You are, therefore, requested to communicate to them an open answer.

I remain, major, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
G. T. BEAUREGARD,
Brigadier-General, Commanding.

Maj. ROBERT ANDERSON,
Commanding Fort Sumter, Charleston Harbor, S. C.

FORT SUMTER, S. C., April 12, 1861. GENERAL: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt by Colonel Chesnut of your second communication of the 11th instant, and to state in reply that, cordially uniting with you in the desire to avoid the useless effusion of blood, I will, if provided with the proper and necessary means of transportation, evacuate Fort Sumter by noon on the 15th instant, and that I will not in the mean time open my fires upon your forces unless compelled to do so by some hostile act against this fort or the flag of my Government by the forces under your command, or by some

portion of them, or by the perpetration of some act showing a hostile intention on your part against this fort or the flag it bears, should I not receive prior to that time controlling instructions from my Government or additional supplies.

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
ROBERT ANDERSON,
Major, First Artillery, Commanding.

Brig. Gen. BEAUREGARD, Commanding.

FORT SUMTER, S. C., April 12, 1861—3.20 a. m.

:

SIR By authority of Brigadier-General Beauregard, commanding the Provisional Forces of the Confederate States, we have the honor to notify you that he will open the fire of his batteries on Fort Sumter in one hour from this time.

We have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servants,

JAMES CHESNUT, JR.,
Aide-de-Camp.
STEPHEN D. LEE,

Captain, C. S. Army, Aide-de-Camp.

Maj. ROBERT ANDERSON,

U. S. Army, Commanding Fort Sumter.

The War of the Rebellion: Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, First Series, (Washington, 1880) I, 13-301 passim.

72.

Surrender of Fort Sumter (1861)

BY MAJOR JOHN GRAY FOSTER AND MAJOR ROBERT ANDERSON

Foster was in charge of the engineering operations of the United States troops at Charleston, and he had superintended the successful transfer from Fort Moultrie to Fort Sumter. During the war he rose to the command of departments. - For Anderson, see No. 71 above. - Bibliography as in No. 70 above.

A. FOSTER'S ACCOUNT

mortar on James Island; after which the fire soon became general from all the hostile batteries.

[April 12, 1861.] AT 41 am. a signal shell was thrown from the

At 7 a.m. the guns of Fort Sumter replied, the first shot being fired

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