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bly touched with her charms. Such larly by the Greeks, with unrivalled men, therefore, though necessary to diligence and success. In the fine arts a state, are no more parts of it than their genius has probably never been food, though necessary to an animal, equalled. Their geometry we read in is part of an animal, or than tools are our schools. Their metaphysical and part of the work they are employed ethical philosophy is most profound and to make. The productive labor of acute, and much of it is still respected peasants and artizans, how necessary as truth, while to the throne of poetry soever to the purposes of outward ac- they still challenge the pretensions of commodation and comfortable subsist- all posterity. Their prodigious success ence, is not to be confounded and in all these divers orders of culture classed with the political functions of would at first appear inconsistent with soldiers, priests and magistrates." the alleged subordination of all their
Here we have the whole platform. energies to the service of the state. The artizan may not participate in the But upon a little farther examination, happiness which the commonwealth it will appear rather a confirmation of, promises to its citizens, because his la- than an exception to the proposition, bors do not qualify him for any of the that the state claimed the individual great departments of the state service. service of the citizen. Their poetical It will be perceived that Aristotle is not literature was almost the sole repositolooking for strong and courageous men, ry of their religious creed, as it was but soldiers ; not men of judgment, fa- certainly its most important ally. miliar with and respectful of the laws, Their philosophy and history, were but magistrates; not devout men, fear- encouraged chiefly for the benefit the ing the Gods, but priests ; not a man, statesman derived from their study, but an instrument; and whoso was not nor did the philosopher or the historian being qualified to serve the state in one dream of giving to his labors a loftier or of these capacities was not worthy of a more comprehensive influence. the state. Hence the disrepute, nay, History has preserved for us a letter the disgrace which attached to all the written by Alexander the Great, from industrial professions. Hence their me- the East, immediately after the battle chanics, their miners, their sailors, their of Guagemala, which presents this fact merchants, and even the instructors of in a striking attitude. their younger children, were almost all slaves.* And hence, and this is the “ Alexander wishing all happiness to Armost calamitous feature of their condi- istotle. You have not done right in pubtion—all that infinite variety of facts, lishing your select lectures. Wherein shall which a free, intelligent and prosperous important things we have been taught, be
we be distinguished above others if the people engaged as with us in the count
communicated to ihe public ? I would raless departments of industrial labor, are
ther surpass other men in the best kind of hourly accumulating for the study of knowledge than in power. Farewell." the philosopher, and for the practical education of every reflecting citizen, And what was Aristotle's reply ?was comparatively lost to the ancient Did he reprove the selfishness of his world. Those frequent lessons which haughty pupil ? Did he tell him that the processes of the machine-shop and philosophers were sent into the world of the laboratory, teach to every intel- to improve the condition of men, and ligent and enterprising observer, fell in not to indulge the pride of princes ?that old society upon the stricken senses That our talents are given us by the of slaves who were usually too ignorant same good gods who cause the dews of to observe-who cared for nothing less heaven to descend ; and that, like them, than the improvement of their craft, they should be dispensed upon all manand who hated nothing more than to kind—as well upon the just as upon the benefit their tyrannical masters. unjust ? Did he lift himself above the
It is of course to be conceded, that humiliating philosophy of his time, and, certain departments of intellectual and in language like that with which Feneæsthetical culture were pursued by lon rebuked his royal pupil, the head. many of the eider nations, and particu- strong Duke of Burgundy—a prince no
* A law prevailed in Thebes, says Aristotle in his Politics, which forbad any shop-keeper holding office, who had been engaged in such business within ten years.
less ambitious, no less proud, and Greek, but of the Asiatic and African scarcely less talented than the illustri- nations - was exhausted upon the ous son of Philip? Did he say to him earthly tabernacles of their gods, or -"Young man, know that all men upon other public edifices appropriated were not made for one ; that the one to the state's service, while the abodes was made for all, and to work for the of their most distinguished men were happiness of all ?" Alas! the world notoriously mean. A large private eswas not old enough either to heed or to tablishment was looked upon as an inutter sentiments like these. Even in sult to the state, and an affectation in the time of Fenelon they were not to- the proprietor. Demosthenes publicly lerable to the tender ears of kings. reproached the wealthy Midias for his This was Aristotle's reply :
large house at Eleusis, as if it were an
outra ge upon public decorum. Indeed “You wrote to me concerning my Select —and this is the crucial fact—domestic Lectures-that they ought not to have architecture was not looked upon as been published. Know that, in one sense, one of the fine arts. The same obserthey are still unpublished, as their meaning vation may be made of the plastic art, will be fully apprehended by those only and of painting. “I know of no inwho heard them."
stance,” says Heeren, in his Politics Can' it be believed that this is the let- of Ancient Greece,“ of a statue that beter of one of the most comprehensive longed to a private man; and no trace observers, and probably the most acute is to be found of celebrated private picthinker of antiquity-of Aristotle, the tures in those times.”' great philosopher of Stagyra, who was These illustrations, we conceive, will destined to exercise an unlimited autho- abundantly suffice to show the uniform rity over the intellect of mankind for tendency of the political institutions of nearly two thousand years ? Mark the world before the Christian era, to his defence !
absorb all the vitality and best energies He begins by admitting, impliedly, of the people to their own uses and that all his faculties of body and mind support. We shall not pursue this tenof right belonged unto and were the ex- dency through the middle ages ; nor clusive property of this imperious boy. shall we attempt to show how far the He next admits that the people have absence of individual freedom, and of nothing to do with education, and avows more liberal views of the functions of that he never contemplated dispelling government during that period, are acany portion of their ignorance by his countable for the utter stagnation of napublications; and finally, he deliberately tural science which we found to exist rests the fame of his king for the future, there. There is great difficulty in disand the burden of his own defence, upon criminating this from the multitude of the prospect that the ignorance of the other influences that were operating masses would be perpetuated forever. unfavorably upon the intellects of indi
Such was Aristotle's view of the phi- vidual society ; such as the continual losopher's mission among men. From agitations of war, the consequent inseone learn all.
curity of property, the servitude of Even in the fine arts, which, with opinion, and the want of a universal their poetry, from the peculiar and language, each one of which causes perpetual glory of the ancients-in was adequate to produce all the effects their painting, in their sculpture, in we have attributed to the want of a their architecture, we observe the same liberal social system. We do not conengrossing spindle winding in upon it- ceive, moreover, that any nation's hisself every product which their genius tory, or any series of events can be and their taste could devise.
found, to exhibit with more distinctness Renowned as the architecture of the the dependence of the physical sciences, Greeks has ever been, yet, even in and of their corresponding arts upon the Athens, the stranger would not have political importance of the individual dreamed, until he approached the pub man, than those to which we have allic squares and the Acropolis, that he luded. If we have been at all successwas surrounded by the very noblest ful in carrying with our own convicspecimens of that noble art. All the tions the convictions of our readers, we architectural genius-not only of the have shown that it is because the an
cient states and the old theocracies did reformation, were they established-at not deem man's personal happiness a suf- no previous period were they beyond ficient motive for invoking to its promo- the reach of accidents which might tion the studies of the philosopher and have proved fatal to, or at least have the countenance of rulers; that the con- procrastinated the day of their supretributions they have made to the hu- macy. mane sciences and arts are compara
But the waters of European society tively so unimportant, and that so few of were about to be troubled again to new those material comforts which, in our and unwonted issues. The spirit which day, smooth man's path along the jour- moved over that vast abyss of elemental ney of life, can trace their genealogy be- strife into which the Roman civilizayond the last two or three centuries of tion had dissolved, had said, let there his history.
be lights in the firmament of heaven to We have thus far labored to present divide the day from the night, and let a negative statement of the law, accord- them be for signs and for seasons, for ing to which a degraded estimate of days and for years—and it was so. man's individual destiny acts upon those That Providence, which never dearts and sciences which most directly signs what it does not provide means to concern his personal happiness. We execute, had already selected the agents have shown what, in the absence of a who were to carry out its purposes. proper social theory, the ancients did The fullness of time had arrived, when not achieve in the physical sciences. they were to go forth upon their misWe now propose to state this law in a sion, both to destroy and to fulfil. Sopositive form, and from the facts which ciety had been preparing for centuries it is the boast of modern civilization to the material wherewith the work of re. have supplied, to show how far the mo- construction was to go on; and all the dern doctrine of political science, as it nations of Europe-nay, of the whole finds its expression under constitutional civilized world, were called from their governments, is directly instrumental in short-sighted ambitions, and from their encouraging industrial pursuits, and in enterprises of a day, to engage in or to directing the attention of men of sci- observe the progress and the processes ence to the study of material nature. of this new creation.
It is now about three hundred years The church and the schools were the since the decisive blow was struck two sanctuaries in which, at this period, which was to emancipate the human all the venerable absurdities of ancient, mind from the fatal dominion of the social, and political philosophy that had past—since the principle was irrevo- survived the mutations of time, and the cably established, that man was not in- convulsions of nations, still found a retended by Providence merely as an ap- fuge. But when Luther erected pendage of some principality or power, against the frowning towers and high -a new member, an additional sense, a places of the Italian Church the trekind of supplementary instinct, provided mendous enginery his passions, quato gratify the caprices or to work out lified, as they were, for their work of the small ambitions of the few who, as destruction and reform, by his impregaccidents of accidents, were charged nable honesty, and almost insane zealwith the office of his government. It and when Bacon lifted up his voice was not until after the fifteenth century against the organized absurdities of the that the modern doctrine of individual schools, in the spirit of prophecy to independence began to exhibit method, which he had been inspired in the visions and to take impulse. Not that this of his deep and comprehensive intelclass of opinions has been entirely the lect from that time forth, commences growth of the subsequent period— a new era in the history of humanity. which is not the case-on the contrary, Religion awoke from her enchantment we may find the germ of the represent- of a thousand years, and the strong ative system, and of constitutional guar- holds of superstition and idolatry, as if anties, one or both, more or less fre- instinct with shame, fell confounded bequently exhibited in the monarchies, fore her advancing footsteps. The temthe feudalities, and, above all, in the ples and the altars, which still stood ecclesiastical corporations of the middle open to the worshippers of Aristotle, ages—at no time, however, before the and which had reeked with the sacri
fice of every new opinion, and of every of Bacon and Luther, were not indivioriginal conception of the human mind, duals, but institutions, as their promises for nearly two thousand years, were concerned no separate order or section now to be closed in dishonor. The of humanity, but the whole human rites by which their unhallowed worship had been solemnized, were soon to From Luther sprang Puritanism, cease, and the hollow image of their pregnant with every species of ecclesiperverse idolatry-Aristotle himself- astical insubordination, from the most like Dagon of old—as commemorated uncompromising Calvanism to the wildby Milton's indignant muse, was destin- est Transcendentalism. ed for ever after to lie prostrate,
It broke up the oppressive dominion
of authority in the church, and en“ With heads and hands lopped off
throned the individual conscience. It In his own teinple, on the grunsel edge, taught men to question, and to judge When he fell flat and shamed his worship- their spiritual advisers by the light of pers.”
their own reason-for it taught them,
that before their God all men were Freedom of conscience, and freedom equal. From doubting the infallibility of thought, were from thenceforth es- of the human mind, in matters of relitablished. Imperfectly, it is true. gion, men were tempted to question the Their supremacies were not universal divine right of their temporal sovenor undisputed, neither are they now, reigns. Hence from Puritanism sprang even among the wisest and the best of the religious wars of England - the nations ; but yet they were then, and for great rebellion, and the revolutionthe first time, placed upon a foundation and to what end? that hearts might be from which neither social convulsion, strengthened, and minds be disciplined, nor the accidents of time, nor the ca to receive the new dispensation of huprice of men, can ever again cast them man rights, which was in store for those down.
who could survive its fiery trials. But it is not often given to any gene. Upon the devoted victims of these civil ration to witness both the beginning and wars were concentrated all that is most the end of a great revolution of opi- horrible and appalling, both in political nion. Luther and Bacon, like Moses, and ecclesiastical oppression. And to to whose destiny theirs has been more what end ? that they might be qualified than once felicitously compared, were by their experience—by their agonies summoned from the work which they to found new and wiser institutions in had so auspiciously begun, to the fulfil- a distant land, where the principles ment of a more inexorable destiny- which had cost them so much to defend before the tribes whom they had led were in turn to give to them prosperity forth from the house of bondage, had and happiness, and to the oppressed of entered into the land which had been every nation, refuge and protection. promised them for a possession ; but To Bacon, on the other hand, it was they had lived long enough to behold, given to unseal the everlasting founfrom the summits of their own intellec- tains of the inductive philosophy—to tual eminence, and to point out to their hold the light by which Newton was to followers, the distant territory to which unmask the mystery of the stars—to they were journeying. They had al- give to the useful arts, new dignity and ready marked out the route which led new impulse, by furnishing new moto it, and had promulgated with suitable tives and new facilities for their prosesolemnity the laws which would aid cution. He established a community them in its acquisition, and secure them of interest, and a friendly alliance bein its possession. Their work was now tween science and the useful arts, by done, but not so the work which they demonstrating their common destiny. had prepared. They left behind them He discharged the artizan from the a vast estate of influences, to be directed, bonds of his Gibeonitish slavery, and of duties to be discharged, and a golden made him one of the largest of the harvest of promised rewards to be ga- three estates of society, by awakening thered. But unlike Moses, they left in him new hopes, and by giving activitheir final trust to no single Joshua or ty to the higher sentiments of his naselected judge. The true successors ture. He thus multiplied indefinitely
new centres of industry- trom new of his industry--a science which was production came new modes of distri- to multiply indefinitely, both his suscepbution-from surplus production came tibilities and his means of happiness expanded commerce, and every new a science which is destined to connect commercial relation was another pledge in a bond of friendly relationship, the for the peace of the world and harmo- industry of all the nations in every ny among nations.
quarter of our globe. But more than all are we indebted This was the science of Political to Bacon for the confident exhortations Economy. to self-reliance, which are given us in In the same year that America deevery page of his philosophy—and to clared her independence, and therein his vigorous protest against the autho- her sense of the dignity and the imrity of the past. Luther had defended portance of the individual man, Adam the freedom of conscience from the op- Smith published his Wealth of Nations, pression of the Church. Bacon vindi- a work which, more than any other cated the freedom of the mind from the that has ever been written, deserves to oppression of the schools. Luther be considered the novum organum of taught all men to inquire for themselves political economy. In the same year in matters of religion. Bacon taught that we attained our political majority all men to inquire for themselves into among the nations, endowed with a new the laws of nature, and if need be, to system of polity, which made the happut her to the torture for truth's sake, piness of mankind the sole business and but never to trust to any authority, save end of government, the light of a new that of their own senses, and their own science was added to our inheritance, to judgment.
complete the beneficent purpose of our In 1776, we find the stars of Luther fathers, and to light our footsteps—it is and Bacon in conjunction. They con our privilege already to speak the lanstellated the destiny of America. Free- guage of history—to light our footsteps dom of conscience, and freedom of in- through a career of unexampled prosquiry had, at this time, in our country, perity and honor. first discovered their mutual depen At the great creation, the favorite and dence, their common power, and their most exalted work of the divine enercommon destiny, and now sat down to- gy, was reserved for the last. In the gether to write out the formulas of the generations of the heavens, and the new science of government, and of in- earth, man was made on the sixth day, dustry, which they had called into being. and of all the works of God's hands, They declared all mankind to be by man alone was formed in his image. nature, free and equal, before God and So in the generations of the nationsthe law. They asserted man's capaci- in the generations of society, man, the ty, and they established his right to go- individual, was the last and greatest vern himself. They discouraged all creation. No longer a supplementary distinctions among men, save those being—a soldier--a priest—an implewhich virtue and talent confer. They ment-a craft—a complete man, himdeclared the happiness of each indivi- self the centre and the circumference dual to be the interest of all; that the of a systein knowing no interest higher state existed only for man, not man for than his own, except that God's, in the state, and that laws should exist whose image he is created, and putting only to secure these results. Upon the faith in no laws which do not recognize basis of these new principles of social in man's happiness, the great end of polity, the American people declared their existence. themselves a sovereign state.
This we conceive to be the great reBut their whole inheritance was not sult of modern history—its new theory yet made up. Accompanying this of manhood, whereby each individual charter of human rights, which defined is made a law unto himself a theory, and settled his proper relations with which was enacted into a permanent the state, man received a new science tendency of our institutions, by the to conduct and to assist him in the new unanimous declaration of the thirteen career which was opened before him- United States of America in 1776. a science which was to enable him From which we are permitted to more completely to realize all the fruits conclude, that whereas, in the ancient