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sult which all reformers in common de- est and most precious enjoyments of sire.
our nature spring, must die out of them. Before making this attempt, it may To prevent the continuance of this state be proper to premise--what will gene- of things is the true office of the social rally be conceded, we presume--that reformer; for to secure its opposite is the common purpose of civil society is, the great purpose of civil society. or should be, to promote the happiness Obviously the first step to this end is of all its members. That happiness to supply these oppressive necessican only be secured by the gratifica- ties for life and sustenance with less tion of all those natural appetites, tastes expenditure of time and energy than is and propensities, which are necessarily now required, that leisure may accrue incident to our existence. A denial of to be devoted to more spiritualizing purany one of these gratifications will be a suits. How this result is to be effected, distinct cause of unhappiness, and will is the great economical question, in the prove that the social state in which it decision of which the whole human race occurred has thus far failed of its pur- have a permanent interest, and which pose. In so far as that social state is lies at the foundation of all statesmanresponsible for the evil, it requires ship and of all political philosophy. change.
To achieve this spiritual emancipaNow, it so happens, that in every so- tion, it will be necessary to increase the ciety of which we have any knowledge, product of a man's industry, so that a a very large proportion of its members less amount of labor may supply his have been denied, to a considerable ex- necessities, and also to teach men what tent, the enjoyments which we suppose their actual necessities are, that they necessary to their happiness. They may not be the prey of conventional have been compelled to struggle with tastes and appetites. their physical necessities with politi As the last result will, in our judgcal and social oppressions of one kind ment, follow, inevitably, from the first and another, for their whole lives. By –for reasons which we may hereafter the burden of supporting their exist- have occasion to render-we will conence, they have been excluded substan- fine ourselves to the consideration of the tially from all participation in the more first, and will inquire if there be any elevated and elevating enjoyments of hope of multiplying the product of a which our nature is susceptible. The man's labor, so that his physical wants great mass of them cannot presume to may not exclude the gratification of have any ideal life. They are forever every other, and through what instrupossessed by their material wants. mentality that hope is to be realised. Their minds are engrossed by day and If we have read aright the history of by night-in season and out of season, our race, and have at all comprehended in devising ways and means of satisfy- the processes of its moral developement, ing the long procession of the appetites, we have discerned or imagined the as they approach, day after day, to en quarter from whence the remedy is to force their uncompromising demands. be derived of which we are in quest. In their incessant search after the means We refer to an extended culture of of living, they have been forced to for- the physical sciences and their enlarged got the ends of life.
application to the useful arts. It is by the
aid of the physical sciences we hope to Et propter vitam vivendi perdere causas.
see the ample stores of nature subdued to How is it possible for nations thus the uses and convenience of men, and enthralled -- their finer sensibilities by the aid of powers which yet remain deadened or extirpated, to receive the to be revealed. We believe that nature highest culture, or a symmetrical moral produces nothing which she is not comdevelopement? How is it possible for petent to maintain according to the laws them to experience the emotions which of its existence.—That its structural spring from a pure taste, and from ele- demands are but the shadows of provated sentiments ? The inexorable con- mises which had preceded its creation, straints of their position must cut them but which science might not yet have off, to a great degree, from all this learned to interpret, and that it is to the range of pleasures, and their æsthetic man of science and the artisan that we susceptibilities, from which all the pur- are ultimately to look for the achieve
ment of this great work of social ame- effort to rob the guarded treasury of lioration.
nature of her resources to distribute We say ultimately, for there is an them among the people, and it shows other agency to be employed, which the joint supremacies of human and the history of the physical sciences de- divine legislation combined to enforce monstrates to be indispensable to their its infliction. prosperity. And that is the co-operation How broadly contrasted with this of free political institutions. It is only picture of error, established by law, under the kindly influences of civil liberty and sanctioned by religion, is the conand the amplest recognition of man's indi- dition of the minister et interpres natuvidual independence, that the natural ræ of our own time—the Prometheus sciences can be most successfully applied of the nineteenth century. For hiin to the useful arts.
no rewards are esteemed excessive, no As the truth of this proposition lies dignities too exalted. He has been at the base of our argument, we shall lifted up from the ranks of an ignomitake the liberty of referring to the his- nious caste into full communion wil tory of these sciences for its confirma- society, and is encouraged in his fruittion, and shall then endeavour to ex ful toil with every protection which the plain our reasons more at length for power and the gratitude of free people considering their growth and develop- can supply. He dreads no Caucasian ment indispensable to the realization of wilderness, nor chains, nor bondage, that highest social enjoyment, the attain- nor torturing vultures, but goes forth to ment of which we have indicated as the his ministrations of mercy like the wise true end of all good government; and in man of the preacher, bearing length of the course of our inquiries we trust it days in his right hand, and in his left will be made to appear, that it is to the hand riches and honor. political reformer to whom we must We will proceed to show that the look as the immediate instrument under fable has not exaggerated the reality, Providence for hastening a consumma- and that the contrast we have attempttion so devoutly to be wished for. ed to indicate is amply exemplified in
According to the ancient mythology, the past history of physical science. which is but history transfigured, Pro We have been spared the necessity metheus is reported to have stolen from of entering into any very elaborate arheaven the element of fire, of which guiment, to show the degraded condition Jupiter had interdicted the use to man. of physical science in its application to For this theft the sinning Titan was the useful arts among the ancients, a bound in chains, as the myth goes on condition which the foregoing interpreMount Caucasus, and an eagle was sent tation implies, by the diligent pen of one by Jupiter to prey upon his liver, which, of the most profound critics and accomby a cruel dispensation of the vindic- plished scholars of our time. The questive god, was permitted to grow during tions which Mr. Macauley has once arthe night, as much as it was consumed gued, rarely admit of farther debate. In during the day. After the lapse of his masterly dissertation upon the Bacomany thousands of years, Hercules slew nian philosophy, and the new impulses the eagle, and delivered the suffering it gave to the prosecution of physical Titan from his terrible bondage. science--the utter barrenness of all the
In this lay of Prometheus the ima- old philosophies previous to the reivrgination of antiquity has foreshadowed mation is exhibited with such demonthe fortunes and the fate of those strative energy, that we cannot feel throughout the ancient world, who, as that any accumulation of evidence on artizans, mechanics, or philosophers, our part would add strength to his made the physical comfort of their fel- proofs, or increase our readers' confilows the business of their lives. It dence in his conclusions. At the best, typifies the irreconcileable antagonism we could but prove what none will be which was supposed to exist between disposed to deny, that in nearly every the laws of nature and the harmony of department of natural science the anconstituted society between the inte- cient philosophers adopted a system of rests of the tens and the interest of investigation fatally vicious--that they the millions. It shows the terrible prosecuted it for no adequate objects, penalty which followed every avowed and that they achieved comparatively
none of its higliest results. That the surd prejudices of his time. Though position of the operative before the law, the machines which he had contrived was unjust and discouraging; before were the terror of his country's enesociety, degrading; and that the nature mies, and though his marvellous peneof his pursuits effectually foreclosed his tration and clearness of intellect, claim to any of the rewards to which which even in the time of Cicero had an honorable and meritorious ambition passed into a proverb, have associated would aspire.
his name with physical laws that will Not only was all experimental sci- preserve it immortal as themselves, yet ence among them smitten with this he did not affect to conceal his contempt abiding curse of barrenness, and de- for every result of his genius that might graded by the servile outcasts, who tend to the material comfort of his alone could stoop to officiate in her mi- kind. "He had such a depth of unnistry—but the philosophers, those who derstanding," says his biographer, should have been the lights, instead of "such a dignity of sentiment, and so blind guides to the industrious multi- copious a fund of mathematical knowtudes, looked down with scorn upon ledge, that though in the invention of every attempt to direct the operations these machines he acquired the reputaof nature to man's physical comfort. It tion of a man endowed with divine was a source of infinite mortification rather than human knowledge, he yet to the wisest of them to be detected in did not vouchsafe to leave any account ministering, however indirectly, to the of them in writing, for he considered practical wants of life. “To tell you all attention to mechanics, and every my opinion now of the liberal sciences,” art that ministers to common uses, as says Seneca, “ I have no great esteem mean and sordid, and placed his whole for any that terminate in profit, or delight in those intellectual speculations, man's physical well-being; and yet I which, without any relation to the necesshall allow them to be so far benefi- sities of life, have an intrinsic excellence, cial as they only prepare the mind arising solely from truth and demonwithout detaining it.” Eudoxus and stration." Archytas, it is said, did so far forget the To these, perhaps unnecessary deDIGNITY of Philosophy, as to profane tails, we may add, upon the authority geometry by a temporary application of Pliny the younger, that Rome does of its principles to the useful arts ; but not appear to have produced a single when they were discovered by Plato, professional physician before the Emtheir teacher, he denounced with great pire. For mere external injuries, severity, “their unmanly and sordid which might be prevented from preyeffort,” we quote from Plutarch: “to ing for life upon the constitution of a corrupt and debase geometry by caus- patient, Plato, in his Ideal Republic, ing her to descend froin incorporeal would barely tolerate the ministrato intellectual and sensible things, and tions of medical aid ; but why, said requiring her to make use of matter he, perpetuate the existence of a which requires much manual labor, constitutional invalid. He cannot stuand is the object of servile trades.” dy-he cannot think. On such a man, The chiding was efficacious. The the offices of the physician are wasted. humbled disciples abandoned their un The sooner he is removed, the better worthy project with precipitation-Ar- for himself and for those he leaves bechytas to write his treatise on the num- hind him. Such was the prevailber four, and Eudoxus, we may pre- ir.g tone of all the ancient thinkers sume, to prosecute some no less eleva- upon this and kindred subjects. All ting calculation.
inquiry into the laws of matter, " which There was
man among the was the object of servile trades," had to Greeks from whom we might have give place to the more elevating speculooked for superior philosophy, the lations about final causes, the mystical character of whose mind and pursuits properties of numbers, the various should have taught him, at least, that ways of attaining unattainable condithere is no irreconcileable hostility be- tions of mind, the differences between tween man's physical and his spiritual diaphora and adiaphora—between prowelfare; but even Archimedes could egmena and apoproegmena, and siminot emancipate himself from the ab- lar debates de lana caprina, which
seemed to have supplanted every sym- truth. Their astronomy was astropathy with the wants of our corporeal logy. Their mathematics was mystinature, and to have engrossed all the cal arithmetic; and their physiological loftiest aspirations of their philoso- science was demonology and witchcraft. phies.
The sagacious Kepler was himself an It is almost needless to pursue the astrologer; and Tycho Brahe, says destinies of our race through the dark Gassendi, his biographer, kept an idiot valley of the middle ages, to learn the about him for the benefit of his prophecondition of physical science there. It cies, to which this prince of astronohad no condition. It could hardly be said mers, as he was called, was accustomed to have any existence. Though the to listen as to revelations. properties of the fulcrum and the prin But we will not multiply proofs of a ciples of the hydrostatic paradox had fact which has been written with a finalready been propounded by Archi- ger of light upon almost every page of medes—yet the sciences of mechanics history—that the experimental sciences and hydrostatics remained perfectly had no substantial existence-no powers stationary for nearly two thousand of self-maintenance and self-propagayears, and were not awakened to new- tion previous to the fifteenth century, ness of life until the time of Galileo and and that their application to the useful Stevinus. Though the manufacture of arts is a glory which belongs entirely to glass must have been understood in the modern civilization. And why was this? days of Socrates, yet the invention of —why was it left to the men of a later the telescope, which would seem to be age—to the pupils of Bacon—to the offan almost obvious result, was not made spring of seventy generations of thinkuntil about the commencement of the ing men, first to penetrate the dark seventeenth century. Comparative realms of the material universe—to exanatomy and zoology were taken up plore its inexhaustible resources, and to by Blumenbach and Cuvier, where they adapt them to the comfort and happihad been begun upwards of twenty ness of mankind ? By what spell encenturies before, by Aristotle. John chanted-to what idol kneeling, was Manardi, a contemporary of Luther, the genius of those ancient Greeks—the was obliged to go back for about the countrymen of Pythagoras, of Socrates, same period to find the science of bo- of Plato and of Aristotle—that they left tany, where it had been left in its fee- their posterity to strike the first alliblest infancy by Theophrastus. ance between philosophy and the use
We can imagine the progress which ful arts ? the sciences of medicine and anatomy We must find our answer where the must have made, from the fact, that world has been but too much disposed there is no satisfactory evidence that to look for example and advice-in the the dissection of the human body was ill-advised political and social systems even legalised until, in the sixteenth of the ancients, which compressed in century, a council of the church, sum- their iron embrace the intellect of all moned for the purpose, at Salamanca, the ancient world, and shaped it to those had resolved that it might be done with- results. out peril of souls.
In the theory and in the practice of Nor is this all. Not only did the ac- the governments of antiquity, man was quisitions of the past receive no in- but a fragment of the state-in their crease from their passage through the theocracies but a worm of the dust, intellect of the twenty generations which without any individuality, and protected succeeded them, but, on the contrary, by no political guarantees which were they were so entirely refracted from not liable to be withdrawn in any extheir original proportions, that they igency. Industry, liberty-and even seem at times to have been to those life itself-vere but public property, who inherited them, rather a curse than held to private use at the will of the a benefaction. Their chemistry was state. The individual man was noalchemy, which, allying itself in turn thing ;-the state was everything. to the dreams of the Cabbalists, of the Are proofs of this required ? Look Rosicrucians, and of the Theosophers at the ostracism of the Greeks, which, at each successive step, wardered far- by the operation of the law, acting ther and farther from every practical through its usual and constituted or
gans, drove the citizen, like Ishmael, morseless summons, the pride of the naked and an hungered, from his home, father and the yearning affection of the his friends, and his country, without mother were suppressed. Even tho even the forms of a trial or the pretence last most sacred citadel of human liberof a crime. Look at their international ty, the individual conscience, was obliged law, which treated all foreigners as to suspend upon its outer wall a banner barbarians, and all barbarians taken of her devising. A neglect of this procaptive in war, as slaves by the law of fession of allegiance was but too often nature. It was enough that they were fatal, not only to the liberty, but to the the enemies of the state ;-what kind life of the patriot and the sage—but the of men they were, the state would not terrors of its penalty appear never to stay its vengeance to inquire. Again : have awakened for a moment, even in mark the dictator at Rome, at whose the breast of the wisest of its victims, nod every other law became speech- the suspicion that the state had exceedless—every legal or natural right of the ed her rightful authority, or had exercitizen was extinguished, and who held cised a single unnecessary prerogative. in his hands absolute control over the In this absolute negation of political life of every Roman subject, “ that the individuality it is sufficiently obvious, state should take no detriment.” And, that the happiness and comfort of the finally, look at their theogony, which masses of men, never entered into the subjected all the wishes, intentions and projects of the statesman, or the spepowers-not only of men, but of gods culations of the philosopher. What themselves—to the blind control of an should ameliorate their physical condiomnipotent, unrelenting, unappeasable tion—what should make them happier destiny-an overruling fate, deaf to and better as individuals—what should the voice of prayer and supplication, dignify them in the world's esteem by even when put up by Jove himself, associating their pursuits with the hoblind alike to the beauties of virtue and norable accessories of talent, of virtue, to the deformities of vice; regardless and of social distinction, was unworthy of all powers in the heavens above or in the deliberations of enlightened men. the earth beneath, or in the waters We look in vain throughout the ancient under the earth, save its own inscruta- world for the exhibition of any systemble will; for such are the attributes atic philanthropy. The great heart of uniformly ascribed to this dread omni- the state never beat in harmony with potence by the poets and the theoso- the pulse of the individual. Why stuphers, the only evangelists of the Pa- dy to furnish new sources of enjoy
ment, new facilities for avoiding, and Now, the natural theologies of all na new faculties for encountering the cations have ever been but an idealization lamities of life, to those whose happiness or an exaggeration of some predomi- or whose misery is alike unimportant ? nating national sentiment. Power, in The state only needs soldiers, priests whatever form, exhibited among the and magistrates ; such was the political Pagans, in time received the glory of philosophy of Aristotle. Poets, philodeification. Destiny was but the state sophers and artists may be encouraged, seen through the religious imaginations for that while they adorn and discipline of the Greeks. What fate was over the mind, they give moral strength to the universe, that was the state over the government. the individual man. Its will was law " But,” continues the philosopher, from its necessities there was no escape men habitually addicted to the lowly but in sacrifice; from its command there pursuits of providing necessaries and was no resource but in obedience. Man accumulating gain, are unfit members had no rights so personal or so private of our republic, because they are -no sentiments so sacred, but they incapable of relishing those enjoy. might be crushed under the wheels of ments in which we have supposed this insatiable Juggernaut.
their chief pleasure to consist. They might be torn from his parents at an are to be classed with things necesage when the watchful eye of parental sary to the commonwealth, but not tenderness was still required to guard as citizens; and a commonwealth his yet unpractised steps, and dedicated founded on valour cannot provide for to her perpetual service. At her re- the happiness of men who are but fee