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was not very good withal,) we proceed There was there a privateer schooner, ed to Portsmouth with the vessel, for the Brutus, of Baltimore, on board of the purpose of completing our crew. which a great many children and fe
Here, by dint of persuasions and po- males, who had been deprived of their tations, by words and whiskey, we homes by the flames, were conveyed; made out to pick up our remaining com- and it was found necessary, in the plement of men, and to complete pretty course of the night, to remove her much such a picked crew as I have de- down the river; and many a heart was scribed in the beginning of this chap- anxious for the fate of its loved ones, ter. Our complete complement, it may until it was discovered, the next mornreadily be judged, was not a very com- ing, that they were safe on board the plete compliment to the character of Brutus. American privateers.
Having got together our crew, and We had to scour the neighboring made all proper arrangements, we set towns to procure some of our men, and sail from Portsmouth on Christmasone of our lieutenants and myself were day, A. D. 1813. The experience of despatched into the county of York, in the last cruise had proved to us that the then District of Maine. Here we our vessel had improved in buoyancy, procured three Down-Easters, who but not in speed. She was not a very received our bounty-money, and mount- crack sailer, however much we might ed our blue ribbon in their apologies crack on her. Her best play was befor hats, but who contrived to elude our fore the wind, which is not usually the vigilance, and made off with the badges, case with clipper-built schooners. and we never saw the varlets again. The day was near its close when we The winter of our worthy sub's discon- got under weigh, and dark clouds hung tent was not made glorious summer by over the far-off blue hills ; but we had these sons of York; he was extremely a favorable breeze, and, despite the invexed at the circumstance; but for my- experience and drunkenness of many self, I liked the ride and the frolic, and of our men, we got out to sea without was in no great hurry to exchange this any accident. frolic on the land for our frolic on the We had just cleared the point at water.
Great Island, when we perceived a During our stay at Portsmouth, the small, dark object in the water, lying great fire occurred, by which a large directly in our track, and apparently portion of that flourishing town was awaiting our approach. On coming consumed, and a blow inflicted upon its up with it, it proved to be a small boat prosperity, from which, I believe, it has of the kind which is commonly called not yet recovered. Our schooner was a dory. It contained a man who had moored in the river, near the town, but come off alone from the eastern side of the officer in command found it neces the river, and who was a deserter from sary to remove her down to near the the United States brig Rattlesnake, pavy-yard, on account of the danger which was then in the harbor of Portsfrom the sparks and burning fragments . mouth. He wished to enlist with us ; wbich were flying in every direction. and, as he was a prime seaman, Several of our officers were on shore were by no means very scrupulous as at the time, and I happened to be among to the rights of “Uncle Sam" in the them, and we all endeavored to render He joined with us, and proved all the assistance in our power to the to be one of our most efficient inen, suffering inhabitants. Our captain was but, withal, such a reckless, unprinciparticularly active and efficient, as were pled rascal, that it he came to a peacealso the United States officers and sai- ful end, the gallows and the hangman lors who were there.
have been defrauded of their due.
(To be Continued.)
MANUFACTURE OF WOOL, SILK, COTTON AND FLAX, AN
CIENT AND MODERN.
Since man was, by the Divine Jus- entered, to a greater or less extent, in tice, condemned to provide for his own different ages and under different cirwants by his own labor, the chief oc cumstances, into the consumption of cupation of all the branches of the race the people. The other animal produchas been to clothe and feed themselves. tion, wool, has formed by far the greatWith the advancement of science and est basis of human clothing, in all counthe developement of inventive genius, tries and ages. Of the vegetable prothe taste for both food and raiment has ductions, linen was anciently the most become more refined, and the wants of known in Europe ; but cotton has, from civilized people more diversified. It time immemorial, formed the clothing may be said, that the food of the bulk of of the people of India. The use and the people in all countries remains now manufacture of those materials slowly nearly what it ever has been; but the found their way westward, impeded and supply has become greater in propor- retarded by oppressions and restrictions tion to the inhabitants of different coun- of all descriptions. The rapacity of tries, according to the fertility of the rulers sought to introduce the manufacsoil, the industry of the people, and in ture of the different articles into their the improvements in the instruments of several domains, and then, by the grant labor. Governments have, in modern of monopolies and barbarous restrictimes, attempted, by means of parch- tions, smothered them at home, while ment laws, to extract from a barren soil, they sought to prevent the art from an unintelligent people, with rude and leaving them for other countries. Alprimitive instruments, food, on terms though silk, from the earliest ages, comas advantageous as an industrious peo- posed the clothing of the inhabitants of ple, with the aid of eminent science, Asia, and was known and used as an can extract from a fertile soil. Under article of luxury long before the Chrispretence of effecting this object, they tian era, yet it was not until the sixth have compelled consumers to forego all century, under the reign of Justinian, the benefits of a more favored region that it was introduced into Europe as a which commerce would confer on them. manufacture. A few eggs, concealed The effect has been greatly to retard in a vegetable stalk, were brought to the progress of the people of all coun- Constantinople about the year 530, by trios. In fact, it has been the avowed two monks. The manufacture springpolicy of many modern princes to pre- ing from this soon became "protected” serve the statu quo, as that in which by royal favor. Justinian and his vile the people enjoy the greatest happiness. consort amassed great wealth by the When we look upon the progress of monopoly. At the end of that century the human race, from the rude ages to silk was known in England, and Charthe present comparative high state of leinagne wore a linen shirt, a tunic of civilization, we become struck with the wool, with a silk border. The manupresumption that fixes upon any stage facture of the article remained confined of advancement, as that beyond which to Greece some six hundred years, and it is not desirable to go; and to retard in the twelfth century was transferred, its progress, restrictions upon individual by force, to Palermo. In the fourteenth business, and prohibitions of intercourse, century it spread successively through are rigidly administered.
the different countries of the south of The clothing of the human race, Europe to Britain. Cotton was always from all ages down to the present mo the chief staple of India ; and, down to ment, has chiefly consisted of four ma this day, many of the most exquisite faterials-two of animal and two of vege- bries of India cotton have in vain sought table production. Of the first, silk has to be rivalled by the scientific machinery ever been an article of luxury, but has of Europe. The manufacture of wool
* The History or SILK, Cotton. LINEN, WooL, and other Fibrous Substances, including observa tions on Spinning. Dyeing, and Weaving. Also an Account of the Pastoral Life of the Ancients, their Social State, and attainments in the Domestic Arts, etc. New-York: Harper & Brothers.
and linen was introduced into England sons, at such rates as they chose to gradually, by the Romans; and in most demand. The makers of these cloths countries of Europe it has been spread- therefore obtained great wealth, while ing, to a greater or less extent, for two the consumption of the goods was mathousand years, exposed to legislative terially retarded. A free competition oppressions of all kinds, for the protec- in the supply from all quarters, would tion of some more favored branch of in- naturally afford the greatest quantity to dustry.
a people, on the cheapest terms, beAlthough the progress of manufac cause every country has some advantures in all the countries of Europe, tage peculiar to itself, which enables it was at all times exposed to the abuses to supply a greater quantity of a given growing out of the mal-administration article, for a certain amount of labor, of the governments, it was not until the than any other country. Where a mu17th century, that the several nations tual interchange of articles, thus pecucommenced to make war, each on the liarly situated, freely takes place, not prosperity of the other; and recognized only the greatest subdivision of labor, the mutual injuries thus inflicted, as a but the best application of the advanprinciple, under the name of “protec- tages of all climes and Localities, to the tion" to home industry. The great welfare of the whole human race, is object of the labor of the human race, brought about; and therefore, the is to procure a sufficiency of food and greatest sum of happiness is obtained. raiment for all; and for each to obtain Such a state of affairs eminently exists as much for as little labor as possible. in the U. States, where perfect freedom Every sovereign of Europe saw the of internal intercourse allows of the importance of having his own people free application of the capital and skill possessed of these necessities to as of the whole country to the developgreat an extent as practicable ; and it ment of all its resources, wherever was for this purpose, that, in 1148, the situated. Were such a freedom of inking of Sicily, having overrun the cities tercourse, in the present improved of Greece, compelled the silk weavers means of communication, to exist beto go and live in Palermo, and there 'tween any two nations, their commerexercise their art; and they continued cial and pecuniary interests would soon to flourish there, because the prosper- become so interwoven, that hostilities ity of the people of Sicily enabled them between them, from any cause, would to buy the rich goods produced, at a re be utterly impossible ; as a consemunerative price. Gradually, in all quence, princes and dynasties would countries, the first manufacturers be soon cease to exist, because war, with came wealthy and influential, and ob- all its paraphernalia, would no longer tained incorporate and special privi- be at their command to sustain their leges. These were gradually consoli- absurd pretensions. In former ages of dated into the protective system, by the world, when the means of interwhich all the manufacturers of one course was slow, and the transportation nation were sought to be protected in a of goods from one country to another, monopoly of the home market; that is was almost impossible, separate nato say, the principle avowed was, as tions had nothing in common with each expressed by Daniel de Foe, the author other, and a war was a matter of no imof Robinson Crusoe, in his Weekly portance, unless to those comparatively Review, 1708 :
few, who were actually exposed to the
ravages of a hostile host. Even the “That it is a national evil to have cloth cotton manufacture of India, which is ing cheap from abroad, rather than to mentioned by the first Greek historian, manufacture it dear at home.”
five centuries before Christ, as having
existed for an indefinite period, was The original design of labor thus known only as a curiosity to the Egypcame to be perverted. Instead oftians, at the time of the Christian era, working to provide the greatest quan- five centuries after rumors of the tity of clothes on the best terms, to the " wool-bearing trees" of India had whole people, the whole design of gov- spread among the Greeks; and it was ernient was sought to be to compel the not until the 12th century, that the mass of people to buy only of certain per- manufacture was introduced into Italy.
We have stated that the silk culture ized opposition to that systematic atwas introduced into Constantinople in tack. England, under Charles and the year 530 ; but it was not until 1622, Cromwell, began those demonstrations during the reign of Elizabeth, that of commercial hostility against other some foreigners first made silk in Lon- nations, which took the form of navigadon. It took 1100 years to carry the tion laws, prohibitions and restrictions trade from the Levant to the North on imports of all sorts, with bounties Sea.
on exports. In 1687, these material The manufacture in England did not injuries were established as a principle, prosper to any great extent, however, by France. These examples were foluntil in 1685, from 30,000 to 50,000 lowed by all other nations of Europe, Protestant silk weavers were driven Austria towards the close of the seventhither, to seek refuge against the per- teenth century. In Germany, from the secutions of the Catholics, when Louis earliest times, the revenues of petty IV. revoked the edict of Nantz. Some princes, and lordly tyrants, were drawu 15,000 of these immigrants settling in from onerous
cominerce, and near London, located, what is rather, however, as a mode of oppresknown as Spitalfields, and became the sion, than with a view to “ protect” chief seat of the silk manufacture in manufactures. In all the despotic England. This large accession of silk countries, the general principle of raisweavers did not injure those previously ing a revenue, has been to levy the established, but producing a great de- highest duties on those articles most cline in the money value of the articles absolutely necessary to common use, made, enhanced the consumption to a and to the support of every individual ; degree that improved the business of and some of them, as France, Spain, all. It subsequently led, however, to Naples, and Austria, have monopolized jealousies between Great Britain and certain trades, as tobacco and salt, France. Although England had re- with a view to the profit. England ceived great benefit from those French has not done that, but has taxed every who had arrived in London, to make thing of necessary in use, excepting silks for the English, yet she sought to prohibit those who remained in France The general principle which has from adding anything to that supply. been acknowledged by all the powers These mutual jealousies between na in relation to protection, has been to tions were engendered, or grew up of prohibit those articles which they supthemselves spontaneously, when no pose most to compete with certain integreat degree of mutual intercourse had rests at home, which it is intended to previously existed; when, as yet, no favor, but to allow of the free export of large class of persons, in any one the products of national industry ; that country, had become accustomed to is to say, to allow the citizens to sell, depend upon another large class in but not to receive any valuable thing in another country for articles of necessi- return. The policy of Turkey has ty. The manufacturers were the first been the reverse of this, but equally to feel the effects of foreign competi- plausible. The idea which originally tion, and to complain of its injurious presented itself to the Sublime Porte effects, before the people at large had was, that all the wealth of a nation learned to appreciate its benefits. As must arise from the industry of its intherefore, by royal favor, and govern- habitants. Hence, if all the proceeds mental protection, the manufacturers of their industry was, by law, contineú were already an influential class, and in the country, it must necessarily grow the ruling powers naturally leaned rich ; exports of Turkish produce were, upon them for support in times of therefore, strictly prohibited: on the emergency, it became easy for that same principle all the produce of other class to obtain, what they called protec- nations brought into the country would tion, at the expense of the people; more in so far add to the wealth of the counespecially as that it is always, in all try. Imports have, therefore, from the countries, the active class, or those who time of Solyman the Magnificent, to have some special object in view, that the present day, been admitted at a obtain that which they seek at the ex- duty of three per cent. ad valorem. It, pense of the many who have no organ- however, escaped the sagacity of the
Moslem, that other nations would not tuated as she is, centrally, surrounded give away their goods, and to receive by good harbors, in respect to all the them argued, that something must be large commercial cities of Europe-her paid for them; and as the export of vast mineral resources of coal and iron produce was prohibited, specie speedily interstratified and conveniently disposed vanished from circulation. Hence the for cheap use and transit, and possesslaw of prohibition gradually fell in ing an energetic, industrious, and endisuse. The wisdom of the christian ter prizing people, naturally took the governments erred as far on the other lead in manufacturing, and, isolated side. They permitted all produce to from the continent by seas, commanded pass freely out, forgetting, that if their by her own ships, she has hitherto essubjects sold, they must receive some- caped those devastating invasions that thing in return, and to prohibit returns have successively ravaged all the nations was to impoverish the country. These of Europe. Her industry has, theremutual restrictions have tended in an fore, been undisturbed, and her produceminent degree to check the consump- tive power has progressed the more ration of manufactured goods, because pidly, that the paralyzed industry of they artificially enhanced their price; the continent has left the field entirely that is to say, they added a new ingre- open to her enterprize. Under these dient to the cost of certain articles, be- circumstances she has been enabled, yond the natural ones of the expendi- aided by great discoveries, and inventure of capital in its production, and tions in the arts, to maintain the suprethe profits of manufacturers and sellers. macy which has been threatened, but In spite of all these restrictions, how- not seriously affected, during the last ever, the production and consumption quarter of a century of profound peace. during the present century, have been in tracing the leading events in her immensely greater than at any pre- manufactures, we shall indicate the gevious period of the world's history. neral progress. As an indication of the The increase in the production has been rapidity with which her manufactories owing almost entirely to wonderful have progressed, we annex an official discoveries, and the advancement of decennial table of the quantities of the science, in each branch of manufac- raw materials imported into the United ture.
Kingdom, and tuken for consumption Great Britain, in consequence of her by her manufacturerscommanding geographical position-si
QUANTITY OF RAW MATERIALS FOR MANUFACTURES, TAKEN INTO CONSUMPTIOX
IN GREAT BRITAIN IN EACH YEAR OF EIGHT SUCCESSIVE PERIODS.
lbs. 1790... 3,245,352. 1,253,445... 257,222. .592,306. 30,574,374 1800 8,615,284. 8,167,335. 416,120 556,419 53,814,207 1810 10,936,224. 1,796,106. 511,970. 955,890. 126.018,487 1820. 10,043,746. ..2,641,866. 381.821.
141.912.267 1830. 32,313,039. 4,318,181. 944,096.
255,426,476 1836. .60,366,415. .5,533,445. 1,511,438. 567,892. 363,684,232 1840. 52,862,020. 4,756,171. 1,338,217 612,515. 437,099,631 1844... .69,493,355. .6,207,678. .1,595,839......911,747. .558,015,248
We have, in these figures, the most the peculiar long staple of English wool extraordinary increase since the close was superior for manufacturing purof the war; and this has been owing to poses, and, therefore, by preventing other the almost total abolition of the protec- nations from obtaining it, they should tive system as applied to manufactures. keep the manufacture to themselves. By Wool has always been the object of this selfish policy, inventive genius was care to the British government. Up to paralyzed, and the art of manufacture 1660, British-grown wool was allowed remained stationary. As soon as the to be freely exported; in that year the French could obtain the English wool, export was prohibited, and remained so their genius produced a quality of cloth up to 1825-a period of 165 years. altogether superior to that of the EngThis measure grew out of the idea that lish. This stimulated invention in Eng