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of Posen, and in Western Prussia, had to the inciting part of which could have no remain like single sparks which would ex effect whatever upon the Poles under the pire without producing any effect, since Prussian and Austrian Government, for they could not ignite the entire mass. In these had never become acquainted with those districts the very large masses of the fearful dungeons, or the lash, which troops would not at all have been neces those under Russian dominion knew so sary to quell an impracticable insurrection, well. The mountains of gold which were had it not probably been the object of the promised in that proclamation could not government to prevent unnecessary blood. sure them much, as their experience showshed, by these imposing measures. ed them different pictures from former
In Cracow the great blow was to be times; and as they had no security for a struck which should give Poland her change of disposition since that time. liberty, and again make her a great and Then the Provisional Government issued an independent country. But how was that instruction for the general and immediate blow struck ? We will briefly answer that organization of the revolution, and the question, by a connected review of au- turning point of this instruction was capital thentic occurrences.
punishment; but here also they forgot one If we first look at the locality it may be important point, namely : that such threats called favorable, inasmuch as the military only have effect when an army stands and police vigilance was only slight here; ready to fulfil them. This was the entire and as a conspiracy could advance freely, work of the revolutionists. and here be nourished by many remem. On the morning of the 23d they rejoiced brances of former Polish grandeur. But, and glorified their deeds, as if it had been on the other hand, it was a most unfavor- the morning of a new era in Poland's bisable locality, inasmuch as a revolt once tory; and when, on the following day, even commenced, would have, instead of one, Podgorze was cleared by the Austrians, three gigantic opponents at its very door. they already believed that the white eagle Austrian troops would reach the very heart had completely vanquished the Imperial of the revolution in an hour's march ; the double eagle. They even found time and Riissians required but little longer time- leisure for disputes and quarrels among and the Prussians could reach it in a two the leading committees; and for internal days' march. Besides this, Cracow is with intrigues and minor conspiracies, just as if out any fortification, without any kind of no external enemy was any longer to be natural protection, and contained not even feared. The only acts of Government heavy armament enough, (even had there done by these wiseacres was to send a few been experienced soldiers enough among corps to the support of the revolt in Galthe conspirators to use it,) to oppose the licia, and to issue a requisition for the neenemy even for a short time. All these cessary materials of war,—and above all things seom not to have been remembered for money. The main body of the Crauntil the enemy was at the door.
coviennes sent to Wielicskā failed in its But the entire district of Cracow offers attempt upon the treasury; they gained not a single natural fortress which could possession of Wielicska, but found no keep a body of insurgents, and aid them money, against an enemy superior in numbers. On the 26th February that body was toThe Republic has no Swiss mountain pass- tally vanquished near Gdow, by the Aus. es, no North American forests. Whether trian Colonel, Von Benedek, whereupon a plan of a campaign was drawn or not, Wielicska was at once relinquished without has never transpired, but is very doubtful; a blow. Once more that corps gathered not even an experienced and valiant mili. on the 27th, and made an attack upon tary chief had been provided—one who General Collin, who had already returned should have united courage, circumspec- to Podgorze, but here again they were tion and full experience in tactics to a vanquished and entirely dispersed. celebrated name, in order to obtain the A second corps traversed the Gallician implicit confidence of the people. They mountains, towards Wadowice, but was had thought of obtaining arms, (muskets at this point forced to a retreat, although and scythes,) and had probably imagined only opposed by rustics and a very small that all else would find itself. With this division of military. A similar fate befel sell-satisfied belief the leaders allowed the a third corps near Limanowa. Meanrevolt to proceed on the 20th of February, while General Collin had gathered a connominated a Provincial Government on the siderable body of troops at Wadowice, 22d, and vainly believed now to have done with whom he left that place and marched enough by selecting, as members of said by way of Izdebnik to Podgorze. Here, Government, young and inexperienced for the first time, the want of artillery was persons, with whose names no reminiscen- most deeply felt by the insurgents. Not ces were connected, and of whom noth- only, that through the want of it they could ing had ever before been heard. This not make any successful resistance, but Government now issued a proclamation, they suffered fearfully on their retreat by
the effective firing of the Austrians, whilst neral Collin, at Padgorze, to declare their their own small fire-arms were utterly submission. General Collin immediately without effect. And now the insurgents convened a Provisional Senate, (consisting at Cracow passed three days of anxious of seven members, with Senator Kopf as expectation, amidst entire helplessness and chairman,) commanded the citizens and indecision.
the insurgents to denounce and deliver up The Austrians, in their immediate vici- all the chiefs of the late rebellion, as also nity, grew every day in strength, and be to deliver up all arms and ammunitions. fore long the Russians and Prussians must The Provisional Senate should meanwhile also appear before Cracow, and what was conduct the affairs of Government until then to be done? There was but one an the three Protective Powers would have swer to this question; either a struggle made further arrangements. Any one disunto death, or immediate surrender at dis- obeying these orders was immediately to cretion. There certainly were a few ex- be tried by court-martial. alted hot-spurs, who spoke of defending In the afternoon of the same day the Cracow to the last man, but the majority, castle and other principal places of Cracow especially the large mass of tradesmen and were already guarded by a part of the citizens, had no taste for such a display of Russian Avantgarde, and immediately heroism. At last the armed bodies con- after, the Austrian General, Collin, entered claded to desert Cracow, which they did the city with a large body of troops, to on the night of the 2d and 3d March. The occupy every remaining post. Thus, on body of the insurgents was now divided. the evening of the 3d, there was already One party directed its course towards Wie in Cracow three battallions of Russian inlicska, and was lost, at least nothing far- fantry, 500 cavalry, (mostly Cossacks,) and ther was ever heard of it; the other party, 12 pieces of artillery, as also General Ru(of about one thousand men,) attempted diger, and several large bodies of troops, an invasion into Russian Poland. But here on their way there. Of Austrians there they learned the fearful news, that a strong were four companies of infantry, two body of Russian troops was marching to divisions of light cavalry, and two fieldwards them, and would probably meet pieces, all under the command of Field. them on the highway to Cracow; this in- Marshal Count Webna, who had more telligence extinguished the last remaining over a batallion and a squadron in reserve sparks of courage. They quickly relin at Podgorze. Of Prussian troops there are quished the plan of beginning a petty par at present two batallions of infantry, and tizan war in the kingdom of Poland, hastly two squadrons of cavalry at Cracow, unretreated to the Cracovienne District, and der the command of General Von Brandmarched hy way of Krzeszowice, towards enburg. the Russian frontier. After they had, This, then, is a short review of the late through a deputation, informed the Prus
occurrences in Cracow. Concerning the sian commander of the frontier, of their insurrection in Gallicia, we can at present intention to surrender to Prussia, a detach- only say, that a fearful slaughter between ment of Prussian cavalry overtook them near citizens and boors had taken place; and Chrzanow, and conducted them into the that the nobility fared worse than either. Prussian dominions. Here they surrender. According to the last advices, about 50,000 ed their arms. A small body of the in Austrian troops were in Gallicia; but even surgents who had lagged somewhat behind, then it seemed doubtful whether quiet fell into the hands of the Russians, beyond would soon be restored. We may, perChrzanow.
haps, make the revolt in Gallicia the subMeanwhile the citizens of Cracow had, ject of a future and separate article. on the 3d March, sent a deputation to Ge
NOTICES OF NEW BOOKS.
Pictorial History of England. Harper & the absorption of Mexico will give the Brothers, N.Y.
Union. The future government must,
however, depend upon the people of that History, too often, is a mere detail of country; and to form an estimate of their the political movements of the government capabilities, one must be acquainted with of Nations, and their perusal leaves the the customs, manners, habi: of thought, reader greatly in the dark as to the state and social condition. On these subjects of sciences, arts and social condition of the the work of Mr. Thompson throws a food people of a country at any particular pe- of light. He introduces us to the houses, riod of time. The Society for the Diffu- churches, tables, and public places of resion of Useful Knowledge published, in sort, and makes us socially acquainted with six large octavo volumes, an elaborate and the people ; and although he is much too instructive history of the people of Eng- prone to view everything in its best light, land, showing, in a clear and interesting yet we rise from his pages with the im. manner, the progress of their industry, the pression that they are not the people to make improvements in the arts of peace, and the à republican state of. Nevertheless, the science of war; the advancement of their work is one of intense interest, and indireligion, and the gradual progress of their cates the vast importance which that val. transition from a state of barbarism to a uable country will be to the Union when state of high refinement. The Harpers a strong infusion of the Anglo-Saxon race have re-produced this valuable work, and shall have improved its people, purged off illustrated it with two thousand engrav, their superstition, and taught them to resings, descriptive of the changes in imple- pect themselves. It is by this means, raments of industry, weapons of war, the ther than by immediate annexation, that appearance of localities, and in architec- Mexico may be elevated to the dignity of ture. An interesting series of portraits is a member of the Union. No one should also presented, comprising the most emi- neglect reading Mr. Thompson's book. nent Romans and English. This valuable Its subject is one of the most important of work will be finished in 40 numbers, of this century, fraught as it is with wonders. which the first has now been published, at 25 cents.
Census of Boston. Report to the Com
mittee of the City Council, appointed to Recollections of Mexico. By WADDY obtain the census of Boston, for the year
THOMPSON, Esq, late Envoy Extraordi 1845. By LEMUEL SHATTUCK. nary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States at Mexico. Wiley & The subject of social statistics, as conPutnam.
nected with the mere numbers of the pop
ulation, on which our glorious political in. Mexico is now the object of deep soli- stitutions are based, has received, hitherto, citude to the Christian world. Its seven far too little attention. The want of facts, millions of people, of whom, perhaps, less well authenticated in relation to the busithan one seventh are of Spanish descent, ness, births, deaths, marriages, dwellings, have long groaned under a military des- domestic condition, occupations, progresspotism. The unhappily protracted strug- sive wealth, government, and general gle with Spain for independence, gave an health of the population, of different loascendancy to the military, which has been calities, has been severely felt for a long the ruin of the country. Through the period of time, and efforts have been made madness of those military chiefs, the war to supply them on the part of the federal, between Mexico and the United States has and some of the state governments of the been produced. Its result must be, to Union, in imitation of the more elaborate crush the power of the army, as the in. works of some of the governments of vasion of Napoleon put an end to a simi- Europe, but hitherto with little suecess. lar despotism of the Mamelukes in Egypt. The valuable work of Mr. Shattuck emThe people of Mexico will then indeed be braces all these subjects of inquiry, and free. Their future course is matter of more information of a most desirable na. great anxiety in Europe, the dynasties of ture. The results are such as reflect the which dread the increase of power which highest credit on the skill, industry and
perseverance, exhibited by the able author Wisconsin, its Geography and Topogra. and compiler. In the 96 pages of the phy, foc. By J. A. LAPAAM. Paine & work, is embraced a view of the capital of Burgess : New-York. New-England, at once comprehensive and minute, affording the most satisfactory The rapidity with which this continent evidence of the great prosperity of the is settled ; the enterprising and bold spirit Athens of America. We sincerely trust, of its inhabitants ; and the vigor with that the great success which has attended which they push forward into the wilderthe labor of Mr. Shattuck, will temptness, to subdue it to the will of man; and other cities, as well as states, to add to the the great success which, in many cases, information conferred upon the public by has attended the emigrant the him. He modestly states, that a portion west, with the almost certainty of compeof the information embodied in the work tency that for the most part attends a lobears but “indirectly upon its main ob- cation on the fertile valleys of the western ject.” In this we differ from him. There waters, creates an absorbing interest in is no species of statistical information in re- everything that relates to that land of prolation to the people, which is not of the mise. But ten years since and Wisconsin highest interest.
was a wilderness. It now comprises a territory nearly twice as large as the state of New-York. It contains a population of
117,000 souls, and has paid the General The Life of General Winfield Scott. Government $3,768,106 for public lands.
By Edward D. Mansfield, of Cincin. Its taxable property is $9,324,305, and it is nati, Ohio. A. S. Barnes & Co.
an important grain exporting territory.
The little work before us presents, in an The life of a distinguished soldier like agreeable form, the progress, resources, General Scott is a bevefit conferred upon and advantages of that region, which in a his countrymen, and its history should be few years will teem wjih a populatiou cherished by every citizen. It is in the thriving and prosperous beyond the most hour of battle and the day of trial, that the sanguine views of the people of the Old virtues of the patriot are called into action. World. And those men who promptly and effectu. ally expose their bosoms to the blows of the enemy in the hour of danger, are they to whom all classes of citizens are indebted for the undisturbed enjoyment of their
The Auto-Biography of Edward Gillon, home. The work is embellished with a
Esq., with occasional Notes and Narraportrait on steel, and embraces an account
tive. By LORD John SheFFIELD. 1 vol. of his services during the last war-a de
12mo. Turner & Hayden : New-York. scription of the battles in which he was
The Decline and Fall of the Roman engaged, viz. : Queenstown, Fort George, Empire, an immortal work, which has Chippewa, and Niagara. Passing events in
won the admiration of the learned of the political world make this reminiscence of all countries, and which occupies the the last war matter of peculiar interest at this time. Now that our soldiers are about which it treats, has placed the author in
whole field of history for the period of again to be called into the field, their deeds the foremost rank of historians, and thrown in the last war should become familiar to
around his life an interest which his numeall; and the clear descriptions, accompani- rous admirers will appreciate. The meed by well-executed maps of the various moir was long unprocurable separate from battles, contained in the work before us
the other writings of the author; but has should be in the hands of all.
now been produced in one elegant and portable volume.
“ Boarding Out," a tale of Domestic Life.
By the author of“ Keeping House," foc.
Discourses and Essays. By the Rer. J.
H. MERLE D'AUBIGNE, D. D., with an The numerous class of persons condemn introduction by Dr. David. Harper & ed to the tender mercies of “boarding Brothers. houses,” will recognize in this little narrative a truthfulness of detail that will ap The great sale which attended the history peal powerfully to their sympathies. It of “the Great Reformation," by D’Aubigne, depicts the ordeal through which a young attest his high popularity, and the Messrs. couple passed, to learn that the cares of Harpers have well responded to the wishes housekeeping are not to be remedied or of the reading world, in producing this avoided by striking your tent and becom- valuable collection of miscellanies by the ing a wanderer in the land of your fathers. same eloquent author.
THE WAR BILL.
The bill, as it passed both Houses, reads as squadrons, and regiments shall respectively follows:
belong. "An Act, providing for the prosecution of Sec. 6. And be it further enacted, That the
the existing war between the United States President of the United States be, and he is and the Republic of Mexico.”
hereby authorized to organize companies so Whereas, by the Act of the Republic of Mexi- tendering their services into battalions or
ico, a state of war exists between that gov. squadrons—battalions and squadrons into reernment and the United States, Therefore giments-regiments into brigades, and brig.
Be it enacted by the Senale and House of ades into divisions, as soon as the number of Representatives of the United States of Ameri volunteers shall render such organization, in ca in Congress assembled, That, for the
pur his judgment, expedient; and the President pose of enabling the government of the United shali
, if necessary, apportion the staff, field, States to prosecute said war to a speedy and and general officers among the respective successful termination, the President be, and states and territories from which the volun. he is hereby authorized to employ the militia, teers shall tender their services, as he may naval, and military forces of the United States, deem proper. and to call for and accept the services of any Sec. 7. And be it further enacted, That the number of volunteers, not exceeding fifty thou- volunteers who may be received into the sersand, who may offer their services either as vice of the United States by virtue of the procavalry, artillery, or riflemen, to serve six or visions of this act, and who may be wounded twelve months after they shall have arrived at or otherwise disabled in service, shall be entithe place of rendezvous, or to the end of the eled to all the benefit which may be conferred war, unless sooner discharged, according to on persons wounded in the service of the Uni. the time for which they shall have been enlist. ted States. ed into service. That the sum of ten millions SEC. 8. And be it further enacted, That the of dollars be and the same is hereby appropri. President of the United States be, and he is ated, out of any money in the treasury, or to hereby authorized forthwith to complete all come into the treasury not otherwise appropri- the public armed vessels now authorized by ated, for the purpose of carrying the provis- law, and to purchase or charter, arm, equip, ions of this act into effect.
and man such merchant vessels and steam. Sec. 2. And be it further enacted. That the boats, as, upon examination, may be found fit, militia, when called into the service of the or easily converted into armed vessels fit for United States by virtue of this act, or any other the public service, and in such number as he act, may, if in the opinion of the President of may deem necessary for the protection of the the United States the public interest require it, seaboard, lake-coast, and the general defence be compelled to serve for a term not exceeding of the country, six months after their arrival at the place of Sec. 9. And be it further enacted, That, rendezvous, in any one year, anless sooner whenever the militia or volunteers are called discharged.
and received into the service of the United Sec. 3. And be it further enacted, That the States, under the provisions of this Act, they said volunteers shall furnish their own clothes, shall have the organization of the army of the and, if cavalry, their own horses, and horse United States, and shall have the same pay equipments, and, when mustered into service, and allowances; and all mounted privates, shall be armed at the expense of the United non-commissioned officers, musicians and artiStates.
ficers, shall be allowed forty cents per day for Sec. 4, And be it further enacted, That said the use and risk of their horses, except of volunteers, when called into actual service. horses actually killed in action; and if any. and while remaining therein, shall be subject mounted volunteer private, non-commissioned to the rules and articles of war, and shall be officer, musician or artificer, shall not keep in all respects, except as to clothing and pay, himself provided with a serviceable horse, the on the same footing with similar corps of the said volunteer shall serve on foot. United States army; and, in lieu of clothing,
The vote in the House of Representatives was as every non-commissioned officer and private in
follows: any company who may thus offer himself, shall
Yeas.-Messrs. Abbott, Stephen Adams, Anderbe entitled, when called into actual service, to
son, Arnold, Atkinson, Baker, Barringer, Bayly, receive in money a sum equal to the cost of Black, Blanchard, Bowlin, Boyd,
Bedinger, Bell, Benton, Biggs, James Black, Jas. A. clothing of a non-commissioned officer or pri- enbrough, Brodhead, Milton Brown, William G. vate as the case may be) in the regular troops Brown, Bulfington, Burt, William W. Campbell, of the United States.
John H. Campbell, Carroll, Cathcart, John G. ChapSec. 5. And be it further enacted, That the man, Augustus A. Chapman, Reuben Chapman, said volunteers so offering their services, shall
Chase, Chipman, Clarke, Cobb, Cocke, Collin, Crobe accepted by the President in companies, zier, Cullom, Cummins, Daniel, Dargan, Darragh,
Garrett Davis, Jefferson Davis, De Mott, Dillings battalions, squadrons, and regiments, whose
ham, Dobbin, Dockery, Douglas, Dromgoole, Dunofficers shall be appointed in the manner pre lap, Edsall, Ellsworth, Erdman, John II. Ewing, scribed by law in the several States and Terri Edwin H. Ewing, Faran, Ficklin, Foot, Fries, Gartories to which such companies, battalions, vin, Gentry, Goodyear, Gordon, Graham, Grider,