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disliked.”. Spotswood did send a party of marines from the guard-ships which were at his disposition ; but not a shot was fired.

Cary and the leaders of his party boldly appeared in Virginia, for the purpose, as they said, of appealing to England in defence of their actions, and Spotswood compelled them to take their passage in the man-of-war just ready to sail for England. Though the leaders were gone, North Carolinia remained as before. Its burgesses, obeying the popular judgment, refused to make provision for defending any part of their country unless they could bring into the government persons obnoxious to the opposite party, and therefore the assembly was promptly dissolved. There was little hope of harmony between the proprietaries and the inhabitants of North Carolinia.

Notwithstanding the internal dissensions with which the Carolinias were torn, they were enriched by some excellent immigration. In 1607, some Iluguenots came from their temporary settlement in Virginia, and seated themselves on the beautiful banks of the Trent, a tributary of the Neuse. They were followed, two years afterward, by emigrants from Switzerland, who founded New Berne at the head of the Neuse, At about the same time, a hundred fugitive German families, led by Count Graffenried, from the devastated Palatinates on the Rhine, came to seek shelter and repose. They founded settlements on the headwaters of the Neuse, and banks of the Roanoke.

Not long after these inland settlements were planted and had begun to spread, a fearful calamity fell upon the Germans. The remnants of the exasperated tribes, who had been driven from the forests to the mountains, had nursed their revenge, until it became too strong for repression. Incited and led by the Tuscaroras, a fierce Algonquin tribe, they joined in an effort to repossess their lost country. In this patriotic endeavor the Corees, a tribe living near the seaboard and further south, became their allies. All of a sudden they fell with such fury upon the scattered German settlers along the Roanoke and the borders of Pamlico Sound, that, in a single October night in 1711, they slew one hundred men, women and children, and lighted up the country for scores of miles with the flames of burning dwellings. Like fiends with knife and torch they swept along the borders of the Albemarle Sound, killing, plundering and burning, during the space of three days, until, overcome by exhaustion and drunkenness, they were by nature compelled to desist. On the very day the murderous raid began, John Lawson, surveyor-general of the province, and Count Graffenried, were taken captive by the savages.

Lawson was tied to a tree and burned to death; but the Count saved his life and gained his liberty by adroitly persuading them, that he was the sachem of a tribe of men who had lately come into the country, and were in no way connected with or related to the English. This event put a check to internal quarrels and the wildest excitement spread over all North Carolinia.

In affright, everybody fled toward the sea, and many left the province, and those who remained appealed to their brethren in South Carolinia for aid. Colonel Barnwell hastily collected some Carolinians and a body of friendly Indians composed of Cherokees, Creeks, Catawbas, and Yamasees, and, striking the oncoming tide of savages, rolled it back.

The Tuscaroras were the greatest sufferers in the sequel to this murderous onslaught. They were driven to their fortified town in the present county of Craven, and there made a solemn treaty of peace with the whites. The savages no doubt intended keeping their treaty; but the rage of the South Carolinians could not be appeased by so easy a victory, and on their return home, they, in violation of their treaty obligation, committed many outrages on the Indians.

The savages, enraged at the perfidy of men whom they had thought superior in honor and mental ability to themselves, flew to arms. Once more, terror reigned throughout the south, and for a while it seemed as if the fell purpose of the savages to annihilate the intruders would be accoinplished.

The South Carolinians had scarcely reached home when the

cry for help once more came from the northern woods, and back to their rescue they went. Colonel Moore, with a small band of white men and a considerable body of friendly Indians, came upon the hostile savages on the banks of a creek one morning just at sunrise. His Indian scouts had the night before discovered the locality of the Indians' camp and hastened to him with the information. It was the intention of Moore to strike the Indians before dawn of day; but he became lost among the swamps and did not come upon them until just as the sun was peeping over. the eastern forests.

The sharp crack of half a dozen rifles aroused the Tuscaroras to the immediate necessity of defence. Being taken by surprise, they were thrown into confusion, and the white men, advancing in a solid body, poured in a destructive volley which laid five dead and nine wounded on the ground.

They fell back, but rallied and came on to the attack, when the Cherokees and Catawbas assailed them on their right and left flanks, while the Carolinians resolutely charged in the centre, and this drove them from the field. They were now discouraged and fled to their fort, in what is now Greene county, where eight hundred of them were made prisoners.

The remnant of the tribe which escaped capture and death fled north and joined their kindred near the southern shores of Lake Ontario, where they became the sixth nation of the Iroquois Confederacy in the province of New York. Shortly after this crushing defeat of the Tuscaroras, a treaty of peace was made with the Corees, which insured the North Carolinians from further molestation from that source.

This Indian war had cost the province a large sum of money, for the payment of which bills of credit were issued to the amount of forty thousand dollars. This was the first paper money issued in North Carolinia.

While the people of North Carolinia were suffering from civil commotions and Indian raids, the South Carolinians were having their tribulations from their Spanish neighbors in Florida and from barbarians on their west. James Moore their governor was more belligerent than any of his prede

When news reached him that Queen Anne had, in May, 1702, declared war against France and Spain, he determined, with as little delay as possible, to send a force against the Span

cessors.

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