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been to prescribe for symptoms; the difference between actual disease and a symptom being something that the average man does not even yet know. And the curious part is that on these points all physicians, among themselves, are fully agreed. What I say here being merely truism, triteness and commonplace. Last week, in talking with an eminent surgeon in Buffalo, he said, “I have performed over a thousand operations of laparotomy, and my records show that in every instance, excepting in cases of accident, the individual was given to what you call the ‘Beecham Habit.' The people you see waiting in the lobbies of doctors' offices are, in a vast majority of cases, suffering thru poisoning caused by an excess of food. Coupled with this goes the bad results of imperfect breathing, irregular sleep, lack of exercise, and improper use of stimulants, or holding the thought of fear, jealousy and hate. All of these things, or any one of them, will, in very many persons, cause fever, chills, cold feet, congestion and faulty elimination. To administer drugs to a man suffering from malnutrition caused by a desire to “get even,"
and a lack of fresh air, is simply to compound his troubles, shuffle his maladies, and get him ripe for the ether-cone and scalpel. Nature is forever trying to keep people well, and most so-called “disease,” which word means merely lack of ease, is self-limiting, and tends to cure itself. If you have appetite, do not eat too much. If you have no appetite, do not eat at all. Be moderate in the use of all things, save fresh air and sunshine. The one theme of Ecclesiastes is moderation. Buddha wrote it down that the greatest word in any language is Equanimity vs William Morris said that the finest blessing of life was systematic, useful work. Saint Paul declared that the greatest thing in the world was love. Moderation, Equanimity, Work and Loveyou need no other physician. In so stating I lay down a proposition agreed to by all physicians; which was expressed by Hippocrates, the father of medicine, and then repeated in better phrase by Epictetus, the slave, to his pupil, the great Roman Emperor, Marcus Aurelius, and which has been known to every thinking man and woman since: Moderation, Equanimity, Work and Love! ORDS sometimes become tainted and fall into bad repute, and are discarded. Until the day of Elizabeth Fry, on the official records in England appeared the word “mad-house." to set Then it was wiped out
and the word “asylum” substituted. Within twenty years' time in several states in America we have discarded the word “asylum” and have substituted the word “hospital.” In Jeffersonville, Indiana, there is located a “Reformatory” which some years ago was known as a penitentiary. The word “prison" had a depressing effect, and “penitentiary” throws a theological shadow, and so the words will have to go. As our ideas of the criminal change, we change our vocabulary. A few years ago we talked about asylums for the deaf and dumb—the word “dumb” has now been stricken from every official document in every state in the Union, because we have discovered, with the assistance of Gardner G. Hubbard, that deaf people are not dumb, and
not being defectives, they certainly do not need an asylum. They need schools, however, and so everywhere we have established schools for the deaf. Deaf people are just as capable, are just as competent, just as well able to earn an honest living as is the average man who can hear. The “indeterminate sentence” is one of the wisest expedients ever brought to bear in penology. And it is to this generation alone that the honor of first using it must be given. The offender is sentenced for, say from one to eight years. This means that if the prisoner behaves himself, obeying the rules, showing a desire to be useful, he will be paroled and given his freedom at the end of one year. If he misbehaves and does not prove his fitness for freedom he will be kept two or three years, and he may possibly have to serve the whole eight years. “How long are you in for?” I asked a convict at Jeffersonville, who was caring for the flowers in front of the walls.
“Me? Oh, I'm in for two years, with the privilege of fourteen,” was the man's answer, given with a grin. The old plan of “ short time," allowing two or three months off from every year for good behavior was a move in the right direction, but the indeterminate sentence will soon be the rule everywhere for first offenders. The indeterminate sentence throws upon the man himself the responsibility for the length of his confinement and tends to relieve prison life of its horror, by holding out hope. The man has the short time constantly in mind, and usually is very careful not to do anything to imperil it. Insurrection and an attempt to escape may mean that every day of the whole long sentence will have to be served. So even the dullest of minds and the most calloused realize that it pays to do what is right—the lesson being pressed home upon them in a way it has never been before. The old-time prejudice of business men against the man who had “done time” was chiefly on account of his incompetence, and not his record. The prison methods that turned out a hateful, depressed and frightened man who had been suppressed by the silent system and deformed by the lock-step, calloused by brutal treatment and the constant thought held over him that he was a criminal, was a bad thing