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GROWTH AND PROGRESS.
in May, 1862, decided “to take immediate steps to in 1864, aspired to become the special organization supply with Christian instruction, by means of mis- of the denomination for this work of Christian educasionaries and teachers, the emancipated slaves, tion for the 'freedmen, and proceeded to send teach. whether in the District of Columbia or in other to Richmond, Washington, and other points. places held by our forces, and also to inaugurate a For a time there seemed danger of serious divisions, system of operations for carrying the Gospel alike to but in 1869 an amicable adjustment was reached, the bond and free throughout the whole southern section “ Institute” discontinued its operations, and the of our country, so fast and so far as the progress of American Baptist Home Mission Society thenceforti our arms and the restoration of order and law shall became the recognized agency of the denominaopen the way."
tion for this work of Christian education for the The Emancipation Proclamation of President Lin- freedmen. coln, issued in September, 1862, to take effect Jan. 1, 1863, gave new impulse to the Society's efforts. The fulness of the times had come, and men girded them- The work not only grew to vast proportions among selves for the great undertaking. Honored and de- the four millions of ignorant, degraded beings, but voted men offered their services to teach the negroes, soon took on new aspects. The need of established and money began to come in for the work. Volun- schools became apparent. School 'properties were tary organizations in New England and elsewhere purchased in 1865 at Nashville, Tenn., in 1866 at co-operated in raising funds and sending missionaries Washington, D. C., and Raleigh, N. C.; the National to the South. In September, 1863, the Board asked Theological Institute transferred to the Society its propfor designated funds for this work, and decided to erty at Richmond in 1869; property was acquired appoint “assistants to our missionaries in the South, in Augusta, Ga., and arrangements effected for a site to engage in such instruction of the colored people and building at New Orleans, La., the same year; as will enable them to read the Bible, and to become in 1870 a site and buildings were obtained at Columself-supporting and self-directing churches."
bia, S. C., and a new site and building at Raleigh, N. In January, 1865, Congress passed an Act pro. C.; in 1871 a new site and building at Washington, hibiting slavery in the United States. In April, D. C.; in 1874 a new site and building at Nashville, 1865, Lee surrendered at Appomatox. Five days Tenn.; in 1877 grounds and a building were purlater Lincoln was assassinated. The Society's an- chased from the Government at Natchez, Miss.; in nual meeting in May, 1865, was a memorable one in 1879 the school was transferred from Augusta to view of the great opening in the South, and the posi- Atlanta, Ga., where a new site and a new building tive and progressive policy then adopted to press had been provided by the Society; in 1880 grounds vigorously its work among the emancipated millions. and buildings were procured at Marshall, Texas; in The Society decided " in all wise and feasible ways 1880 the schools started by the colored people at to promote “the evangelization of the freedmen, and Selma, Ala., and Live Oak, Fla., were adopted by to aid them in the erection or procurement of church the Society, as also in 1881 the school begun by the and school edifices when requisite," and to employ colored people at Louisville, Ky.; in 1882 a new site “ well qualified and faithful preachers, colporteurs, was procured at Jackson, Miss., and the school reand teachers, male and female,” for this work. moved from Natchez to the new building in 1884 ;
in 1882 a new site at Atlanta, where now Spelman
Seminary is domiciled; a location secured the same In 1862, the first year, laborers were sent to St. year near Muskogee, Ind. Ter., for the Indian UniHelena Island and to Beaufort, S. C. But a few versity; and the following year the school for the points occupied by the Union forces were open to the Creek Freedmen at Tullehassee, Ind. Ter., and the Society's missionaries until 1864 and 1865. In 1864 school at Monterey, Mexico, were opened. There is the Society had appointees at Washington, D. C.; a good institution for every one of the old slave States at Alexandria and Norfolk, Va.; at Washington, except Delaware, Maryland, and Arkansas. In the N. C.; at Beaufort, Port Royal, and Helena, S. C. ; latter State a school at Little Rock is in its incipiency. at Nashville, Memphis, and Island No. 10, Ten. Eight of these institutions are at the seats of State nessee; in Mississippi, and New Orleans, Capitals and one at the National Capital. Louisiana. Many other important points were oc- To summarize : In 1872 the Society had 7 schools ,cupied from 1865 onward. Thirty-five missionaries, under its fostering care; in 1879 it had 8; in 1884 with sixty-two assistant missionaries, labored ex- the number had grown to 17. In 1879 there were clusively among the freedmen during 1865-6, and re- about 17 school buildings; there are 36 now, 13 of ported in the schools under their care 4,000 pupils. which are large, substantial structures erected in Nearly every missionary devoted a part of his time
seven years. regularly to the instruction of the colored people, In 1872 there were about 800 pupils ; in 1879, but particularly to the education of the colored 1,041; in 1866, 3,326, among whom were 376 stuministers.
dents for the ministry. The development has been “ The National Theological Institute,” organized I wonderful.
WHERE WORK WAS BEGUN.
VALUE OF SCHOOL PROPERTIES; OTHER had almost no representation among the colored
people, over $200,000, besides favoring it in other The valuation of school properties is as follows: respects. Wayland Seminary, $40,000 ; Richmond Theological
Illustrious in the annals of American Baptist Seminary, $20,000; Hartshorn Memorial College, Home Missions are and ever will be the names of $35,000; Shaw University, $125,000; Benedict Insti- those who have contributed so largely to provide tute, $35,000; Atlanta Seminary, $20,000; Spelman Christian education for the unfortunate millions of the Seminary, $50,000 ; Florida Institute, $7,000 ; Selma South: Nathan Bishop and Mrs. C. C. Bishop ; University, $15,000 ; State University, Ky., $18,000; Mrs. B. A. Benedict; Jacob Estey; Elijah Shaw; Roger Williams University, $85,000; Jackson Col. C. T. Sampson; Holbrook Chamberlain ; Joseph lege, $30,000; Leland University, $85,000; Bishop B. Hoyt; John D. Rockefeller; the Misses Leonard; College, $30,000; Indian University, $27,000; Tul. Gardner Chilson ; Abner Coburn; J. C. Hartshorn; lehassee School, $6,000; Monterey School occupies 0. H. Greenleaf; Timothy Merrick. basement of the church. The aggregate valuation of
The total valuation of school property now held by school properties and fixtures is about $630,000. the Society is $300,000; the amount of endowment There has passed through the Society for these ob. held by the Society, $84,332; the amount held by jects about $400,000. In addition the Society has Boards of Trustees, $95,000. The whole amount paid for teachers' salaries about $450,000 and for in received by the Society for all these purposes is comcidental expenses probably not less than $75,000. puted at not less than $1,000,000 ; and the grand The expense for teachers' salaries, taking an average total contributed by the Baptists of the North through of three years, is not far from $56,000 per annum.
the Society and through other channels is computed
at $1,200,000. The white Baptists of the South have WIIERE THE MONEY CAME FROM.
contributed so far as known, less than $10,000 to this From 1862 to 1873 the ociety solicited contribu- work. tions specially designated for the “Freedmen's Fund,”
In matters of administration, mention should be and out of these, teachers' salaries were paid and made of the eminent service rendered by Dr. J. S. property secured. After 1873 teachers’ salaries were
Backus, sole Corresponding Secretary of the Society paid the same as other missionaries’ salaries, from the through the troublous times from 1862 to 1867, durgeneral fund, but property was secured and buildings ing which period the policy of the Society was detererected chiefly from designated funds. One of the mined and the foundations of its work for the freed. Lord's anointed women, a resident of New York, and
men were laid; of Dr. J. B. Simmons, who from her husband, the latter now deceased, have given for 1867 to 1874 was Associate Corresponding Secretary, these specific purposes about $60,000 ; another and through whose special attention to this depart. woman, of Pawtucket, R. I., likewise devoted, has
ment of the Society's work, for most of this period, given about $45,000, including $27,000 for endow
new schools were established and a marked impulse ment; a brother in Wales, Mass., $5,000; another in
was given to the work; of Nathan Bishop, LL.D., Springfield, Mass., $4,000 ; another in Brattleboro, and Dr. S. S. Cutting, Secretaries subsequent to Vt., $10,000 ; a brother in Brooklyn, N. Y., about 1874. Of the present administration since 1879, others $140,000, including $95,000 by gift and from his estate
may speak in the days to come. for endowment (none of this, however, passed through the Society's treasury); another of North Adams, THE PROBLEM: ENDOWMENTS NECESSARY. Mass., $5,000; two sisters in Hampden, Mass., The problem now is, how these growing institu$12,000; a brother in Stamford, Conn., about tions are to be maintained. They must meet the de. $35,000, including $25,000 for endowment; another mands of the advancing intelligence of the colored in New York City, about $65,000, including $25,000 people, must have better equipment, still abler in. for endowment; and another, formerly of Providence, structors, or they will become of little account. The now of Newton Centre, about $26,000. Many have colored people are too poor to maintain them by their contributed from $1,000 to $3,000 for these specific scanty offerings. Academies, colleges, theological semobjects; while thousands have made their regular inaries, everywhere require endowment for their supofferings for the maintenance of these great Christian port. These schools are not an exception. While the enterprises. Generous legacies have also furnished contributions of individuals and churches are needed resources for this work. The colored people have even more than ever, yet only by endowments of proraised, apart from the Society's efforts, about $50,000 fessorships can efficiency and stability be secured to for property and teachers, chiefly for the schools at these important enterprises. Ten such professorSelma, Louisville, Live Oak, and Marshall.
ships of $25,000 each, aggregating $250,000, would The Society received only $31,500 from the Freed. place these schools beyond immediate peril, though men's Bureau, while the head of that Bureau showed even this amount is less than many a single college or his partiality, which might be technically but not theological seminary at the North has for its own morally defended, by appropriating to a Pedobaptist uses. The Society will receive such funds in trust organization of which he was President, and which until such time in the future as may seem wise and
CHARACTER OF THESE SCHOOLS : RESULTS.
safe to transfer them to boards of chartered institu. 2. Shaw University, Raleigh, N. C., founded 1865, tions.
incorporated 1875; H. M. Tupper, D.D., 22 years.
3. Atlanta Seminary, Atlanta, Ga., founded origiThese are missionary institutions. All teachers are nally at Augusta, 1867, transferred to Atlanta, 1879, professing Christians, most of whom go to their work incorporated, 1879; S. Graves, D.D., 2 years. with the same consecrated spirit as those who go to 4. Roger Williams University, Nashville, Tenn., labor in India or Africa. Direct effort for the con- founded 1864, incorporated 1883; W. H. Stifler, D.D. version of impenitent students results every year in
2 years. * the conversion of a large number. The formation of
5. Leland University, New Orleans, La., founded right Christian character is an uppermost aim in all 1870, incorporated 1870; Rev. M. C. Cole, acting these schools. The use of tobacco and of intoxicants President. Now self-supporting. is strictly prohibited. The Bible is a daily text-book, studied like other books. Missionary societies exist
6. Bishop College, Marshall, Tex., founded 1881, in all these schools and for years the missionary incorporated 1885; Rev. S. W. Culver, 6 years. spirit for the evangelization of Africa has been kind- 7. Selma University, Selma, Ala., founded 1878, ling. Several former students have already gone to incorporated 1878; Rev. C. L. Purce, 1 year. Africa ; many more are preparing to go. These in- 8. State University, Louisville, Ky., founded stitutions we regard as the great hope of Africa's 1873, incorporated 1873; W. J. Simmons, D.D., 7 evangelization by her own children in America. years.
Industrial instruction is given in nearly every 9. Hartshorn Memorial College, Richmond, Va. school. Spelman Seminary and Hartshorn Memo. (for females only), founded 1884, incorporated 1884; rial College are institutions solely for young women. Rev. L. B. Tefft, 3 years. The Leonard Medical School at Shaw University is
10. Florida Institute, Live Oak, Fla., incorporated proving very successful in providing well-trained 1873, school opened 1880; Rev. J. L. A. Fish, 7 colored physicians for the colored people. Its faculty
years. consists of the best white medical talent of Raleigh, and instruction and examinations are very thorough.
11. Indian University, Muskogee, I. T., sounded The Richmond Theological Seminary is for the higher at Tahlequah, 1880, transferred to Muskogee, 1885, and more thorough education of advanced students incorporated 1881 ; Prof. A. C. Bacone, 7 years. for the ministry.
The general results of this great work among the colored people of the United States cannot be stated in figures. It is estimated that about 8,000 students
1. Wayland Seminary, Washington, D. C., founded have enjoyed the benefit of these institutions. They 1865; G. M. P. King, D.D., 18 years. have had a marvellously uplifting influence upon their 2. Benedict Institute, Columbia, S. C., founded own people. Thus in one association of forty 1870 ; Rev. C. E. Becker, 5 years. churches in North Carolina, all the pastors, except 3. Jackson College, Jackson, Miss., founded at two, have been students in Shaw University. Two Natchez, 1877, transferred to Jackson, 1883; Rev. hundred and ten churches in that State have had as Chas. Ayer, 10 years. pastors those who studied in these schools. These
4. Spelman Seminary, Atlanta, Ga. (for females students go forth as champions of temperance, as cor
only), founded in 1881; principals, Miss S. B. Pack. rectives to existing errors and irregular practices in ard, Miss H. Giles, 6 years. the churches; some are editors, some officers in mis.
5. Creek Freedmen School, Tullehassee, I. T., sionary organizations, and several are instructors in
founded 1883; G. E. Burdick, Ph.D., Sup't, I these institutions-about twenty five colored teachers being now under the Society's appointment. Great
year. has been the work wrought; great are the present
6. International School, Monterey, Mex., founded demands on us; great is the promise if these Chris. 1883; under the supervision of Rev. Thos. M. Wes. tian institutions are properly sustained.
trup ; Antonio Garcia, principal.
Besides these higher grade institutions, there are Names of Schools, Presidents, &c. mission day-schools, maintained chiefly through the
means provided by the Woman's American Baptist The names of these institutions, their locations, Home Mission Society (Boston), in Salt Lake City, when founded, and when incorporated, together with Utah ; at Santa Rosa, Mex.; and Tahlequah, I. T. the names of presidents and the length of service in There are also mission night-schools for the Chinese connection therewith, are as follows:
in Oakland, San Francisco, and Fresno, Cal., conI. INCORPORATED INSTITUTIONS.
ducted principally by missionaries of the Society. 1. Richmond Theological Seminary, Richmond, Va., founded 1867, incorporated 1876; Chas. H. * D. W. Phillips, D. D., Theological Professor (late PresiCorey, D.D., 19 years.
dent), 22 years.
II. UNINCORPORATED INSTITUTIONS.
WASHINGTON, D. C.
The Richmond Theological Seminary.
G. M. P. KING, D.D., PRESIDENT.
C. H. COREY, D.D., PRESIDENT.
Wayland Seminary has enrolled 137 students this What was formerly known as the Richmond Insti. term; 81 men and 56 women. There are seven tute is now the Richmond Theological Seminary. teachers in the Institution, among the number one The Faculty consists of four, two of whom are colored. colored man, a former student here.
The giving up of the academic and the normal deAbout forty of the young men are preparing to be partments has of course made it necessary to change ministers. Ten of our students hope to go to Africa, the nature of the studies. This has naturally diminas missionaries. We have an efficient Missionary ished the number in attendance. Last year there Society, and sustain a monthly Concert that is a real were nearly sixty ministers in attendance. This power in strengthening faith, and in quickening zeal. year the number is about the same. One of these is
All our students are expected to teach, and they from Texas, one from the West Indies, and one from are trained with this end always in view. They are the Congo in Africa. not taught for their own sakes, but for the sake of the Our young men are active in religious and mislong lines back of them. Of our last class of twenty- sionary work in the city and in the surrounding three, all are doing excellent work.
country. The young women are trained in the art of good The students of this school have always taken a house-keeping, and every week they are obliged to deep interest in missionary work in Africa. The show that they can turn their training to good ac. first missionary that went to that land since the close count. We have not room to do all that ought to be of the war was a student of the Richmond Institute, done in the industrial training, but a good beginning and for years the institution has had a representative has been made. A course of lectures on “How to in the foreign field. The Baptist Foreign Mission Care for the Sick," will begin next month, and in this Convention of the United States of America was way we hope to send out good nurses.
founded through the labors of a former student of Our students are earnest in the cause of temper- this school, and the efficient Corresponding Secretary ance, and know the right use for tobacco. Fortu. of this organization was forinerly a student (but is now nately moths and vermin do not infest the place and a Professor) in this Institution. Five from the so our students have no use for tobacco. We hear of school have entered the foreign field, and there are the grand work our graduates are doing in the tem- thirteen young men now here who hope to labor as perance reform.
missionaries in Africa. A Christian principle among the students has never In the cause of temperance our young men are exhad happier illustrations than have been seen this erting a wide influence. They are all committed to term. The religious meetings have been refreshing, total abstinence. A former student (but now a Pro. and seven of the students have professed regenera- fessor) in this Institution is Grand Chief Templar of tion. The Bible comes in for a prominent place in the Grand Lodge (Dual) of Virginia. He is also all our instruction and study. All our students are President of the Third District Temperance Alliance, required to commit the Scripture lesson assigned for by the voice of the white as well as the colored peo. the Monday morning exercise. If students do not ple of the State. In view of his distinguished sershow that they have Paul's measure for a minister of vices in the cause, the lodges of Richmond and the Gospel, they are regarded as uncalled. There are vicinity recently presented him with a magnificent less than ten students in the school who have as yet regalia. neglected to seek Christ. The government of the school is not so difficult as
Hartshorn Memorial College. it might reasonably be expected to be. Students
RICHMOND, VA. share in the responsibility of maintaining good order, and so aid in cultivating a public sentiment that sets
REV. L. B. TEFFT, PRESIDENT. itself most decidedly against everything that would destroy the happiness of the place, or hinder pro- Enrollment this year, 94; of whom 51 have been gress in study.
boarders and 43 day pupils. Prosessors of religion We could hardly ask to hear better things than at time of entrance, 74; Baptists, 67; Methodists, 4; come to us from a majority of our graduates. Meet. Presbyterians, 3; unconverted, 20, of whom 3 have ing houses are dedicated free of debt-schools are since professed conversion. Of the unconverted established-literary societies are organized—the pupils four are boarders. Students from Virginia, temperance reform is pushed forward-beginnings for 85; from West Virginia, 4; from Pennsylvania, 2; public libraries are made, and thus an advance is from North Carolina, 1; from South Carolina, 1; made all along the lines of every good work.
from Indian Territory, 1.
The work and inward life of the institution this of their health did not for the present at least prevent. year nearly reproduce the two preceding years. The Missionary Society has recently received for The religious interest is perhaps not quite as fervent, our museum the dreadfully feared self-moving African but the conversion of three pupils at different times god, Zobah. It has also given the institution fifty. shows that the work of the Holy Spirit continues. six dollars for additional desks in the chapel. The growth in substantial Christian character in a We need help for students. We need help for furgood percentage of the pupils is altogether satisfac. nishing rooms and for finishing the building. tory.
Industrial instruction receives the entire attention of one teacher, whose salary is paid by the John F.
Shaw University. Slater Fund. The aim of this department is especially
RALEIGH, N. C. to fit the young women for the care of their own houses and families. They are taught in the general
H. M. TUPPER, D.D., PRESIDENT. principles and methods of house-keeping, in sewing and in the cutting and fitting of garments, and in During the first four months of the session nearly cooking. No reader of this Monthly has better three hundred students have been enrolled. About bread upon her table than is made by some of these thirty-five are preparing for the ministry, nearly colored pupils.
thirty are studying medicine, and a large proportion “Not to be ministered unto but to minister and of the others are qualifying themselves to become to give His life a ransom for many." The spirit of teachers. The corps of instructors consists of twenty the work and its measure of success may be seen by regularly appointed teachers, ten white and ten col. some illustrations.
ored. Of these, ten are connected with the literary Fanny has collected in a private house, and super. and theological departments, six with the medical, intends, and with the aid of Maud and Mattie T., and four with the industrial work. conducts a Sunday school of fifty members and up. In educational matters everything is alive and prowards. It is well conducted. The same Fanny gressive in North Carolina. Numerous private meets weekly the same pupils, except a few of the schools and academies are springing up in all parts larger boys, to instruct them in sewing. The same of the State, taught by former students of this insti. Fanny assists every Saturday, in another sewing tution, and the question is forced upon us, how to .school, conducted by the city missionary.
encourage and assist in developing these schools, and Celestine teaches a class of twelve girls of about at the same time maintain our own work without her own age in the colored orphan asylum.'
suffering seriously in the diminution of numbers or in Maud, Ollie and Mattie T., go Sunday forenoons ; the amount of income from our school. The matter to the asylum for the poor. They first teach in a in time will adjust itself. Already the beneficial Sunday school, and then go to the wards for Bible , effects of these schools can be seen, as a smaller reading and prayer. “ To-morrow is Sunday,” said number of students in the lower grades have entered some of the poor women, recently, “and then the our school this year, while a larger number of ad. girls will be here.” That seemed the one bright spot vanced students have been enrolled, and it is by of the week.
no means certain yet that there will be any decrease Ollie, assisted by Matilda, Cora and Celestine, in numbers in the male department compared with maintain for the children of the neighborhood a previous years. weekly sewing school, with an attendance of fifty-nine. In the theological class there is an enthusiasm we
Mattie M., Florence and Victoria, in the Christmas have seldom seen. Dr. Skinner gives his whole vacation, at Mattie's home, called and conducted an time to Biblical studies, and his long experience as a enthusiastic temperance meeting, at which Mattie pastor, his originality, his broad and sound learning, read an original address. They received twenty and acquaintance with the wants of the colored signatures to the temperance pledge.
people, enable him to interest and greatly benefit his During the last summer vacation Amanda and students. Fanny W, organized at Charlottsville a temperance The new medical class is larger and superior in society, which now numbers ninety-six.
talent to that of previous years. An impetus has Eliza, a graduate of last year, now teaching in the been given to medical education in consequence of country, has organized a Sunday school and a sewing the success that has attended the class which graduschool.
ated last spring, all of its members having entered Carrie, teaching in the country, conducts a large into a good practice in some of the chief cities and Sunday school gathered and organized by herself. towns in the South. Several of our older students,
Lucy A. Henry, (Mrs. J. J. Coles) for a little and among the best scholars we have ever gradu. while a special student in the Bible classes and in ated, have returned to take a four years' course in physiology, is now on the Atlantic, bound for the medicine. Vey Mission, ,West Africa. Two others would Good progress has been made in our industrial speedily be on their way to the Congo, if the condition I school, which is fully organized, and is very popular