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MEDICAL EDUCATION. large treasures of money that may be expended
for the elevation of the negro in this country BY L. A. SCRUGGS, M.D., SHAW UNIVERSITY,
at the expense and neglect of his physical wellRALEIGH, N. C.
being must, after all, signally fail in accomplishing that high end so much desired by both
the leaders and the friends of the race. It is generally conceded that the moral
And why? He has just passed through the stamina and physical well-being of a nation are
dismal night of abject slavery, utterly ignorant so closely allied that any neglect or failure in the
of the fundamental principles of hygiene, care and growth of one may produce some de.
bringing with him into the early morning of his fect in the other which will greatly prohibit the
citizenship and society all the vices, superstitions highest development of both, either in the
and practices with which his former condition nation (as such) or in any class of the individuals
was characterized. · of which it is composed.
To-day the serpent still bites him, and the Upon this hypothesis we may safely assert
venom is more rapidly and more fatally diffused that man cannot live in perfect obedience to
than ever before. The public records clearly the moral law, and, at the same time, live in posi
show that most of the diseases that arise directly tive violation and utter disregard of the laws of
from causes originating from ignorance and health and hygiene, since the obligation to keep
negligence in all forms, lewd and vicious practhe one is as stern and as unmistakable as is the
tices of all kinds, as well as those diseases charinjunction to obey the other.
acterized and denominated as scrofula and conHe cannot obey the one and disobey the other.
sumption in most sections of the South, all In this way and for this reason, if for no other,
carry an increasing mortality among the col. arises the very pressing necessity of “medical
ored people very much greater than among the education" among the negro population of the
white people, and in some cases almost double, South, whose highest good is very largely de
although we are taught by older physicians that pendent upon the moral condition and sanitary
thirty years ago negro consumptives were so surroundings of each member of the race.
scarce that one case often excited much curiosity science of medicine, or the art of curing | in certain communities. physical ailments by the application of reme. The following comparative statistics will need dies, has been known from remote antiquity, | little comment to convince you of the reality of and has been practiced among the most ignorant | what may now appear to you to be overdrawn and superstitious people of olden times as well
statem as among the most enlightened nations of mod
In 1887 the city of Richmond, Va., claimed ern days, and it has indeed been an importanta population of 100,000-whites, 56,000; col. factor in the development and advancement of
ored, 44,000. There died the same year, our present civilization.
whites, 889; colored, 1,136, showing an inIt is in the interest of and upon the merits of crease over the year before of deaths among the this great benefactor of the human race, this whites, 60; among the colored, 178. The rate constant and vigilant guard of happiness, your per thousand-whites, 15.87; colored. 25.82. home, your health and your life, that I have | There died among children and infants under come to address you.
five years of age, whites, 140; colored, 189, I.-- In the first place, I desire to call atten- showing an increase over the year before, whites, tion to “medical education" as an essential factor 11; colored, 56. in the development of the negro race. In the Now, when you once consider that the white light of the present century the highest develop- population exceeds the colored by 12,000, and ment of man, either as a race or as an indi- yet the colored died 250 more than the whites, vidual, is dependent upon at least three impor- with an annual increase of 178, you may wontant factors, viz., physical growth, moral growth der at the fact. and intellectual growth.
In 1886 the city of New Orleans claimed a Any admission upon our part of the very population of 238,000—whites, 173,000; col. close relation existing between these three ored, 64,000. There died same year, whites, qualities will force us, by the very circum- 4,092; colored, 2, 199. Rate per thousandstances that surround us, to concede that all whites, 23; colored, 34. Here the white poputhe efforts that may be employed and all the lation is nearly three times as great as the col.
ored, and yet more than one-half (72) of all the body flows one drop of African blood, or is deaths were among the colored people.
there one who loves humanity and sympathizes In 1887 the city of Atlanta, Ga., claimed a | with her afflicted subjects, who does not shudder population of 63,000—whites, 41,000; colored, at the scene ? 22,000. There died same year, whites, 608; | We may give at least three reasons for this colored, 707. The rate per thousand-whites, | lamentable condition of affairs: 14.82; colored, 32.13. Here the white popu 1 (1.) The majority of the colored people are lation is nearly double the colored, yet there almost totally ignorant of the fundamental laws died nearly one hundred more colored than | of health, and therefore live in utter disregard white, with almost a double rate of mortality. of those principles and practices which are cal
In 1887 the city of Charleston, S. C., claimed culated to protect and elevate their physical a population of 60,145—whites, 27,605; col-being. The very life they (the majority) live, ored, 32,540. Died the same year, whites, the homes in which they live, the vices they 549; colored, 1,316. Rate per thousand practice, and the circumstances under which whites, 1972 per cent., or one in fifty (i in 50); their children are developed, born and reared colored, 40% per cent., or one in twenty-four for the most part, all furnish a prolific hot-bed (i in 24.) Here the white population is only a for the germination and development of the very little less than the colored, and yet there died diseases which so soon destroy both them and more than two (2) colored persons to every white their children in great numbers. person who died. I am informed also, by the (2.) When diseases are developing and are Superintendent of Health of Wake Co., North most amenable to treatment, quite a large class Carolina, that there are several cities and towns of the colored people, from sheer indifference in the “Old North State” where the colored and ignorance, fail to seek medical aid in time, death rate has been almost or quite double that while many others, from their pecuniary situof the white.
ation, never have a physician's attention, and These are only a few statistics selected out therefore suffer and die prematurely for the very of a large collection so arranged as to give the little care that would often save them. average rate of colored mortality throughout the (3.) When a physician is called in and mediwhole South.
cine prescribed and instructions given, quite Deluded and imposed upon by root doctors, often nothing more is done, for the pretending witchcraft, quackism, and so-called “cunger- | nurse, from a want of a sense of responsibility, ous" of all kinds to the extent and effect that or from ignorance and neglect, and often from many of them are robbed and fooled out of superstition, utterly disregards the instructions their hard-earned means, and quite often they given, and the patient dies as a result. (The mortgage and sacrifice to these men and women foregoing has reference to the majority, although of low morals and putrefied character the bread there are many exceptions.) out of their mouths, the clothing off their backs | Now, accepting these facts as a sufficient and the houses that shelter them, and THEN, cause, search the universe for a specific remedy, half-clad, hungry and homeless, they are left implore Congress and the State and municipal without even the mercy of the Government, governments to legislate upon the subject, and and quite often, in many sections, no hospitals then, in your wanderings, return to this Southare provided, no hand of charity extended, land, and in your own homes you will find the asylums and poor-houses inadequate, and only balm, the only God-given remedy for this therefore closed against many, who are left to evil in the person of your own sons and daughters, suffer, greatly suffer, and horridly die in great who may do inestimable service, as Christian numbers.
physicians in alleviating the untold sufferings I desire to raise the question to-day in each and distresses of the unfortunate. Indeed it bosom: Is it not just and proper that the Gov would seem to be folly to attempt to elevate the ernment, both State and national, with over masses of this people to a high and perfect standflowing treasures of surplus money, should do ard of moral worth and Christian manhood until something to alleviate the sufferings and dis something has been done first to change the tresses of this people, who have, by hard labor character and condition of the home and its sur. for two hundred and fifty years, made rich the roundings. Who can better do this than the soil of this South land ?
educated colored Christian physician who is in Now, is there a man or woman here in whose full sympathy with the best interest of the race, who comes into the closest and strictest confi- ored physicians, and the facilities for our youth dence of the people and mingles with them in to receive a medical education were never better the home, church and school ; who best knows than now. their errors of life ; who lives among them and All things are now ready and “whosoever regards their destiny as his own, and therefore will," "let him come" boldly and thoroughly from the very circumstances surrounding the determined to make the most of himself, to be case the colored physician is necessarily best the most to his country and become the greatest adapted and most competent to meet this great benefactor to his race as an educated physician. demand of the age. Let us educate the negro | Among the schools that are open especially for youth in medicine and then and only then will the negro in medicine is Leonard Medical we have the nescessary protection to the home, School at Raleigh, N. C., with the latest and the health and the life of our people.
most improved methods of instruction by comII.-The extensive field now open.
petent instructors. From the foregoing it would appear that there This institution opens wide her doors to all must be extensive openings and magnificent op colored young men of CHARACTER and ABILITY portunities for those who may catch the inspi worthy of recognition in the field of medicine; ration of the age and enter the field of medicine, I repeat, men of character and ability. well prepared and with determination to stem | Her graduates have been in successful comthe tide and stand upon that dignity so charac- petition before the several State Boards of Med. teristic of the profession. It is estimated that ical Examiners and at the BEDSIDE, with the the negro population comprises between six and graduates of the oldest and best schools of this seven millions, in this country.
country. It is also estimated that there are about three Recently, a graduate from Leonard Medical regular practicing colored physicians to every School stood second in a contest for a prize, (100,000) one hundred thousand of the colored with a large number of white medical doctors, population.
before the North Carolina State Board of MediNow suppose, for argument's sake, that the cal Examiners; and to-day, in various parts of white physicians, the value of whose service we the South, her graduates are manfully and inare unable to estimate, should suddenly with telligently contending for the mastery. draw from the colored people (though I trust | And, now, whatever may be the conjectures, they never will) and leave this thronging multi- ! however complex and puzzling may be the
human beings in the very bosom of this questions that are constantly being raised con. American civilization peculiarly noted for its cerning the negro, we can unitedly thank God countless temptations that float upon every that to-day there is not a shadow of reasonable breeze and rest upon the door-step of every doubt as to what is wisest and most necessary home in this country and the cursed whiskey concerning him in his relation to the practice of traffic that in copious streams with all its evil | medicine. consequences brought to bear upon them. We If Africa, that dark land of our fathers, is ever ask you to contemplate the condition of the to be brought into the precious light of moral race under such circumstances, and answer. truth and Christian civilization, it must be
Would not three physicians to the hundred very largely done by well-trained medical misthousand citizens be totally inadequate to the sionaries; and until they are brought within the task and present the most difficult aspect of reach of every mission station, we may expect which you could conceive ?
nothing else but that our missionaries will die Survey this broad "Southland rich in natural in great numbers for want of suci attention as resources, threaded with railroads and navigable i many of them certainly do not receive. rivers, with a large population of free citizens Here opens the grandest and most prolific increasing daily at an unusually rapid rate with field upon earth in which our young men and only three colored physicians to the one hundred women, as messengers carrying the gladsome thousand population, and you have before you news of eternal life and peace to the perishing, the most gigantic and difficult problem of the may distinguish themselves as no other race has age.
ever had opportunity to do. The harvest is already ripe, the field glistens 1 I truly believe that the day will come, and with golden grain, the people were never more that it is not far distant, when some special effort ready and anxious to receive and support col- will be made to educate our young women both
as nurses and as physicians, to labor among -Roger Williams University opened with their own people in this country and also in about double the number of students in attendthat dark land. I truly believe that woman has ance at the same time last year. a place in medical mission that can not be other -Benedict Institute reports nearly twice as wise filled.
many young women as were present in October She has a place, as nurse in a sick-room, and of last year, and over twenty per cent. larger she alone can successfully fill it, for there is no attendance of the whole school, than then. The earthly hand that can administer to the sick addition to Colby Hall is finished just in time to with so much tender care as she when well
receive the increasedattendance of young women. trained.
-Indian University rejoices in complete I also believe that for the present, at least, it
| steam heating apparatus. No more shivering would be well for the colored ministry in the
and peril to health when the bleak “northers” pulpit of this country to know medicine to the
blow with the thermometer near the zero point. extent that they could intelligently deal out
-Steam heating apparatus is being put into many of the much needed remedies to the poor of the community and congregation.
the large building of Jackson College, Miss.,
where it is greatly needed in the very wet cliI also believe that if the Women's Baptist
mate of that region. President Ayer, who atHome Mission Society of the West would sup
tempted to reach Jackson the latter part of plement the education of their female mission
September, was compelled when within a hunaries sent among the colored people of the
dred miles of the place to return, on account of South, they would meet a twofold end and
yellow sever, and together with others was not therefore prove a much greater blessing than
permitted to leave the train until Illinois was they can otherwise ever hope to be, in caring
reached. It was a very tedious trip. But the for the poor and neglected of the race. And now, although we have to confront
school opened about November first. these discouraging features of the race, yet we
-“Packard Hall” at Spelman Seminary is may console ourselves with that grand idea,
finished, and steam heating apparatus is being that, in many respects at least, the race has
introduced. Of course the school will be made unparalleled advancement, and that iust | crowded as usual. beyond this dark cloud we have a bright future -The friends of State University, at Louisstill before us for the day has already dawned ville, Ky., are in high spirits over its extrication upon medical missions. Therefore, let us not from the mortgage debt which threated its exdespair, let us be uncompromising and un- istence. From the Coburn fund the Society swerving in every effort, and like men, like de- / appropriated $7,800 to extinguish this debt, termined heroes in the very heat of battle, amid leaving the property unencumbered. Reso. all the discouragements that surround us, catch lutions expressing the thanks of the colored new inspiration, and with a steady gait and a ! Baptists of the State have been passed and sent firm tread press solidly to the front, face the to the Society, and a great Jubilee effort is to be enemy and stand abreast with every other race made to pay off all the floating indebtedness in the great contest.
besides. Speedy success to the effort ! And then, in His own way and at His own -At the November Board meeting, decided time, God will give to us incalculable and untold steps were taken for the erection of a large victories.
building on the new site for the Atlanta Baptist Seminary, which has been too long sorely cramped in the matter of accommodation. It is expected that work will be commenced early in the spring and the building ready for use by or before January, 1890. But Dr. Graves' appeal
for about $10,000 more than is available for this News and Notes.
purpose should be heard and receive hearty – The yellow fever at Jacksonville and Live responses. Oak, Fla., has prevented the opening of the “Hartshorn Memorial College enjoys the school as usual. President Fish and his associ- satisfaction of enlarged accommodations, the ates expect to be on the field the latter part of rooms in the upper story having just been November.
finished by assistance from the Coburn Fund.
daily necessity now in order to comfort. People are wondering how they themselves will get through the winter."
Other testimonials similar to these might be Suffering in North Dakota.
given. But these are sufficient to indicate the
necessities of the people, and it is believed to Large sections of North Dakota were visited | insure a favorable and generous response. Some in August with a severe frost, which utterly small gifts have already been received, but they ruined the crops on which people relied for their are a mere pittance compared with the necessisupport during the coming winter. Church | ties of the case. members are unable to contribute for the sup- Persons desiring to assist may send their conport of their pastors as they had hoped, and, in tributions designated for this purpose to the many instances are reduced to abject poverty American Baptist Home Mission Society. and great distress. Letters from some of our missionaries in the district referred to express
News and Notes. the gravest anxiety about the approaching win
DAKOTA.-Rev. T. M. Shanafelt, D.D., ter. They are asking the Society for increased
General Missionary for Southern Dakota since appropriations, inasmuch as the people have
the middle of last May, is getting well in hand little or nothing to give toward their support.
to his work, as shown by extracts from his address Relief will be needed for many families before
at the recent Convention : the winter is over. It is proposed that this re
During the year just closed thirteen new lief be furnished by Baptist brethren in the East, through the American Baptist Home Mission
churches have been organized in South Dakota. Society. The Society's facilities for wisely dis
Two of this number are German churches and pensing benefactions of this character are an as
three are Scandinavian. Three houses of worsurance that the best possible disposition will
ship have been dedicated, and another will be be made of them.
soon. Three others are nearly completed and The following are extracts from some letters
two more churches are preparing to build. The
Scandinavians at Dell Rapids are erecting a recently received. The first is from our General Missionary in North Dakota :
chapel near the city. Four parsonages have
been built, one by a German church and three “There are portions of my field where frost by Scandinavian churches. Eight new ministers fell in August and destroyed the harvest. There have been added to our force, and five have are thousands of acres of straw now standing removed from the Territory, leaving a net gain uncut, where before the frost there was a pros of three. None of our preachers have died and pect of a yield of twenty-five bushels or more to none have been added by ordination. We have the acre. Of course, in those districts our mis fifty-five American churches, fourteen Scandisionaries can realize but little from the people.” | navian and ten German, a total of seventy-nine.
These are divided into five associations. The following is from one of our local mis
I have travelled 4,200 miles, preached 56 sionaries in the district referred to :
sermons, delivered 42 addresses, attended 86 “We are in the midst of discouraging cir- | meetings and organized (or assisted in) five cumstances. The crops which promised so fair churches. till just before harvest to give a large yield have For the nearly four score churches that have proved to be by early frost nothing but chaff in been established in South Dakota, and for what the heads of the wheat. Hence the farmers they have done, we ought to be thankful to have been compelled instead of reaping to burn God. But the ground that we occupy is small the standing straw, losing an entire season's compared with the land that yet remains to be toil, and no return for the expense of seeding, | possessed. The opportunities lying before us etc. This is the condition of our country on are very great, and we will do the cause that we the verge of our extremely long and severe win profess to serve a serious wrong if we falter and ter. Many have nothing with which to procure hesitate when we ought to be up and doing. fuel or clothing, and there certainly will be There are many counties in which we have not much suffering unless some unforseen providence yet planted a single church of our denomination. visits us, and that, too, very soon, for fires are a 'While therefore we endeavor to strengthen the