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all the relations of life. It constantly cally amounts to the same thing : appeals to the generous affections: the immediate effect of which is a speaks of humanity, justice, and fra- cessation of expenditure on the part ternity ; proclaims mankind as bro- of the affluent classes ; a hoarding of thers; and professes the warmest capital ; a run upon the banks for desire for general felicity, and the specie ; universal scarcity of money, diminution of the sources of human general distrust, and a fearful desuffering. It veils the advance of crease of employment. These evils selfishness under the guise of genero- are first felt by the working classes, sity. Revolutions demonstrate that because, having no stock, they are the homage which vice pays to affected by any diminution in their virtue is not confined to individuals. daily wages ; and they are felt with The maxim of Rochefoucault applies the more bitterness that they immealso to nations. Its truth is never diately succeed extravagant hopes, seen with such brightness as during and highly wrought expectations. the intensity of a revolution; and Invariably the effects of revolutions this demonstrates at once the wisdom are precisely the reverse of the prewhich governs, and the selfishness dictions of its supporters. No man is which desolates the world.
insensible to his own suffering, howSo prone, however, are the bulk of ever much he may be so to that of mankind to delusion; so easily are his predecessors; and thence the unithey led away by expressions which versal and general reaction which, appeal to their passions, or projects sooner or later, takes place against which seem to forward their interests; revolutions. so little are the lessons of experience That this reaction would take either known to, or heeded by, the im- place to a certainty, in the end, with mense majority of men, that we should the French revolution of 1848, as it be led to despair of the fortunes of had done with all similar convulsions the species, and dread in every age since the beginning of the world, could a repetition of the seductive passions be doubted by none who had the least which had desolated the one that historical information : and in our had preceded it, were it not that a first article on that event, within a provision is made for the extinction few weeks of its occurrence, we disof popular passion in the very first tinctly foretold that this would be the effects of its ebullition. It is in its case.* But we confess we did not effect upon. property that the curb is anticipate the rapidity with which the found which restrains the madness of reaction has set in. Not two years the people ; by the insolvency it in- have elapsed since the throne of Louis duces that the barrier is formed, Philippe was overturned, and a repubwhich as a matter of necessity forces lic proclaimed in Paris amidst the
back society to its habitual forms and transports of the revolutionary party . relations. In the complicated state over all Europe, and the gaze in as
of social relations in which we live, tonishment of all the world; and alit is by the capital of the rich that the ready the delusion is over, the transindustry of the poor is put in motion ; ports are at an end, the Jacobios are by their expenditure that it is ali- silent, and the convulsed commonmented. However specious and allur- wealth is fast sinking back to its ing the projects may be which are pristine monarchical form of governbrought forward by the popular lead- ment. Every country in Europe felt ers, they involve in them one source the shock. The passions were univerof weakness, which inevitably ere long sally let loose ; sanguinary wars arose paralyses all their influence. Directly on every side; and while the enlightor indirectly, they all tend to the de- ened Free-traders of England were struction of property. To excite the dreaming, amidst their cotton bales, of
passions of the working classes, they universal and perpetual peace, which are obliged to hold out to them the should open to them the markets of prospect of a division of property, or the world, hostilities the most tersuch a system of taxation as practi- rible, contests the most dreadful, dis
sensions the most implacable, broke ascendency ; rebellion had quailed out in all quarters. It was not merely before the undaunted aspect of the the war of opinion which Mr Canning defenders of order and the throne. long ago prophesied as the next which Naples had regained the dominion of would desolate Europe: to it was Sicily; the arms of France had resuperadded the still more frightful stored the Pope at Rome; the Eternal contest of races. The Lombard rose City had yielded to the assault of against the German, the Bohemian the soldiers of Louis Napoleon. Ausagainst the Imperialist, the Hungarian tria had regained her ascendency in against the Austrian; the Celt and Italy; the perfidious aggression of the Saxon stood in arms against each Charles Albert had been signally other. Naples was rent in twain ; a chastised by the skill and determinarevolutionary state was established in tion of the veteran Radetsky; Milan Sicily; the supreme pontiff was de- was again the seat of Imperial governthroned at Rome; Piedmont joined ment; the dream of a Venetian rethe innovating party ; Lombardy rose public had passed away, and the Place up against Austria, Bohemia was in of St Mark again beheld the doublearms against Vienna, the Magyars headed eagle of Austria at the summit revived against the Germans the fierce of its domes. Baden was conquered, hostility of five centuries ; Prussia Saxony pacified; the fumes of revoluwas revolutionised, Baden ravaged, tionary aggression in Schleswig had Denmark invaded ; the Poles could been dissipated by the firmness of with difficulty be restrained amidst Denmark, and the ready, although the general effervescence; the Irish unexerted, support of Russia. Poland openly made preparations for rebellion was overawed by the Colossus of the and separation from Great Britain. North ; and even the heroic valour of England itself was shaken : the the Magyars, so often in happier days gravity and practical tendency of the the bulwark of the Cross, had yielded Anglo-Saxon character in part
yielded to that loyalty and tenacity of purpose to the general contagion. London which has so long distinguished the was threatened with a revolutionary Austrian people, joined and aided by movement; the Chartists in all the the support which, on this as on many manufacturing towns were prepared to previous occasions, Russia has afforded follow the example ; treasonable to the cause oforder in Europe. Though placards, calling on the people to rise, last, not least, Great Britain was were to be seen on all sides ; and the pacified : the dreams of the Socialists, mighty conqueror who had struck the treason of the Chartists, had redown Napoleon exerted his consum- coiled before the energy of a people mate skill in baffling the rebellion of yet on the whole loyal and united. his own countrymen, and won a vic- Ireland, blasted by the triple curse of tory over anarchy not less momentous rebellion, pestilence, and famine, had than that of Waterloo, and not the ceased to be an object of disquietude less memorable that it did not cost a to England, save from the incessant drop of human blood.
misery which it exhibited; and its What a contrast, within the short furious patriots, abandoning in multiperiod of eighteen months, did Europe tudes the land of their birth, were afterwards exhibit ! France, the carrying into Transatlantic regions centre of impulsion to the civilised those principles of anarchy, and deathworld, was restrained ; the demon of less hatred at civilisation, which had anarchy was crushed in its birthplace; so long laid waste their own country. the visions of the Socialists had been Acknowledging, as all must do, with extinguished in the blood of the devout thankfulness, that it is to the barricades. Dispersed, dejected, in Great Disposer of events that we are despair, the heroes of February were to ascribe so marvellous a DELIVERlanguishing in exile, or mourning in FROM EVIL— so blessed an prison the blasting of their hopes, the escape from a fate which would have rain of their prospects, the unveiling renewed, in Europe, a devastation as of their sophistries. Revolution had wide-spread, and darkness as thick, been crashed without the effusion of as occurred during the middle agesblood in Berlin : law had regained its it may yet, humanly speaking, be dis
cerned how it is that our salvation The Revolution in Paris, it is well has been effected. The days of mira- known, owed its success entirely to cles are past; the law is not now de- the pusillanimity of the men of the livered amidst the thunders of Mount royal family. Louis Philippe, old and Sinai; the walls of fortresses do not enfeebled by disease, was paralysed fall down at the sound of the Lord's by a still more fatal source of weaktrumpet ; there is no longer a chosen ness—the consciousness of a throne people, over whose safety the eye of won by treason-the terror inspired Omnipotence watches, and whom, in by the sight of the barricades, behind the last extremity, the destroying angel which his own government had been rescues from their enemies. The di- constructed. His sons who were prerection of human affairs by Supreme sent showed that the Orleans family Wisdom; the coercion of wickedness; had lost, with the possession of a the support of virtue ; the ceaseless usurped throne, the courage which, for advance of the race of man, amidst all several generations, had constituted the folly and selfishness with which its the only virtue of their race. The concerns are conducted, have not, in- King of Prussia abandoned the condeed, passed away: all these are in as test in Berlin in the moment of viccomplete operation now as when the tory - a nervous reluctance to the Red Sea opened to the retreating Israel- shedding of blood paralysed, as it had ites, or the walls of Jericho fell before done in the days of Louis XVI., the the blast of Joshua's trumpet, or the defenders of the throne. In Austria, rending of the vail of the Temple an- the known imbecility, physical and nounced that the era had commenced moral, of the emperor, rendered him when the whole human race was to be wholly unequal to the crisis in which admitted to the sanctuary of the temple. he was placed - delivered over the But it is by human means alone that empire, undefended, to a set of revoProvidence now acts; it is by general lutionary murderers, and rendered a laws that the affairs of men are re- change in the reigning sovereign ingulated. The agents of Omnipotence dispensable. In Rome, the Pope himare the moving principles of the human self began the movement-he first heart: the safeguards against ruin are headed the reform crusade; and whatto be found in the barriers which, in ever his unhappy subjects have since injured interests or counteracting pas- suffered is to be ascribed to his blind sions, are raised up amidst the agitated delusion and weak concessions. Such multitude, against the further progress was the conduct of the kings of of devastation. It is not from oblivion, Europe—such the front which our sex therefore, but with a constant recog- in high places opposed to the revonition of Divine superintendence, that lutionary tempest. But women often, we shall now endeavour to trace out in the last extremity, exhibit a courage the means by which the most alarming which puts to shame the pusillanimity moral pestilence which ever appeared of the men by whom they are surin modern times has been arrested; rounded ; and never was this more the happiness of Europe saved, for the signally evinced than in the present time at least, from the destruction instance. The Queen of France tried by which it was menaced—from the in vain, at the Tuileries, to inspire her earthquake in its own bosom; and the husband with her own heroic spirit; progress of real freedom throughout the Duchess of Orleans showed it in the world prevented from being blasted front of levelled muskets in the by the selfish ambition or insane de- Chamber of Deputies; and, that order lusions of the demagogues who, for a is still preserved in our country, is to time, got possession of its current. be ascribed in no small degree to the
The first circumstance which must firm conduct of the sovereign on the strike every observer, in the contem- throne, and the determination with plation of the terrible crisis through which she inspired her government to which we have passed, is, that the risk everything rather than concede destruction with which we were one iota to the revolutionists. threatened was mainly, if not entirely, As it was the opposite conduct from owing to want of moral courage on the this, and the moral weakness of the part of the depositaries of power. depositaries of power, which mainly induced the revolutions of 1848, and form an idea, riveted on the events rendered them so formidable, so those of the first Revolution. The Reign causes which have at length arrested of Terror was not forgotten ; the that terrible convulsion seem to have prophecy of the historian * proved been no other but the moral laws of true : "A second French Revolunature, destined for the correction of tion, of the same character as the wickedness and the coercion of pas- former, and the age in which it is to sion, when they have risen to such a arise must be ignorant of the first." pitch as seriously to endanger the Its heartstirring incidents, its mournexistence of society. And, without ful catastrophes, its tragic events, its presuming to scan too deeply the in- heroic virtue, its appalling wickedtentions of Providence, or the great ness, its streams of blood, were insystem by which evil is brought out delibly engraven on the hearts of a of good, and an irresistible power considerable, and that too the most says to the madness of the people, as influential, part of the people. The to the storms of the ocean, “Hitherto revolutionists, indeed, in every counshalt thou come, and no farther, and try-the Red Republicans in France, here shall thy proud waves be staid," the Chartists in England, the Rebels we may probably discover, humanly in Ireland, the Carbonari in Italy, speaking, the means by which the the Illuminés in Germany, were perevil has been arrested.
fectly prepared to renew for their The first circumstance which has own profit the same scenes of spoliaproduced the reaction, and arrested tion, bloodshed, and massacre. But the progress of evil so much more such extreme characters form, even in rapidly than was the case in the for- the most depraved society, but a mer great convulsion, is the memory of small part of the whole inhabitants. that convulsion itself. It is no doubt It is the delusion or timidity of the true, that every generation is taught great body, not the absolute strength by its own and none by its predeces- or numbers of the violent party, sors' sufferings; but, in the case of which is the principal danger. The the first French Revolution, the suf- force of the first Revolution consisted fering was so long-continued and in its novelty ; in the enchantment of dreadful, that the memory of it de- its visions, the warmth of its professed scended to the next generation. It philanthropy, the magnitude of its prowas impossible that the sons of the mises. But time had dispelled these, men who had been guillotined, exiled, as it does many other delusions. The or mown down by the conscription, mask had fallen from the spectre who had seen their estates and which had charmed the world, and honours torn from them by the ruth- the awful form of Death had apless hand of Revolutionary violence, peared. should not retain a vivid sense of the The second circumstance which sufferings they had experienced, and tended to coerce, more rapidly than the wrongs they had undergone. All could have been hoped for, the proclasses, not excluding even those who gress of the revolution of 1848, was had been mostardent and active in sup- the firmness and loyalty of the solport of the first Revolution, had writhed diers. It is historically known that it alike under the calamities and exac- was the defection of the troops which tions of the latter years of the war, brought on, and rendered irresistible and the ignominious conquest in which the march of the first Revolution: it had terminated, which was only which induced, in rapid succession, felt the more keenly from the unparal- the Reign of Terror, the assignats, the leled triumphs to which the nation conscription, the capture of Paris, the had so long been habituated. Add to subjugation of the kingdom. But this, that the attention of all the here, too, experience and suffering intelligent classes of society in Europe came to the aid of deluded and wangenerally, and in France in particular, dering humanity. It was seen that had been long, and to an extent of what is unjust and dishonourable is which in this country we can scarcely never expedient: that the violation of their oaths by the sworn defenders of liberties? Where would have been order is not the commencement of the all the safeguards formed, all the hopes regeneration, but the first step in the expressed, all the prophecies hazarded, decline of society: and that to fear as to its being perpetual? But in God and honour the king is the only that dread hour, perhaps the most way to insure, not only the preserva- eventful that England ever knew, we tion of order, but the ultimate ascend- were saved by the courage of the ancy of freedom. On the foundation Queen, the firmness of the governof the revolt of the Gardes Fran- ment, the admirable arrangements of çaises in 1789, were successively the Duke of Wellington, and the unibuilt the despotism of the Committee versal steadiness and loyalty of our of Public Salvation, the blood of Robes- soldiers. We are quite awaro of the pierre, the carnage of Napoleon. The special constables, and the immense awful example was not lost on the moral influence of the noble display next generation. The throne of which the aristocracy and middle Charles X. was overthrown by the classes of England made on that occadefection of the troops of the line; sion. But moral influence, often allbut it was again found that the glori- powerful in the end, is not alone ous fabric of civil liberty was not to be sufficient at the beginning; physical erected on the basis of treachery and force is then required to withstand the treason. None of the troops revolted first assault of the enemy : and, highly on the crisis of February 1848. The as we respect the civic force with Guards and the line were alike steady. batons in their hands; and fully as Marshal Bugeaud, when he received we admit the immense importance of the command, speedily passed the that citizen-demonstration in its ultiwhole barricades, and in six hours mate effects, we ascribe our deliverwould have extinguished the revolt. ance from the instant peril which The throne was lost not by the defec- threatened, entirely to the steadiness tion of the troops, but by the pusilla- of the British army, and the incomnimity of the princes of the blood; and parable arrangements of their chief. accordingly, when the next contest In the Continental states, order sucoccurred-as occur it ever will in such ceeded in regaining the ascendency cases—the troops were resolutely led, over anarchy entirely in consequence the revolution was put down under of the fidelity of the soldiers. On circumstances ten times more formid- that memorable day, when the Prusable, though not without a frightful sian army marched into Berlin playloss of human life.
ing the old airs of the monarchy, and We are so accustomed to the loyalty formed in a circle around, distant and steadiness of the English army, only twenty-five paces from the insurthat the possibility of their wavering gent host, and there tranquilly loaded never enters into our imagination. their pieces, the opposing forces were But still all must admit that we too, directly brought into collision; it was with all our boasted safeguards of seen that, in a few seconds, law or popular representation, general infor- rebellion would be victorious. Law mation, a free press, and centuries of prevailed, as it generally does where freedom, stood on the edge of an its defenders are steady and resoluteabyss; and that, not less than Austria ly led—and what has been the result? or Prussia, our salvation had come to Is it that freedom has been extindepend chiefly, if not entirely, on the guished in Prussia, that liberty has fidelity of the soldiers. If the six thou- sunk under the pressure of tyrannic sand men who garrisoned London on power, and that a long period of serthe 10th April 1848 had wavered, and vitude and degradation is to close the one-half of them had joined the insur- bright meridian of her national splengents, where would now have been dour ? Quite the reverse : anarchy the British constitution? Had a hun- has been extinguished in Prussia only dred thousand men from Kennington to make room for the fair forms of Common crossed Waterloo Bridge, order and liberty, which cannot exist headed by a regiment of the Guards, but side by side ; the revolutionists and three regiments of the line, where are overawed, but the lovers of real would now have been the British freedom are only the better confirmed