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Telephoning

The proportion is even greater for lesser

distances and smaller telephone rates. It is an interesting commentary on human nature that many business men who

The time has passed when such a have been used to the telephone all their

statement is to be considered merely as lives will forget its possibilities and make

an advertisement for the long-distance long trips to transact business that could

telephone business. Such reckonings be done in a few moments over the tele

now have a place in the economic philosphone. That thousands have become

ophy of the progressive business man,

and differ in no wise from a systematic habituated to the long-distance telephone,

policy in the use of the mails.-Colliers, and have been steadily increasing their

April 3, 1909. use of it, only makes more apparent the fact that others are still taking unnecessary trips for no other reason than that they do not think to handle the

Private Stock Butter matter by telephone.

Theodore X. VailPresident of the A trip from Chicago to New York whole Bell system, is one of the biggest and return, allowing for one day's aver- men as to body, as well as to brain, in age expense in the city, would cost a the financial world. He has an enorbusiness man about ninety dollars at a mous head, with hair that stands high conservative estimate, and would require from the crown and then curls riotously. at least two days' time. That expense He carries top weight, but goes like an alone would cover the cost of eighteen 80-horsepower automobile in a cup race long-distance telephone conversations at from 7 o'clock in the morning until five dollars for three minutes, or for a bedtime. His plaything is a farm in the total of about an hour's conversation at mountains of Vermont, fifty miles from one dollar and a half per minute. In the Canadian lines. Every morning beaddition to this, the man would have fore daylight it ships a car of private his two days' time, and his plans would stock butter to Boston-New York be spared the delay and interruption. Press.

and contraction with changes in temENGINEERING

peratures.

That considerable expansion occurs Expansion and Contraction in Aerial Cables

has been clearly proved by cable sheaths

showing bright abrasions where they The coefficient of expansion of lead is have moved through metal cable clips approximately twice as great as that of

when the latter were rusted to the strand. steel. The lead sheath of an aerial cable

In some cases hangers have been torn will expand over two inches for 100° F.

off. It has been found by actual obserrise in temperature in a 120 foot span,

vations that cables have moved back and while the supporting steel strand will ex

forth at cable dips from three-eighths to pand less than one inch for the same

three-fourths of an inch per day. In temperature rise, disregarding in both

certain instances where the sheath hapinstances the tension in the line. If, as

pened to touch the strand, the sheath has in actual working conditions, the sup- been scored by portions of the strand. porting strand is under tension and is In some cases splices have been drawn stretched very tight, the expansion and out, as has been indicated by their colcontraction of the strand may not ma- lapsed appearance; in others, splices terially change its length, being ab- have buckled on account of the ends of absorbed by its elasticity. The coefficient the cable being pushed together. With of expansion of the copper wire in the the standard marline hangers, which cable, while being less than lead and provide a flexible connection between the greater than steel, may be practically dis- strand and the cable, if the proper length regarded, as the expansion or contrac- hangers are used with the proper size tion is more or less taken up by the in- cable, the cable is free to accommodate sulation and twist of the wires.

itself to expansion and contraction all Where aerial lead covered cables have

along its length by slight undulations been attached to their messenger strand

between the hangers without having the without providing for sufficient freedom

entire energy expended upon pole dips of motion to enable them to take up their

or other weak points where successive

hangers have broken or become unexpansion and contraction relative to the hangers have broken

hooked. strand, trouble has often occurred, due generally to crystalline fractures in the Therefore, in order to prevent undue cable sheath, thus allowing moisture to trouble due to expansion and contraction, enter the cable. These fractures have aerial cables should be properly strung been accompanied by a lumpy appear- and properly maintained. This means ance of the sheath and by a tendency of first, that the messenger must not be the cable as a whole to assume a wavy stretched too tightly but must have the form, sometimes in places rising above required amount of sag when loaded with the supporting strand. Where small the cable; second, the pole dips in cable amounts of slack have been left in aerial be positively avoided; third, that marline cables at poles, known as pole dips, and hangers of the proper length be used and the cables elsewhere in the span have not the cable in no instance securely bound been suspended at a sufficient distance to a messenger; fourth, that when hangbelow the strand, the factures have gen- ers become broken or unhooked, they be erally appeared in the center of the pole replaced without undue delay, distributdips on the upper side of the cable sheath ing the slack which may have been and are due to the longitudinal motion brought into this unsupported section, of the cable resulting from its expansion all along the cable.

April 1, 1909
Showing Relation between Bell Telephones and Population in Exchanges of 300 or more

Stations; also Per cent of Growth since January 1, 1909.

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2.32

Group No. 1. (Population over 100,000.)

xColton

409

426 14.20 4.16
*Dayton (Wn.).

570

579 19.30 1.60
xLos Angeles
32,160 33..169 15.26 3.12 *Grants Pass

108

533

13.38 5.31
xOakland
16.639 17.250 13.27 3.67

x Hollywood

735

758 25.27 3.13
x Portland
2:2,098 22.748 16.25 2.94 xLa Grande

883 877 19. 19 -0.68
San
Francisco. 48,533 51.605 15.88 6.33 *Marysville

1,013 1.061 26.53 1.73
xSeattle

24.2018 23, 413
14.52 4.71
Medford

438 303 13.24 9.82
Spokane
11.521 15.079 15.08 3.85 *Modesto

878 921 24.89 4.89
Total or average 158,519 165,664 15.20 4.57

Monterey

516

538 11.96 4.26
*Oroville

787
820 18.22

4.19
Group No 2. (Population 25,000 to 100.000)

Red Bluff

427 438

11.53 2.58
Redding

373 13.53 0.52
xBellingham
2,753 2,804 11.12 1.83

Richmond

519

381 16.60 5.83
Berkeley
5.586 5.873 19.58 5.11

*Ritzville

520
52 17.10

0.38
*Fresno
1.186 4,673 18.69 1.89

*Roseburg

7037 791 22.60 4.49
Sacramento
5,854 5,990 15.97

Salinas

764

778 17.98 1.83
x*San Diego
4,135 4,273

*San Luis Obispo
12.21 3.31

958

963 20.91 0.32
*San Jose
6.259 6,328 19.78 1.10

San Mateo

984 1,042 26.0.3 5.89
XTacoma
8,590 9.017 12.01 4.97

*San Pedro

425

483 10.73 13.05
Total or average
37.763 38,9.38 15.01 3.17

*Santa Clara

372

378 8.10 1.61
X*The Dalles
516 573 12.73

4.95
lkiah

3.56

3.59 11.97 0.84
Group No. 3. (Population 10,000 to 25,000)

x Ventura

437 458 13.09 0.92
*Woodland

849 897 25.63 5.95
Aberdeen
1.172 1.231 12.15 5.21,

Total or averag 17.390 17,968 16.45 3.32
Alameda

2.835 2,883 11.12 0.98
Astoria

969

996 8.66 2.79
Eureka
2.226 2,209 17.67

-.76

Group No. 6. (Population less than 3,000)
xEverett

1,941 1,95.5 9.78 0.72
x Long Beach.
1.186 1,459 7.30 23.02 X* Alhambra

539

581 23.24 7.79
x* Pasadena
4.606 4,705 20.50 2.17

x* Arcata

329
338 18.78

2.76
Reno
2.006 2,038 20.38 1.60
*Auburn

466

20.27 4.96
x*Riverside
2,132 2.526 21.97
3.86 *Coalinga

292

315 23.00 18.15
Salem
2,166 2,200 18.33 1.57 *Colfax

864

90 25.90 4.86
X*San Bernardino. 1.230 1,266 10.55 2.93 *Cottage Grove.. 522

576 32.00 10.34
x Santa Barbara.. 1..90 1,651 13.53 3.84 Dinuba

319

3:34 21.60 1.36
Santa Cruz
1,314 1,312 11.93 -0.15 Escondido

313 313 20.73
Santa Rosa
1,089 1,160 11.60 6.52 *Ferndale

352
351 22.12

0..37
Stockton
3,931 3,990 18.11 1.42 X*Fullerton

45.)

476

23.80 4.61
Vallejo
87.5 912 9.12 4.23 x*Glendale

596

634 42.26 6.38
Walla Walla
2,722 2,782 13.25

2.20
Grangeville

341

371 24.73 8.79
Total or average 31.313 35,278 14.18 2.81 Gresham

3:34

351 23.60
Haywards

333 33+ 22.27 0.30
Group No. 4. (Population 5,000 to 10,000)

*Healdsburg

410

416 18.09 1.16
Hollister

380

398 15.92 4.73
Baker City
1.036 1.0.54 13.36 1.74

*Lodi

718

726 36.30 1.11
Bakersfield
2,114 2.18 26.60

0.66
Madera

34 344 13.61 6.17
('entralia

372
102 6.70 8.07
*Merced

491

520

-0.80 5.27
Chico

931
936 11.70 0.21
Mill Valley

311

319

21.26 2.657
*Eugene
1,۱۰) 1.6.,7 23.67 6.96

Mt. Vernon

220
307 20.16

-1.06
*Grass Valley

103

6.75
0.50 Mo Minnville

359 17.95 -11.13
* Hanford
1,083 1,097 21.94 1.99 Newberg

313

352 17.60 2.62
Hoquiam

662
089 8.61 4.08
Ontario

181

525 21.00 9.15
xlewiston

1.031
1,060 13.14 2.81
*Orange

147 473 18.92 5.82
Хара

847
843 13.00 0.24
Palouse

383

395 26.33 3.13
*North Yakima 1.616 1.745 19.39 7.98

* Pomeroy

331

3 3.13 7.12
*Olympia
1.231 1,310 17.87 8.86

Porterville

507 520 24.37 2.56
x*Oregon City

13
83.5 16.70 2.43
x Port Townsend.. 420

419

20.9. -0.24
* Palo Alta
1.132 1,166 13.72 3.00

Pullman

478 512 25.60 7.11
Pendleton

919
972 16.0 2.42
*Redwood City

357

337 11.28
*Petaluma
983 1,033 18.78

4.96
x*Santa Maria

431

480 17.27 11.37
Phoenix
1.3.04 1,416 18.88 4.58

* Selma

491

488 24.40 -0.62
San Rafael
1,094 1.12+ 22.18 2.74 Sprague

3.).

387 24.19 9.01
x Santa Ana
1,116 1,118 14.35 2.87 Springfield

320

336 22.40 5.00
xSanta Monica
938 11.73 3.6.) x*Uplands

631 619 63.91 2.85
Tueson
1.029 1.0SS 13.60 5.73

Total or average 15,409 16.030 22.17 4.03
*Vancouver

1,123 1,360 21.19 12.20
* Visalia
1,054 1.0.59 21.18

0.47
*Watsonville
752 731 11.62

Summary

-2.79
Total or average 2,189 26.128 16.16 3.73

Group No. 1. 158,519 165.664 15.20

4.57
Group No. 5. (Population 3,000 to 5,000) Group No. 2

37,763 38,958 15,01 3.17
Group No. 3.

34,313 35,278 14.18 2.81
Albany

736
731 16.25
-0.67 Group No. 4

25,189 26,128 16.16 3.73
Anacortes
533 11.84 5.34 Group No. 3

17,390 17,968 16.45 3.32
XAnaheim

355
369 11.53 3.94 Group No. 6.

13.409 16.030 22.17 4.03
Ashland

470
479 10.64 1.92 TOTALS

288,583 300,026 15.46 3.96
xExchanges having dual system. *Many suburban subscribers connected. -Loss.

905

COLLECTION RATING

Percentage of money outstanding at the end of March, 1909, to the total amount of the bills rendered subscribers for the month, and percentage of number of unpaid accounts at the end of March to the number of accounts.

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16

Central Division. Redding

3 15 Eugene

4 7

16 Alameda

Redwood 11

32 Everett

5 Reno

7 11 Grangeville Arcata

16
5 7
Richmond
11 14 Grants Pas3

8 Auburn

7 9
Sacramento
9 23 Hoquiam

4 Berkeley

10
12 Salinas
11 17| Le Grande

2 Coalinga

18
36 San Francisco.. 34 25 Lebanon

53
Chico
4 18 San Jose
7 11 Lewiston

5 Dinuba 10 31 San Mateo

16 39 McMinnville Eureka 1 10 San Rafael 10 18 Medford

3 Ferndale 2 3 Santa Cruz 4 7 Mt. Vernon

14 Fresno 5 22 Santa Rosa 4 6 Newberg

4 Grass Valley 9 17 Selma

8 27 North Yakima 8 Hanford 16 38 Stockton 8 11 Olympia

4 Haywards 13 21 ('kiah 9 24 Oregon City

4 Healdsburg 8 25 Vallejo 14 13| Palouse

24 Hollister 4 10 Visalia

8 16 Pendleton Kingsburg 13 121 Watsonville

7 Pomeroy Lodi

2
6 Woodland
1 2 Portland

4
Madera
8 15

Port Townsend. 16
Marysville

6 5
Northern Division.

Fullman
Merced
0 0 Akerdeen
2 6 Ritzville

0 Mill Valley 12 33 Albany 5 15 Roseburg

5 Modesto

25 Anacortes

9

12 Salem Monterey 10 22 Ashland 8 10 Seattle

6 Napa 0 5 Astoria 0 0 Spokane

8
Oakland
10 16 Baker City

+
8 Sprague

12 Oroville

4 Bellingham
1 8 Springfield

29
Palo Alto
4 17 (entialia
3 S Tacoma

8 Petaluma

7 i'olfax
7 20 | The Dalles

20
Forterville
6 Cottage Grove.. 5 24 Vancouver

5 Red Bluff 3 41 Davton 13 23' Walla Walla

6

19

Southern Division. Alhambia

9 11 52

4 Anaheim

5 33 30 Bakersfield

8 11 1 Colton

16 360 Escondido

3 3 7 Fullerton

9 10 34 Glendale

2 3 3 Hollywood

0 1 66

Long Beach 14 21 12

Los Angeles S 16 15 Ontario

18 23 13 Orange

2 3 Fasadena

4 S 57 Riverside

9 15 9

San Bernardino 6 9 16 San Diego

0 S

San Luis Obispo 0 0 28 San Pedro

7 33

Santa Barbara.. 14 18 12 Santa Ana

1 1 15

Santa Maria 12 24

Santa Monica S 1: 13 l'pland

11 13 18 Ventura

1 3 31

Divisions. 10 43 Northern

6. + 13.0) 12 Southern

7.2 13.? 6 Central

13.6

125 Summary of

23.3

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Subscriber's Stations Jan. 1,

1909
(Inc'uding 925 public toll stations.)
Subscriber's Stations March

1, 1909
(Including 921 pub:ie toll stations.)
Subscriber's Stations April 1,

1909
Including 916 public toll stations.)
Increase during the month

of March, 1909
Increase March 1, 1909 over

Jan. 1, 1909, per cent.
Increase April 1, 1909 over

Jan. 1, 1909, per cent.
Number of places connected

THE BEST ARE MADE BY

4,368

1.69

C. H. Brownell

3.07

Peru, Indiana

on April 1, 1909

1,675

OUR AIM

To furnish Reliable and Prompt Telephone Service.

To deal Courteously with everybody.

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