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actually occurred or is not then continuing, to submit the matters in dispute to a local board of arbitration and conciliation, as above provided, or to the state board; and said state board may, if it deems it advisable, investigate the cause or causes of such controversy, and ascertain which party thereto is mainly responsible or blameworthy for the existence or continuance of the same, and may make and publish a report finding such cause or causes, and assigning such responsibility or blame. The board shall have the same powers for the foregoing purposes as are given it by section three of this act.

SECT. 9. Witnesses summoned by the state board shall be allowed the sum of fifty cents for each attendance, and the further sum of twenty-five cents for each hour of attendance in excess of two hours, and shall be allowed five cents a mile for travel each way from their respective places of employment or business to the place where the board is in session. Each witness shall certify in writing the amount of his travel and attendance, and the amount due him shall be paid forthwith by the board, and for such purpose the board shall be entitled to draw from the treasury of the Commonwealth, as provided for in chapter one hundred and seventy-nine of the acts of the year eighteen hundred and eighty-four.

SECT. 10. The members of said state board shall until the first day of July in the year eighteen hundred and eighty-seven be paid five dollars a day each for each day of actual service; and on and after said date they shall each receive a salary at the rate of two thousand dollars a year, to be paid out of the treasury of the Commonwealth; and both before and after said date they shall be allowed their necessary travelling and other expenses, which shall be paid out of the treasury of the Commonwealth.

[ST. 1892, CHAPTER 382.]

An Act relating to the duties and compensation of expert assistants appointed by the state board of arbitration and conciliation.

Be it enacted, etc., as follows:

SECTION 1. In all controversies between an employer and his employees in which application is made to the state board of arbitration and conciliation, as provided by section four of chapter two hundred and sixty-three of the acts of the year eighteen

hundred and eighty-six as amended by section three of chapter two hundred and sixty-nine of the acts of the year eighteen hundred and eighty-seven, and by section one of chapter three hundred and eighty-five of the acts of the year eighteen hundred and ninety, said board shall appoint a fit person to act in the case as expert assistant to the board. Said expert assistants shall attend the sessions of said board when required, and no conclusion shall be announced as a decision of said board, in any case where such assistants have acted, until after notice given to them, by mail or otherwise, appointing a time and place for a final conference between said board and expert assistant on the matters included in the proposed decision. Said expert assistants shall be privileged to submit to the board, at any time before a final decision shall be determined upon and published, any facts, advice, arguments or suggestions which they may deem applicable to the case. They shall be sworn to the faithful discharge of their duties by any member of said board, and a record thereof shall be preserved with the record of the proceedings in the case. They shall be entitled to receive for their services from the treasury of the Commonwealth the sum of seven dollars for each day of actual service, together with all their necessary travelling expenses.

SECT. 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. proved June 15, 1892.

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NEW YORK.

A state board of arbitration was established in 1886, to decide appeals from such temporary boards as might be formed in special cases when that mode of settlement had been resorted to by the parties in interest. In 1887 it was given concurrent jurisdiction, and, for the purpose of inducing agreements, mediation was added to its functions. From 1897 the state board of mediation and arbitration acted under chapter 415 of the laws of that year, known as the labor law (which was a revision and consolidation of previous enactments, being chapter XXXII of the General Laws), until February 7, 1901 (chapter 9), when a department of labor was created in three bureaus for factory inspection, for labor statistics and

for mediation and arbitration. The affairs of the first two bureaus are each administered by a deputy appointed and removable at pleasure by the commissioner of labor.

The head of the department has special charge of the bureau of mediation and arbitration, and for such functions has for assessors the two deputy commissioners. These three constitute the board to which the following provisions of article X of the Labor Law now refer :

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§ 142. Arbitration by the board. A grievance or dispute between an employer and his employes may be submitted to the board of arbitration and mediation for their determination and settlement. Such submission shall be in writing, and contain a statement in detail of the grievance or dispute and the cause thereof, and also an agreement to abide the determination of the board, and during the investigation to continue in business or at work, without a lock-out or strike.

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Upon such submission the board shall examine the matter in controversy. For the purpose of such inquiry they may subpoena witnesses, compel their attendance and take and hear testimony. Witnesses shall be allowed the same fees as in courts of record. The decision of the board must be rendered within ten days after the completion of the investigation.

§ 143. Mediation in case of strike or lock-out. Whenever a strike or lock-out occurs or is seriously threatened, the board shall proceed as soon as practicable to the locality thereof, and endeavor, by mediation, to effect an amicable settlement of the controversy. It may inquire into the cause thereof, and for that purpose has the same power as in the case of a controversy submitted to it for arbitration.

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§ 144. Decisions of board. Within ten days after the completion of every examination or investigation authorized by this article, the board or majority thereof shall render a decision, stating such details as will clearly show the nature of the controversy and the points disposed of by them, and make a written report of their findings of fact and of their recommendations to each party to the controversy.

Every decision and report shall be filed in the office of the board and a copy thereof served upon each party to the controversy, and in case of a submission to arbitration, a copy shall

be filed in the office of the clerk of the county or counties where the controversy arose.

$ 145. Annual report. - The board shall make an annual report to the legislature, and shall include therein such statements and explanations as will disclose the actual work of the board, the facts relating to each controversy considered by them and the decision thereon, together with such suggestions as to legislation as may seem to them conducive to harmony in the relations of employers and employes.

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§ 146. Submission of controversies to local arbitrators. -A grievance or dispute between an employer and his employes may be submitted to a board of arbitrators, consisting of three persons, for hearing and settlement. When the employes concerned are members in good standing of a labor organization, which is represented by one or more delegates in a central body, one arbitrator may be appointed by such central body and one by the employer. The two so designated shall appoint a third, who shall be chairman of the board.

If the employes concerned in such grievance or dispute are members of good standing of a labor organization which is not represented in a central body, the organization of which they are members may select and designate one arbitrator. If such employes are not members of a labor organization, a majority thereof, at a meeting duly called for that purpose, may designate one arbitrator for such board.

§ 147. Consent; oath; powers of arbitrators. Before entering upon his duties, each arbitrator so selected shall sign a consent to act and take and subscribe an oath to faithfully and impartially discharge his duties as such arbitrator, which consent and oath shall be filed in the clerk's office of the county or counties where the controversy arose. When such board is ready for the transaction of business, it shall select one of its members to act as secretary, and notice of the time and place of hearing shall be given to the parties to the controversy.

The board may, through its chairman, subpoena witnesses, compel their attendance and take and hear testimony.

The board may make and enforce rules for its government and the transaction of the business before it, and fix its sessions and adjournments.

§ 148. Decision of arbitrators. - The board shall, within ten days after the close of the hearing, render a written decision, signed by them, giving such details as clearly show the nature of the controversy and the questions decided by them. Such decision shall be a settlement of the matter submitted to such arbitrators, unless within ten days thereafter an appeal is taken therefrom to the state board of mediation and arbitration.

One copy of the decision shall be filed in the office of the clerk of the county or counties where the controversy arose, and one copy shall be transmitted to the secretary of the state board of mediation and arbitration.

§ 149. Appeals. The state board of mediation and arbitration shall hear, consider and investigate every appeal to it from any such board of local arbitrators, and its decisions shall be in writing and a copy thereof filed in the clerk's office of the county or counties where the controversy arose, and duplicate copies served upon each party to the controversy. Such decision shall be final and conclusive upon all parties to the arbitration.

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MONTANA.

There was a law in Montana, approved Feb. 28, 1887, entitled "An Act to provide for a territorial board of arbitration for the settlement of differences between employers and employes." The Legislative Assembly of the territory on March 14, 1889, created a commission to codify laws and procedure, and to revise, simplify and consolidate statutes; and Montana became a state on November 8 of the same year.

The following is the law relating to arbitration of industrial disputes, as it appears in "The Codes and Statutes of Montana in force July 1, 1895."

THE POLITICAL CODE.

[Part III, Title VII, Chapter XIX.]

§ 3330.

There is a state board of arbitration and conciliation consisting of three members, whose term of office is two

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