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their growth into serious disputes, and lessened the number of difficulties that attract the attention of the public. Such difficulties, having been referred to the Board, and those in other quarters where amicable relations have been tacitly preserved, are classed as "friendly controversies." The speedy collapse of some strikes is as silent as their onset was startling; others are maintained in theory after they have ceased to obstruct business. Such results appear below as "vanished."

The cases of the past year fall into three groups at each of the three stages following:

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In view of results (neglecting fractions): Settled,


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The ratio of referred cases to those in which the Board offered its mediation is about as 3 to 5.

The vanished controversies had strike histories, and ended in 9 cases by the workmen's returning on the employers' terms, and in the other 11 by permanent loss of situation.

Four of the controversies still pending are amicably conducted; the other has a history of lockout and diminution of business.

There were 27 conciliations, or 50 per cent. of all cases, and 2 arbitrations, or 4 per cent., nearly, making a total of 29 settlements, or 54 per cent., nearly.

The value of the positive result shown by these tables will, we believe, be much enhanced on further consideration. It will be noted that half of the foregoing strikes ended in defeat, that is to say, 20; and that one of the employers resorting to a lockout was obliged to curtail his business. Viewed on the low plane of immediate self-interest, such expedients, having been resorted to without a fair prospect of success, can hardly be deemed other than rash. To get a fair estimate of "state interference," allowance ought to be made for that element of rashness which persists "to the bitter end," and is not amenable to the good offices of anybody. Eliminating, therefore, these 21 cases from the total number treated by the Board, leaves 33 controversies, of which 29 were settled mostly by conciliation, while 4 remain to be settled in a friendly way.

Twenty strikes and 3 lockouts were finally settled amicably, as were 6 friendly controversies. The result is gratifying; but the gratification would be greater, if, in the cases of strike or lockout, the better way had been resorted to in the beginning. Sixty per cent. of the friendly differences were settled satisfactorily to both sides. At the same rate, about 14 disputes aggravated by strike or lockout might have been settled without loss of business and profit, and without loss of wages and health. Like advantages would also accrue to the parties to the other 9 cases during the pendency of the matters in dispute.

It has been said, in extenuation of strikes and lockouts, that they serve at least to compel attention to grievances. A study of our cases in the past year does not favor the view that they conduce in any way to a remedy; for only

50 per cent. of the strikes and 25 per cent. of the lockouts, of all about 47 3-4 per cent., were in any measure successful, and then for the most part as resulting from mediation and negotiation; while 60 per cent. of the friendly controversies were settled amicably, leaving the other friendly controversies on the way to such result.

Reports of the principal controversies which the Board has taken cognizance of during the year are to be found in the following pages. The yearly earnings of the persons involved are estimated at $2,948,588. The total yearly earnings in the factories, etc., are estimated at $9,004,006. The cost of maintaining the Board for the year has been $8,456.


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