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is classed as grazing land-and is not forested as is commonly supposed. These grazing acres were reserved for grazing purposes and are being so used. But a part of these remain that are not now being grazed. Would it not be reasonable to make full use of this land before even considering the national parks for grazing?

A national park is an area that has been so created by Congress because it possesses unusual scenic attractions or features of scientific interest. The purpose of a national park is recreation, education, enjoyment, and the general welfare of the men, women and children of the land. The statesmen who created these parks did so because they realized that grazing or other commercialization would spoil them for use by the people. To graze national parks would prevent the use for which they were created and would ruin their scenic resources. The grand total area of the national parks is small. The total grazing area in national parks is exceedingly limited, and if all this grazing area were used it would produce only a small per cent of the wool and mutton needed.

By encouraging the grazing of sheep in available sections east of the Mississippi River and in the extensive unused lands in the South, a large increase in sheep production would result. By making the fullest use of the public domain, utilizing the national forests—which are mostly grazing land, and increasing sheep production east of the Mississippi and in the Southern States, there will be ample sheep to supply the demand. A. C. Bigelow, president of the Philadelphia Wool and Textile Association, says: “There is only one source left open now from which we can obtain an increase of sheep production, and that is in the farming sections east of the Mississippi River, and in the unused land areas of the South."

At the present time the use of our national parks for grazing is inexcusable. Sheep ruin parks for the use of people. They destroy one of the greatest attractions of the outdoor world—the wild flowers. But the sheep isn't to blame. It is his nature to eat wild flowers, and not only the blossoms, but the plants and then the roots. At Crater Lake National Park there isn't a wild flower to be seen. Years ago sheep grazed within the boundaries, and although they have not been in the park for years, the ground is barren of flowers.

There is a stock man in the West who is making every effort to get permission to graze thousands of head of sheep in Mount Rainier National Park. This park is the most wonderful wild-Aower garden in all the world. This man, together with others of his kind, is asking for grazing privileges "during the period of the war." It is an old, insidious plan under the guise of patriotic motives. With wool and mutton bringing higher prices than ever before, we find sheep owners willing to use national parks for pasture for sheep at ten cents a head for the season. Is this patriotism?

During these war times the American people need their national parks more than ever before. And after the war the need will be still greater. The parks are needed as nature made them-not despoiled by cattle and sheep.

The strength of a nation lies in the mental attitude of the people. And the right mental attitude is very largely acquired by wholesome recreation in the outdoor world-especially in places of scenic beauty. Such places as national parks help us to maintain our strength and courage and to gain a clearer vision of the problems and the emergencies of life. The English people admit that they made a serious mistake in the early stages of the war by neglecting outdoor recreation.

Early last summer there was some doubt in the minds of the people as to whether or not the national parks would be open on account of the war. Secretary Franklin K. Lane emphatically announced that they would be open as usual, and said: “It is even more important now than in times of peace that the health and vitality of the nation's citizenship be conserved. Rest and recreation must materially assist in this conservation of human tissue and energy, and the national parks offer opportunity for just this thing.” During this same summer, the busy war year of 1917, five hundred thousand people found much-needed rest and were inspired to greater patriotism by visiting these wonderlands.

It would be a national calamity if the warring enemy could destroy the natural beauty of the United States. Grazing cattle and sheep in our national parks is a distinct step in this direction. The grazing of national parks discourages outdoor recreation. If livestock are in these parks there are thousands of people who would not go to them. And there are other thousands of people who, because of the presence of livestock, would naturally conclude that these natural wonderlands could be of no great merit for people if they were used for cattle and sheep. Our national parks—the world's unrivaled wonderlands—are the greatest places for outdoor recreation. Grazing in national parks would be the death blow to their supreme use. This would weaken us as a nation. You might let your senators and congressmen know that you value national parks. These men are so occupied with war matters these days that it may not occur to them that there is even a possibility of an invasion of this kind. Let them know that you are eager to defend our public playgrounds.


OPENING OF ZION CAÑON_UTAH'S SCENIC WONDERLAND Nearly two generations have passed since the Mormon pioneers trekked southward along the west base of the Wasatch Mountains and made their first settlement in Southern Utah. Following up the waterway of the Rio Virgin in the location of their settlements, these pioneers passed eastward over the rim of the great "Hurricane” Fault, that has since been termed by geologists the greatest known break in the earth's surface, and, making their way to the upper reaches of the stream, came to the point where the Rio Virgin was formed by the conflux of two creeks -one flowing from the east and the other from the north. From the tribes of the Piutes that then inhabited the country, the Mormons learned that the creek flowing from the east was called Paranuweap, and the one flowing from the north was known in Indian lore as Mukoontuweap. They were likewise told that where this northerly creek cut down through the mountains was a most beautiful cañon, emblazoned in

many colors. Later the great leader of the Mormon church, President Brigham Young, in one of his frequent visits to Utah's “Dixie,” was told of the cañon's wonders and made what was then a most strenuous journey that he might view them. Standing at the southern portal of this geological marvel, between the two towering domes that mark its southern entrance, this religious enthusiast stood spellbound before the scenic splendor that faced him. With uncovered head, gazing far northward into the depths of the cañon proper, he declared to those accompanying the expedition, “This is Little Zion.” To the Mormon zealots the christening by their leader was to them the final word, and from that time down through the years this great cleft on the southern spur of the Wasatch range has been known as Zion Cañon.

Located in this most remote section of Utah, far from the point where it might be reached by railroad travel, this American scenic marvel has remained practically unknown, only visited from time to time by some extreme enthusiast who had heard a faraway murmur of its grandeur. In 1913, Governor Spry's official attention was directed to the marvels of Zion Cañon, and after a personal visit, he decided that the highway division of his administration should accomplish the construction of a highway to the border of the National Monument, that had been set aside by President Taft to include Zion Cañon and its closely adjacent territory. In 1916, the United States Government, under the influence of Senator Reed Smoot, appropriated $15,000.00 for the construction of a highway connecting the heart of Zion Cañon with the southern boundary of the National Monument, to which point the State planned to carry its own highway. An east and west county road, from the station of Lund on the Salt Lake Route, had already been constructed, connecting with the State highway. With these connecting highways, the completion of the Government road into the cañon gave uninterrupted passage for automobile travel between the Salt Lake Route and Zion Cañon.

Even before the completion of the highway, a well organized transportation service between Lund and the cañon proper was arranged for, and in the very heart of the cañon itself there was a “Wylie Way" camp well under construction, founded upon the same plan for the entertainment of tourists and visitors that rendered the “Wylie Way" camps in the Yellowstone among the most successful enterprises of their kind in America. Thus was the opening of Zion Cañon brought about, and now the visitor may reach its wonders by a most interesting automobile ride of an even one hundred miles, starting at the station of Lund, on the Salt Lake Route, and proceeding over a splendid highway.


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OVER KEARSARGE PASS IN 1864 (Note: On October 12, 1917, at Independence, Cal., Guy C. Earl, W. H. Spaulding and Chaftee E. Hall spent the evening with Thomas Keough, a boyhood friend of Mr. Earl in Owen's Valley. Mr. Keough has lived in Owen's Valley since 1863, and gave us some very interesting accounts of the early history of the valley, including the following story of a prospecting tour through the Southern High Sierras. ] On July 4, 1864, eleven of us started from Independence on a prospecting trip through the Sierras. Our first task was to build a trail up Little Pine Creek on the east cliff of the mountains. I have sometimes heard it said that the trail over what is now called “Kearsarge Pass” is an old Indian trail. The fact is, however, that our party built this trail in order to get our animals up over the top of the Sierras. It might have been possible for a man to work his way on foot up over this pass, but there was no sign even of a foot-path until we built the trail in the summer of 1864 when we started on this prospecting tour. We called the pass "Little Pine Pass," after Little Pine Creek, which heads near the pass. It was a rough trail we built, but it sufficed for our purposes and we got our animals up over it. In the party were John Bubbs, Tom Carroll, John Beveridge, Tom Hill, Henry Kettleston, Sullivan, Pugh and myself, with three others whose names I cannot recall. When we got up over the pass five decided to return, leaving six of us to go on.

We went westerly down the South Fork of the King's River until the cañon became impassable. In the cañon we met a number of scientists headed by Professor Brewer. They named Mt. Brewer after him. Prof. Brewer was trying to find a way across the mountains, and we told him how to get into Owen's Valley over the pass by the trail we had just built.

We kept in the cañon of the King's River to a point far west from where a large tributary flows in from the south. This tributary is called “Bubbs Creek.” It was named for John Bubbs, who was one of our party. He was a cattle man and, afterwards, made his home in Visalia.

When the cañon of the King's River became impassable, we crossed the river and struck up the south wall of the cañon into the meadows, where we came across those mammoth trees-now called the Sequoias. I have no doubt those are the trees in what is now called the General Grant Park. We went around the trees and examined them, but made no marks on them. I have read an account of how these trees were "discovered" later and how one of them was called “General Grant," but this discovery occurred a number of years after our journey. From the plateau where we found these trees we traveled west until we came down into the valley where we found some placer miners. They were

(Note: In Prof. Brewer's party was Clarence King, whose "Ascent of Mt. Tyn. dall" described in thrilling fashion son of the experiences of the Brewer party on their explorations during this summer of 1864. Prof. Brewer in his account of the trip says: “A day and a half was required to make the distance of twelve miles which lay between Camp 179, in the south fork cañon, and the summit of the Sierra; although the labor of crossing was much facilitated by the fact that a party of prospectors had crossed here not long before and had done a good deal toward making à passable trail.” California Geological Survey. Vol. I. Geology, p. 394.)

• These trees were not, however, discovered by Mr. Keough's party. They were known some years before this date.-J. N. Le C.

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