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GROVE KARL The passing of Dr. Gilbert after almost seventy-five years GILBERT* of activity deprives geological science of one of its ablest

and most honored representatives. It is permitted to few men to leave an equally enviable record. To an unusual degree his work was distinguished by keenness of observation, by depth of penetration, by soundness in induction, and by clarity of exposition. It is doubtful whether the products of any other geologist of our day will escape revision at the hands of future research to a degree equal to the writings of Grove Karl Gilbert. And yet this is not assignable to limitation of field, or to simplicity of phenomena, or to restriction in treatment. The range of his inquiries was wide, his special subjects often embraced intricate phenomena, while his method was acutely analytical and his treatment tended always to bring into declared form the basal principles that underlay the phenomena in hand.

In the literature of our science the laccolith will doubtless always be associated with the name of Gilbert. In its distinctness as a type, in its uniqueness of character, and in the definite place it was given at once by common consent, one may almost fancy a figurative resemblance between the laccolith and its discoverer and expositor. Gilbert's monographs on the Henry Mountains and on Lake Bonneville will long stand as unexcelled models of monograph treatment. His contributions to physiographic evolution, particularly his analysis of the processes that end in base-leveling, link his name with that of Powell, and give to these two close friends a unique place as joint leaders in interpreting morphologic processes. Glacial and hydraulic phenomena were also fields in which Gilbert's powers as an investigator and expositor were signally displayed.

In accuracy of delineation, in clearness of statement, and in grace of diction Gilbert's contributions are certain long to stand as models of the first order. His personality was of the noblest type; he was a charming companion in the field; he was a trusted counselor in the study. The high place he has held in the esteem of co-workers is quite certain to merge into an even higher permanent place to be accorded him by the mature judgment of the future.

T.C. C.

THEODORE The new year had scarcely begun when the sad news was Roosevelt flashed around the world that America's most distinguished

citizen had crossed the last divide. Respected and admired throughout the civilized world, Theodore Roosevelt had become not

* Reprinted from The Journal of Geology, Vol. XXVI, No. 4, May-June, 1918.




Right to left: Benjamin Ide Wheeler, Private Secretary Loeb, Nicholas Murray Butler, John Muir, Dr. Rixey. Theodore Roosevelt, Governor Pardee.

Secretary of the Navy Moody, Secret Service Men (1904)





In proposer extension of Sequoia National Park

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only a national, but an international figure. Never before has it happened in the English-speaking world that a man's initials, like the familiar "T. R.,” could be used anywhere without fear of misunderstanding. The charm, force, and vividness of his personality were unforgettable to all who came into contact with him, and he possessed the power of winning personal loyalty more than any other leader who has appeared in American public life.

Roosevelt's activities were too manifold even for a summary editorial review. But we must not leave unmentioned the fact that he was an ideal outdoor man. The very name and organization of his famous "Rough Riders” was an echo from the western plains where he chose for a time to live the life of a ranchman. Though frail in body during his boyhood, he developed a surprisingly vigorous physique by life in the open and by carefully planned exercises. As a big-game hunter, explorer, and naturalist he has achieved lasting distinction. It is to be feared that the last of his great expeditions, the one which had for its object the exploration of a South American river now bearing his name, so undermined his health that it became the indirect cause of his untimely death.

Roosevelt was a man of superb strength, courage, and energy. Who else than he could have written more than forty books while engaging in activities that would have taxed the strength of half a dozen men? "I wish to preach," he wrote years ago, "not the doctrine of ignoble ease, but the doctrine of the strenuous life, the life of toil and effort, of labor and strife; to preach that highest form of success which comes not to the man who desires mere easy peace, but to the man who does not shrink from danger, from hardship, or from bitter toil, and who out of these wins the splendid ultimate triumph.” This is the man whom Europe chooses to consider the finest embodiment of American manhood! Fortunate is the country of which such a citizen can be considered typical, even though we know that he was so exceptionally and gigantically American that he has left no peer among us. W.F. B.


ROOSEVELT There has been before Congress for some time a proposal to NATIONAL enlarge the Sequoia National Park so as to include the PARK Kings and Kern River canons and the wonderfully pictur

esque High Sierra watershed in which the tributaries of these rivers have their source. On account of the opposition of cattle and timber interests, especially those which center around Fresno, it has been difficult to secure Congressional consideration of this project. The death of Theodore Roosevelt and the unique service he rendered to this country in the conservation of its natural resources suggested to a number of men in public life the propriety of naming the enlarged park as a memorial for him. Senator Phelan and Congressman Elston accordingly introduced bills to that effect. The Senate immediately passed it with enthusiasm, but cattle and timber interests, as well as the negative action of the Forest Service in asking for additional time to investigate (whereas they have already had five years in which to acquire this information), have managed to delay action in the House of Representatives. Some, at least, of the sudden show of affection for the name Sequoia is known to have been deliberately stimulated by a concealed opposition. While it is a sound policy in principle not to change a name like Sequoia for that of a man, this surely is one of the cases where the principle is honored in the breach. We ought to recall that Roosevelt, in 1908, called the famous Conference of Governors at the White House in order to consider and provide for the conservation of our natural resources, and at this conference the importance of national parks was emphasized. “We want to take action that will prevent the advent of a woodless age,” he said in his remarkable opening address. Some idea of what he did may be gathered from the fact that near the close of his administration in 1908 there were 165 national forests, of which Roosevelt had created 143, and seven additional ones were created by him during the remainder of his administration. In other words, Roosevelt increased the national forest area from 46,000,000 to 194,000,000 acresfour times the original area and ten million acres to spare! In the face of facts like these one might expect all forest and park lovers to have patriotic reasons for taking the lead in securing the consummation of a project like the setting aside of the Roosevelt National Park.

But these are not the only reasons that can be urged for the association of Roosevelt's name with this measure. It was he who found the way and set the example of creating by Presidential proclamation twenty-three national monuments, whose unique, beautiful, and in some cases awe-inspiring, scenic features are now a precious possession of the American people. Other Presidents followed in his footsteps until now we have at least thirty-six of these monuments. But those created by Roosevelt constitute both in number and in character the most valuable part. Among them was the Grand Cañon of the Colorado, regarded by some foreign experts as the greatest scenic wonder in the world. If Roosevelt had not taken this action we probably would never have been able to enroll it among our national parks, as has just been done by act of Congress.

Finally, Roosevelt during his administration secured the establishment of five additional national parks, comprising an area of 390,000 acres, and established the precedent of urging the welfare of national parks upon the attention of Congress in his messages. No other man in American public life has done half as much to preserve for the use and enjoyment of the American people resources of forests, waterpower, and scenery which are now an invaluable asset of our national wealth.

Nor let us overlook what Roosevelt did by his foresight to win the great war, when, at the Conference of Governors in 1908, he sounded a trumpet-call to the nation in these words: “Finally, let us remember

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