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9. A pronoun is a word used instead of a noun. 10. Nouns and pronouns are sometimes called substantives. They are used to represent objects; nouns, by naming them; pronouns, without naming them.

11. A noun may consist of more than one word; as, William McKinley, Nicholas Murray Butler.

12. Each word of a particular name consisting of more than one word should begin with a capital letter.

13. An initial letter should be followed by a period (.); as, W. T. Harris.

14. The particular names given to persons, places, and other objects should begin with capital letters.

15. The names of the days of the week and the months of the year are particular names, and should begin with capital letters. The names of the seasons should begin with small letters.

EXERCISE

16. Copy the nouns in Paragraph 7.

The pronouns.

Verbs

17. Read the following sentences :

1. Iron rusts. 2. Intelligence rules. 3. Who came ? 4. Charge, Chester, charge. 5. Man must be educated. 6. Must I stay?

In the foregoing sentences, which words are nouns? Which are pronouns? Which word is used with iron to make a statement? With who? Which sentence gives a command?

18. A verb is a word used with a noun or a pronoun to make a statement, to ask a question, or to give a command.

19. A verb may consist of more than one word; as, Man must be educated.“Long has it waved."

20. The subject of a verb is the noun or the pronoun with which it is used to make a statement, to ask a question, or to give a command.

21. The subject of the verb is called the subject of the sentence; it represents the person or thing spoken of. The verb is called the predicate of the sentence; it denotes what is asserted of the person or thing represented by the subject.

22. The subject of a verb in a sentence that gives a command is generally thou or you understood.

EXERCISE

23. Which are the subjects, and which the predicates, of the following sentences ? 1. Flowers bloom. 2. Sin degrades.

3. I can work. 4. Can you sing ? 5. Has she come? 6. Morning is breaking 7. Bells are jingling. 8. Who whispered ? 9. Knowledge comes. 10. Wisdom lingers.

Modifying Words

24. If the rule with reference to whispering were changed so as to allow pupils to whisper more frequently, one could say that the rule was modified. So also we may say,

“Our actions are modified by circumstances;” “They agreed to modify the contract;" "His trip through the South modified his views,” etc.

25. To modify means to change somewhat.

When I say, “ Show me a book," the word book applies to any book in the room. But when I say, “a new book," "an old book," "a small book," the word book applies to a certain kind of book. The words new, old, and small change the application of the word book, and are therefore said to modify it.

Move your hand. Move it slowly, fast, up, down. Do you vary the act of moving as I mention the words slowly, fast, up, etc.?

The words slowly, fast, up, and down are said to modify the verb

move.

So also, if I say, “I strike the table, the chair, James, Henry,” the application of the verb strike is changed or varied by the words table, chair, etc. These words modify the verb strike.

When I say, “the arching sky," the word arching adds something to the meaning of the word sky, but does not change its application so as to make it refer to a particular kind of sky. Arching is said to modify sky.

26. To modify a word is to change its application or add to its meaning

27. A modifier is a word or a group of words joined to a word to change its application or add to its meaning.

28. The meaning or application of a word may be changed by a limiting word or group of words, or by an explanatory word or group of words. Thus, in the sentence, “Good boys study,” the word good limits or restricts the word boys to one kind of boys, good boys. In “The all-wise Ruler of the Universe,” all-wise is explanatory, but not limiting.

Strictly speaking, the meaning of one word is modified by the meaning of another word.

EXERCISE 29. Point out the modifying words in the following sentences and the words modified by them:

1. Aged men walk slowly. 2. Our soldiers fought courageously and cautiously. 3. Bancroft's history has now become the standard authority on the period of which it treats. 4. William Dean Howells's early education was gained, to a large degree, in his father's printing office. 5. Emerson had a brilliant imagination, a delicate sense of beauty, and a keen, poetic insight.

Adjectives

30. Read the following sentences :

1. Is fresh water a wholesome drink? 2. Ella's new book is torn. 3. My father is old.

4. He is old. What word modifies the word water? What two words modify book ?

Which one represents an object? Which one does not represent an object? What adjective modifies the noun father? The pronoun he ?

31. An adjective is a word used to modify a noun or a pronoun without representing an object.

EXERCISES

32. Use adjectives in place of the words in brackets []:

1. [Which ?] [what kind of ?] book is mine. 2. (Which?] oranges are [of what size ?], [of what shape ?) and (of what taste?). 3. The show many ?] commandments are given in the [which one?] chapter of Deuteronomy. Eastern Continent contains (how many ?] (what kind of?] divisions. 5. Do the [what kind of ?) goods always come in the (what kind of ?) packages ?

4. The

33. Point out the adjectives in the following stanza and the word that each adjective modifies :

The splendor falls on castle walls,

And snowy summits old in story;
The long light shakes across the lakes,

And the wild cataract leaps in glory.
Blow, bugle, blow, set the wild echoes flying,
Blow, bugle; answer, echoes, dying, dying, dying.

- Tennyson. What kind of letter does each line of the foregoing stanza begin with ? How many of the punctuation marks that are used can you name? Why is the name “Tennyson" placed after the poem?

Adverbs

34. Read the following sentences :

1. Listen attentively. 2. Always respect the flag. 3. It will soon be quite dark. 4. Listen very attentively. 5. Try to act nobly.

In the foregoing sentences, what verb does attentively modify? Always ? What is modified by quite ? By very? By nobly?

35. An adverb is a word used to modify a verb, a verbal, an adjective, or another adverb, without representing an object.

EXERCISE

36. Point out the adverbs in the following stansas and the word that each adverb modifies :

Birds are singing round my windows,

Tunes the sweetest ever heard ;
And I hang my cage there daily,

But I never catch a bird.

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