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to another that resembles it; as, In peace, thou art the gale of spring. - Ossian. "The tottering state.” Virgin snow.”

3. Metonymy.-A metonymy is a figure in which the name of one object is used to represent another object that is associated with it.


The name of the cause is sometimes used to represent the effect, and vice versa; as, “Read Shakspere" [his works]. Gray hairs Cold age] should be respected."

The name of the sign is sometimes used to represent the thing signified; as, " Bayonets (soldiers) think."

The name of the container is sometimes used to represent the thing contained; as, “The kettle [the water in the kettle] boils.”

Allegory may be regarded as sustained metonymy.

4. Synecdoche. — A synecdoche is a figure in which the name of a part is used to represent the whole, or the name of the whole is used to represent a part; as, "Fifty sail (vessels) were in the harbor.” “Our hero [his hair] was gray.”

Synecdoche is a special form of metonymy.

5. Personification. — Personification is a figure in which inanimate objects or abstract qualities are regarded as persons; as, “Come, gentle Spring! Ethereal Mildness, come!” * Mercy and truth are met together; righteousness and peace have kissed each other."

6. Hyperbole. — A hyperbole is a figure in which an exaggerated expression is used to increase the vividness of a statement without creating a false impression; as, "They were swifter than eagles; they were stronger than lions."

7. Irony.— Irony is a figure in which the meaning suggested by the statement is contrary to the literal meaning; as, “Brutus is an honorable man.” “Cry aloud; for he is a god.”

8. Apostrophe. — Apostrophe is a figure in which the absent are addressed as if they were present; as, "O Death, where is thy sting?” “Ye crags and peaks, I'm with you once again.”

Apostrophe is usually a special form of personification.

296. Care should be taken (1) to use appropriate figures, (2) not to mix figures, and (3) not to join literal and figurative expressions. Are the following sentences correct? 1. Unravel the obscurity. 2. Clinch the thread of thought. 3. It is the center and foundation of the system. 4. The mind is the center of spiritual forces and stands above them, like a queen on her throne. 5. The gentle rain beats against the window.


297. What kinds of figures are found in the following sentences ? 1. His spear was like the mast of a ship.

2. The pen is mightier than the sword. 3. She has seen eighteen summers. 4. Thy word is a lamp unto my feet and a light unto my path. 5. Come as the winds come. 6. Thirty head of cattle are in the meadow. 7. Address the chair. 8. Thou art my rock and my fortress. 9. The day is bright with hope. 10. How shallow are his thoughts! II. He has a warm heart. 12. O Grave, where is thy victory? 13. Woe unto thee, Chorazin! 14. They are members of the bar. 15. He rode a wheel. 16. His brow is crowned with laurels. 17. The sun at noon looked down and saw not one. 18. Russia now holds the Sultan in the hollow of her hand. 19. Cry aloud, for he is a god. 20. He wore a diamond as large as a goose egg. 21. His knowledge of the subject is boundless.

slip, I slide, I gleam, I glance,

Among my swimming swallows;
I make the netted sunbeams dance

Against my sandy shallows.


298. In the following sentences, change the figurative to plain language:

1. He is in the morning of life. 2. He smokes his pipe. 3. The future is a sealed book. 4. They have Moses and the prophets. 5. Let us not listen to the voice of temptation. 6. The pen is mightier than the sword. snows of eighty winters whitened his head. 8. The music was like the memory of joys that are past. 9. Metropolisville grew like Jonah's gourd. 10. Ten thousand stars were in the sky. 11. Let the curtains of the future hang. 12. The conscious water saw its God, and blushed.

7. The

299. Use each of the following words both literally and figuratively: 1. Steal.1 2. Sword.

3. Stand.

4. Illuminate. 5. Cover 6. Rest. 7. Paint.

8. Fruits. 9. Fly. 10. Sepulcher.

1. The thief stole the goods. I love to steal awhile away.




300. Words are divided according to their use in sentences, into ten classes, called parts of speech.

301. The ten parts of speech are

Nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, verbals, prepositions, conjunctions, responsives, and interjections.

The parts of speech are not something that grammarians have invented, for they are given in nature, and had only to be discovered. — Earle.



302. Read the following words:

Man, run, stack, hay, haystack, teaspoon, tree, manly, running, beggar, four-leaved, misconduct.

Which of the foregoing words are formed of two words? Which are formed of other words by adding a syllable ? By prefixing a syllable? Which words cannot be reduced to a simpler form?

303. Words can be divided according to their form into three classes : simple, compound, and derivative.

304. A simple word is a word that cannot be reduced to a simpler form; as, man, horse, black.

305. A compound word is a word formed by uniting two or more words; as, mankind, good-natured, blackboard.

In many compound words the first word modifies the second. Rosebush means a certain kind of bush; spoon-meat, a certain kind of food, etc.

The use of the hyphen between the parts of compound words is to some extent a matter of taste. Rainbow, balance-reef, seed-lac, graybeard, are formed alike. We frequently see book-keeping, bookkeeping, and book keeping

306. A derivative word is a word formed by adding a prefix or a suffix to a word; as, dislike, unhorse, manly, blackish.

307. A prefix is a syllable or word placed at the beginning of a word to vary its meaning; as, dislike.

308. A sufix is a syllable or word placed at the end of a word to vary its meaning; as, manly.

Prefixes and suffixes are called affixes.
In the wide sense of the term, derivation includes composition.


309. Read the following:

1. Lion, lioness; lion, lions; I, you, he; I, me. 2. I shall go to-morrow. 3. We went yesterday. 4. My brother may go.

5. I am old, but he is older. Does the word "lion " represent a male? How does it change its form to represent a female? Does it change its form to represent more than one ? Does the pronoun “I”

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