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Phraseology of Sentences Changed

555. Sentences may be changed in phraseology

1. By using words instead of phrases or clauses; as, “ Wise men act cautiously,” for “Men of wisdom act with caution," or "Men who are wise act cautiously.” “Wealth

" “ acquired dishonestly,” etc., for “Wealth that is acquired •dishonestly,” etc.

2. By using phrases or clauses instead of words; as, “We study that we may improve,” for “We study to improve." “He acted with promptness,” for “He acted promptly."

3. By using abridged clauses for unabridged clauses, and the reverse; as, “ Shame being lost, all virtue is lost," for “When shame is lost, all virtue is lost.” “I believe that the earth is round,for “I believe the earth to be round.(271.)

4. By using synonyms and other equivalent expressions; as, “He is fortunate,for “He is lucky.I will go with

. I her,' he said,” for “He said that he would go with her.'' Mr. S.'s horses,” for “The horses belonging to Mr. S.”

5. By denying the contrary; as, “ He is not dead," for “He is alive.“She is not indisposed to help you," for “She is disposed to help you.”

6. By recasting the sentence; as

Iron is the most useful metal.
Iron is more useful than any other metal.
No other metal is so useful as iron.
The most useful of all metals is iron.
No other metal equals iron in usefulness.
Iron is unequaled in usefulness by any other metal.
Iron excels all other metals in usefulness.
Every other metal is less useful than iron.

EXERCISES

556. Use words instead of the italicized phrases and clauses :

I. At what place shall we stop ? 2. It is wrong that any one should steal. 3. Blessings on thee, boy with bare

, feet! 4. Who is like unto Thee? 5. He bought the doll for his little daughter.

557. Use phrases or clauses instead of the italicized words:

1. Where shall we stop? 2. He strives to excel. is the house built by Jack. 4. Barefoot boy, with tanned cheek. 5. Pay him the money.

3. This

558. Change the italicised clauses (555, 3):

1. Spring having come, all nature is clothed in beauty. 2. The workmen desired their employer to raise their wages. 3. I know that they are honorable men.

559. Use equivalent expressions for the italicized elements :

1. Shorten the statement. 2. Do not attempt to cross the river. 3. I am ruler of everything I see. 4. The lion is the desert's king. 5. The money belonging to him was soon spent. 6. Bring me the book. 7. She gave the sword to him.

560. Deny the contrary:

1. He is wise. 2. Only a small part of Arabia is fertile. 3. I am unhappy. 4. I will remain with you. looked on nothing we could call our own.

5. We 561. Recast the following sentences, expressing the same thought in as many ways as possible : 1. London is the largest city in the world.

2. Siberia occupies the entire northern part of Asia. 3.

Solomon said that the wounds of a friend are faithful. persons have the courage of their convictions. any one know what electricity is ?

4. Few 5. Does

Commands made Less Emphatic

562. A command may be made less emphatic by using an interrogative or a declarative sentence instead of an imperative sentence; as, “Will you come here?” or, "I desire you to come here,” for “Come here."

,

EXERCISE

563. Use interrogative and declarative sentences instead of the following imperative sentences :

I. Study. 2. Try again. 3. Advance. 4. Pay as you go. 5. “O stay!”1 the maiden said.

1. Change “O stay!”

Statements Emphasized

564. A statement may be made more emphatic

I. By using the interrogative or the exclamatory form ; as, "Is not the night dark?” or, “How dark the night is !” for “The night is dark."

2. By denying the contrary. (555, 5.)
3. By changing the natural order of the words.

EXERCISE

565. Make the following statements more emphatic :

1. Time flies. 2. It is hot. 3. Diana is great. 4. Her locks were yellow. 5. A wise son maketh a glad father. - Prov. xv. 20.

Statements Combined

566. Two or more separate statements may sometimes be combined

1. Into a simple sentence.

Separate Statements. — Jonathan Swift was born in Dublin. His parents were English. He was born in 1667.

Combined. — Jonathan Swift was born in Dublin, of English parents, in 1667.

2. Into a complex sentence.
Separate Statements. - A natural magnet is an iron ore.

It is composed of iron and oxygen. It is called a loadstone.

Combined. A natural magnet, or loadstone, is an iron ore that is composed of iron and oxygen.

3. Into a compound sentence.

Separate Statements. A wise son heareth his father's instruction. A scorner heareth not rebuke.

Combined. – A wise son heareth his father's instruction ; but a scorner heareth not rebuke.

4. Into a contracted compound sentence.

Separate Statements. A French frigate captured an American schooner. It was afterward captured by an American frigate. The French frigate's name was Insurgente; the American schooner's, Retaliation ; and the American frigate's, Constellation.

Combined. The French frigate Insurgente captured the American schooner Retaliation, and was afterward captured by the American frigate Constellation.

The following exercise is valuable, as affording a means for securing variety of expression; but care should be taken not to combine long, independent statements into a single sentence. As a rule, learn to express your thoughts clearly in short sentences.

EXERCISE

567. Combine each group of statements into

I. A simple sentence. Babylon was the capital of the Babylonian Empire. It was situated on the Euphrates. It was situated about fifty miles south of Bagdad.

2. A simple sentence. The Colossus of Rhodes was a statue. It was of brass. It was erected in honor of Apollo.

3. A complex sentence. William Henry Harrison died April 6, 1841. He became President March 4, 1841.

4. A complex sentence. The Great Pyramid was built by Cheops. Cheops was a king of Egypt. He employed ten thousand men twenty years in its erection.

5. A compound sentence. The fear of the Lord is the beginning of knowledge. Fools despise wisdom. Fools despise instruction. — See Prov. i. 7.

6. A compound sentence. Pocahontas implored her father to save Captain Smith's life. She was the daughter of Powhatan. Her prayer was finally granted.

7. A contracted compound sentence. George Washington was unanimously chosen President of the United States. He took the oath of office April 30, 1789.

8. A contracted compound sentence. Venus can times be seen in the daytime. It is occasionally so bright after sunset as to throw a shadow.

9. Two sentences. Francis Bacon was born in London. He was born in 1561. He was an eminent philosopher

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