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and jurist. Besides his “ Essays,” his principal works are “On the Advancement of Learning ” and the “Novum Organum.” The “Essays" are wonderful specimens of crystallized thought. Bacon died in 1626.

10. Three sentences. Charles Dickens was born at Portsmouth. He was born in 1812. He was an English novelist. He was celebrated. His first sketches were published in the “Monthly Magazine.” They were signed “Boz." His works furnish a large number of characters. The characters are sharply drawn. They are easily recognized.

Statements Separated

568. A sentence may sometimes be separated into several statements.

Sentence. — The fame of Ben Jonson, who was born in 1574 and died in 1637, rests on his dramatic works, in which he is excelled by Shakspere only.

Separate Statements. Ben Jonson was born in 1574 and died in 1637. His fame rests on his dramatic works, in which he is excelled by Shakspere only.

EXERCISE 569. Separate the following sentences into two or more statements :

1. Richard Lovelace was born in 1618, and was educated at Oxford.

2. The wedge is a movable inclined plane, and it usually has the form of a double inclined plane.

3. Wordsworth's sister Dora was his constant companion, the complement of his nature, and more truly poetical than he.

4. Nebraska is formed from a part of the territory of Nebraska, and is the seventh State, in the great basin of the Mississippi, admitted from the Louisiana purchase.

5. In 1813 Captain James Lawrence was appointed to the command of the United States frigate Chesapeake, then in Boston harbor, and on June 1, with a raw crew, he put to sea and attacked the British frigate Shannon, which was lying just out of the harbor ; but after a short engagement, in which every officer was killed or wounded, including Captain Lawrence, who, while dying, issued his last heroic order, “Don't give up the ship!” the enemy boarded the Chesapeake and hoisted the British flag.


570. A sentence is a short composition. It should be regarded as a unit, and written so as to express a complete thought. A thought contains two leading ideas, each of which may or may not be modified. Thus the thought expressed by the sentence “Intelligence rules,” contains two ideas, neither of which is modified. The leading ideas in the thought expressed by the sentence “The lowing herd winds slowly o'er the lea,” herd and winds are modified by the ideas expressed by the other words of the sentence.

571. Thoughts may be expressed —

1. By sentences; as, “A verse is a line of poetry.” “Blank verse is poetry that does not rhyme.” “Times change, and we change with them." A sentence expresses a complete thought.

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2. By clauses; as, That you have wronged me, doth appear in this.

If I may but touch the hem of his garment, I shall be healed." A clause expresses a dependent, or subordinate, thought.

572. A simple sentence expresses a single complete thought. The leading ideas of the thought may be unmodified or modified; as, “ Music charms." “A summer bivouac had collected together a little troop of soldiers from Joppa."

573. A complex sentence expresses a complete thought, in which a dependent, or subordinate, thought is a modifier; as, “Substances that rise in air are lighter than air." The clause " that rise in air" expresses a dependent, or subordinate, thought which modifies the general idea expressed by the noun substances.

574. A compound sentence is in reality two or more sentences, each of which expresses a complete thought; as, “God made the country and man made the town.” The members of the compound sentence are mutually related.

575. The following suggestions should be closely followed :

1. Begin every sentence with what you want the reader to think of first, and select with care the words with which the sentence is to end.

2. See that every sentence has one leading thought. Many “sentences are made up of several sentences loosely run together; as, “Andree started in a balloon for the North Pole, which has eluded the search of the most daring explorers, whose bones lie bleaching amid the snows of the frozen North, where for six months of the year the sun never shines."

Can you correct this sentence?

3. See that every sentence expresses its meaning clearly. If you have any doubt about the meaning expressed, rewrite the sentence. Make it a rule to write each sentence so that its meaning must be understood by the reader.

4. See that every sentence is grammatically correct. It is a good plan to try to analyze a sentence, the construction of which is obscure. Do not use a sentence that defies grammatical analysis. Arrange the modifying elements so that every one will know what words they modify.


576. Write answers to the following questions. Let each answer be a sentence.

1. What place would you like to visit ? 2. What is the most interesting book you have read? 3. Which holiday do you like best? 4. In which month were you born? 5. Is a cat's tongue rough or smooth ? 6. How many legs has a fly? 7. When can an owl see best ? 8. What is an island ? 9. A triangle? 10. Where is the Suez Canal ?

577. Write a sentence about

4. Glass.

1. A grain of corn. 2. Potatoes. 3. The root of a plant.

5. Snow.

6. Springs. 7. The sun. 8. Flowers. 9. Steel pens. 10. The telephone. II. Clocks. 12. Andrew Jackson.

13. Mexico. 14. Washington. 15. The life of a railroad conductor.



578. A verb is a word used with a noun or a pronoun to make a statement, to ask a question, or to give a command.

579. A word from another part of speech is sometimes used as a verb; as, This out-Herods Herod. - Shak. “I thou thee.”


Regular and Irregular Verbs 580. Read the following:

I. I walk. He walked. They have walked a mile. 2. Birds fly. The birds flew away. The birds have flown away. 3. Go, went, going, gone, to go. Study, studied, studying, studied, to study.

Which of the foregoing verbs express present time? Which past? Do “walked ” and “have walked” both express past time? “ Flew” and “have flown"? Which is the simplest form, "flew” or “have flown”? Will “go” make sense with “have" before it? Will “ went"? "Going"? “Gone"? Does "going” represent the act as continuing? Does "studying”? “Studied ”? Which verb begins with “to”?

To which of the foregoing verbs do we add “ed" to express past time? To which is “ed" not added ?

Study, studied, studying, studied, and to study are called the principal parts of the verb study, because by means of them and the auxiliary verbs all the other parts of the verb can be formed. Go, went, going, gone, and to go are called the principal parts of go for the same reason.

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